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σαρξ. In this sense also it may be used either definitely or indefiritely.

5. A third meaning arises by abstracting the spiritual principle from body or matter, with which in man it is associated: hence is deduced the idea of the immaterial agents, whom we denominate spirits. Thus Luke xxiv. 39, revuα σacna XZ 95E OOK EXE!....It is evident that the word, in this acceptation, must admit both of a definite and indefinite sense.

and πνεύμα άγιον are in this sense always anarthrous; the case of renewed mention, or other reference, being of course excepted. The expressions of being filled with the Holy Ghost,' receiving the Holy Ghost,' &c. justify this observation.

"6. The sixth meaning, or rather class of meanings for they are several comprises whatever is deducible from the last acceptation, being, not the influences of the Spirit, but the effects of them: under which head we may range vez in the scuses of disposition, character, faith, virtue, religion, &c.: and also whenever it is used to signify evil propensities or desires; with this difference only, that these latter must be supposed to arise from the influ

"4. But the word you is used in a sense not differing from the former, except that it is here employed, xaï' etsyn, to denote the great and pre-eminent Spirit, the third person in the Trinity: and in this acceptation, it is worthy of re-ence of the evil spirit. In all these mark, that veya or vacua do is senses the article is inserted or never anarthrous; except, indeed, omitted according to the circumin cases where other terms, confess- stances. edly the most definite, become anarthrous, from some cause alleged in The Inquiry on the Greek Article...... It may here be briefly noticed, that, n the passages which, from their ascribing personal acts to the rapa ys, are usually adduced to prove the personality of the blessed Spirit, The words πνεύμα and πνεύμα άγιον invariably have the article;-Mark i. 40; Luke i. 20; John i. 32; Acts i. 16, and xx. 28; Eph. iv. 20; Mark xiii. 11; Acts x. 19; xxviii. 25; 1 Tim. iv. 1; Heb. iii. 3. &c. The reason of this is obmous; for, there being but one Holy Spirit, he could not be spoken arlefinitely. In Matt. also, xxviii. , where the Holy Spirit is associated with the Father and the Son, the reading is; ou do velja

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"Now, if we put together the consequence of what has been shewn under the fourth and fifth heads, we shall perceive the futility of pretending that the Holy Spirit is, as some aver, merely an influence: the sacred writers have clearly, and in strict conformity with the analogy of language, distinguished the influence from the person of the Spirit. In like manner the personality of the Holy Spirit is deducible, by comparing the third and fourth heads: for if Teva, in the passages adduced under the third, mean a spiritual agent; To Eva in the places referred to under the fourth, where there is no renewed mention, nor any other possible interpretation of the article, but the use of it xar' story, can only mean the one spiritual Agent of acknowledged and pre-eminent dignity. But the personality of vera, under the third head, cannot be disputed, unless by those who would controvert the personality of 6 Sso: the personality, therefore, of To vsua, used xaî' εğoxy, must be conceded.

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With respect to the place in St. Matthew which has given rise to the note, it is impossible to prove 2 H

incontestably, that the Holy Spirit in the personal acceptation is here meant, inasmuch as the preposition may have occasioned the omission of the articles."

frequently signifies in his mind or spirit. This inquiry, however, has led me to observe, that then the preposition is always omitted. Besides, of EV TWTVEUuali, meaning bap-by the agency of the Holy Spirit,' we have an instance in this Evangelist, ii. 27. If to these considerations we add, that Matthew and Mark, in the parallel passages, have expressed themselves less equivocally, we need not hesitate to understand ev Tw Tvsual in the personal sense.'

In Matt. iii. 11, He shall tize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire.' The original is, Ev TVEUματι άγιω και πυρι. Here the meaning of aya TVεupal cannot be inferred, from the want of the article. "There can, however, be little doubt, that the fifth sense (see the preceding note) is the true one, because πVEυμa joined with ayo has only two senses; and the Holy Spirit in his personal acceptation cannot well be associated with fire. In the connection of fire with the influence of the Spirit, there is nothing unnatural or violent.”

Luke i. 15, “Shall be filled with the Holy Ghost'-Tvsupalos you—that is, with the influence of the Holy Spirit.

Luke i. 35. The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee'-TVEυua αγιον. "This is commonly understood," says Dr. Middleton," in the personal sense. A divine influence equally well suits the occasion, and conforms better with the general usage: and, indeed, δυναμις ύψιςου, in the next clause, appears to be explanatory of TVEUμa ayor in the present.

Luke iv. 1. Jesus was led by the Spirit into the wilderness'-EV TW TYEUual." It is not universally agreed in what sense TVEμa is here to be taken.......I am inclined to interpret TYEUμa of the person called the Holy Spirit, and to make av equivalent to To, signifying through the agency of, a common Hebraism. Once, indeed, I was of opinion, that the hypothesis which some critics have adopted, of our Saviour's temptation being a visionary, not a real transaction, was favoured by this expression of St. Luke; for Tw TVsuμah

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John xx. 22. Receive ye the Holy Ghost'-λaßɛle vaupa ayım. The MSS. uniformly omit the article, the meaning being, the influence of the Spirit.'

Acts vi. 10.

They could not resist the wisdom and the spirit with which he spake –τω πνευματι

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Here, though the article is prefixed, aveva must be taken for the influence of the Spirit, or inspiration. The article is inserted in reference to w ɛλaλ, immediately subjoined."

Acts x. 38. 'Hath anointed with the Holy Ghost'veupalı ay "This is a good example of what was noticed on Matt. i. 18, undet the fifth head. In ver. 47, where it με το πνεύμα το άγιον, 4 who have received the Holy Ghost,' may bi understood in reference, viz. to the recent dispensation of divine gifts: this may be inferred from xa και ήμεις.”

The preceding extracts have beet selected, not merely for the just ani ingenious criticism which they ex hibit, but for the importance of the topics to which they relate.-Gran ville Sharpe's Rule, and Stricture on the received Version of the New Testament, and on certain attempt to correct it, supply ample ma terials for another article in th Christian Observer.

(To be continued.)



&c. &c.

In the press: A new edition, with considerable additions, of Practical Observations in Surgery, illustrated by Cases and Engravings, by Mr. Hey of Leeds;-The Lady of the Lake, a poem in six cantos, by Walter Scott:-The Works complete of the late Rev. Joseph Milner, of Hull, in eight 8vo. vols.: the whole revised, and an Account of the Author prefixed, by his Brother, the Dean of Carlisle ;-Sermons on the Person and Office of the Redeemer, and on the Faith and Practice of the Redeemed, by the Rev. W. Jesse ;- Works of the Rev. T. Townson, D. D. late Archdeacon of Richmond: with an Account of the Author, by the Rev. Ralph Churton;and, Elements of the Art of War, by Dr. W. Muller.


The following authentic and interesting communication, from Cambridge, reached as too late to appear in an earlier part of the work; and we are unwilling to withhold it for another month from our readers.

"Mr. Yeates, of Oxford, has been employed for some months past in arranging Red collating the Oriental Manuscripts, chiefly in the Hebrew and Syriac languages, lately brought from the East by the Rev. Dr. Buchanan, and now deposited in the blic library of the University of Cambridge. Mr. Yeates is author of the Hebrew Grammar with Points; and has recently finished a work which has occupied his attention some years-namely, a translation of the Gospels into the Hebrew tongue. It is remarkable, that in Dr. Buchanan's collection there should be two manuscript copies of the New Testament in Hebrew, both written in the East. One of them was executed by a learned Rabbi of India, about 150 years ago, who was an adversary to the Christian faith, for the

rpose of controverting the facts and doctines, and of defending the Jews of Cochin gainst the evangelical arguments of their eighbours, the Syrian Christians. It is related, that, after he had finished his work, he himself became a convert to its divine truth. This manuscript is in his own handwriting, with the original erasures and in

terlineations. It is supposed that he translated from a copy of the New Testament in the Syriac language. A version executed under such circumstances by an enemyby a Jew who was a stranger to European learning, and to the arguments against Christianity maintained by European Jews

must be curious and interesting in several of its parts; particularly in the Epistle to the Hebrews. As soon as the collations from this and other manuscripts, for the benefit of Mr. Yeates's Version, are finished, a copy of the whole New Testament will probably be published, under the patronage of Dr. Buchanan, for the use of the Jews in Europe and India. - Dr. Buchanan brought from the East a printed copy of St. Matthew's Gospel in the Hebrew language and a copy of the whole New Testament in the Syriac language, printed in Hebrew characters; both works executed by the Propaganda of Rome, about two centuries ago. If any of the Readers of

the Christian Observer can refer Mr. Yeates to any other aids in the prosecution of his work, the communication will be thankfully received."

A society has been lately formed at Liverpool, for preventing wanton cruelty to brute animals. Its great object is to meliorate the state of brute animals by preventing those sufferings which they unnecessarily experience at the hand of man.

The sum of 1000!. was lately paid to the Exchequer by the direction of Mr. Perceval, to whom it had been sent in an anonymous letter, describing it to be the amount of certain duties which had been omitted to be paid, and of which the person who sent it was anxious not to defraud the public. A sum of 2001., received in a similar manner, was paid into the Exchequer some time ago. Let not the example be lost on Christians.

The total extraordinary expenses of the expedition to the Scheldt have been laid before the House of Commons. They amount to 834,275l. An additional charge was incurred by the occupation of Walcheren, after the further prosecution of the objects of the expedition had been abandoned, amounting

to a little more than 200,0001.

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A report has been laid on the table of the House of Commons of the number and value of the stipends of the Scotch clergy under 150l. per annum, with a view, as we suppose, to their augmentation. The number is 172, and the annual sum which would be requisite to make the annual value of each of them 150l., would be 8,713ł. 6s. 8d. Of the parishes here specified, the stipends of sixteen are 501. a year or under; of which three are under 301. Several more are beween 501. and 601.


Bonaparte has issued a new decrce relative to the press, by which the number of printers and booksellers is considerably reduced, and those who are allowed to continue in the trade are bound to indemnify the persons excluded. The privileged printers and booksellers are to be licensed by the police, on taking an oath that they will not print, or expose to sale, any work tending to entrench on the interests of the

state, or on the duties which subjects owe to their sovereigns. Let Englishmen contemplate this living exemplification of the final, and by no means remote, effect of reforms begun in tumult and popular clamour; and let them resist every attempt to delude or inflame them into those measures of violence and disorder, which can be expected to produce but one result-the substitution, in place of the rational liberty we now enjoy, of a cruel unmitigated despotism.

M. Geitner has, by the aid of various substances, extracted from the green shells of horse-chesnuts very beautiful yellow and brown colours, and the latter in the greatest diversity of hues. They are found to stand both on woollens and silks, though the stuffs have been wetted and wrung out, and some of them even washed in caustic liquids.

Christopher Heeren, organ-builder, at Gottesbuhren, in Westphalia, has invented a loom, which performs all the operations of itself. Without the intervention of the weaver, it sets the treadles in motion, throws the shuttle, and stops it at the opposite side; loosens the web, when a certain pertion is finished, and winds the cloth upon the axle. Every thing is kept in proper order; and the piece of stuff, when finished, is smoothed. An index, attached to the machine, shews at any time the number of ells that are woven. This machine has as yet only been exhibited on a small scale to connoisseurs, and has obtained the highest approbation.

The successes of the French armies, and their long residence in Germany, have procured them an advantage which they formerly dispensed with in their victories, but of which they will not fail to avail themselves in their future military enterprizes. They have been put in possession of a map of Germany, surpassing all its predecessors in perfection and accuracy.

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Life of Petrarch, with a Translation of a few of his Sonnets. By Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee. Post 8vo. 10s. 6d. The Lite of Admiral Lord Nelson, K. B. from bis Lordship's MSS. Abridged from the quarto edition. By the Rev. J. S. Clarke, and John M'Arthur, Esq. 8vo. 16s. Memoirs of the Life of Peter Daniel Huet, Bishop of Avranches, written by himself. Translated from the original Latin, with Notes, biographical and critical. By John Aikin, M. D. 2 vols. 8vo. 1. 1s.

Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb; or a theoretical and practical View of the Means by which they are taught to speak and understand a language; containing Hints for the Correction of Impediments in Speech. By Joseph Watson, LL. D. 2 vols. Bro. 15s.

The Scholar's Instructor; an Hebrew Grammar, with Points. By Israel Lyons, formerly Teacher of the Hebrew Language in the University of Cambridge. Revised and corrected by Henry Jacobs, 4s. boards.

The History of Spain, from the earliest Period to the Close of 1809. By John Bigland. 2 vols. 11. 18.

Historical Sketches of the South of India, in an Attempt to trace the History of the Mysoor, from the Origin of the Hindoo Government, to the Extinction of the Mohammedan Dynasty in 1799. By Lieute nant-Colonel Mark Wilks. Vol. I. 4to. 21. 2s. Observations on the Criminal Law of England, as it relates to Capital Punishments, and the Mode in which it is administered. By Sir Samuel Romilly. 2s.

A short Narrative of the late Campaign of the British Army under the Orders of the Earl of Chatham; with preliminary Remarks on the Topography and Channels sí Zealand. 5s.

An Account of the Origin, Progress, and Consequences of the Discontents in the Army on the Madras Establishment. 8s.

A Reply to the Calummies of the Edinburgh Review against Oxford; containing an account of the studies pursued at that University. 5s.

The State Kalendar: being Memoranda

and Narratives, civil, military, naval, parliamentary, and ecclesiastical. 4to. 11. 15. Lord Somers's Tracts. By Walter Scott, Esq. Vol. 3. royal 4to. 31. 39.

A Letter from the Right Hon. Lord Melville, to the Right Hon. Spencer Perceval, relative to the Establishment of a Naval Arsenal at Northfleet. 2s. 6d.

The Public Charities of London, being an Account of their Origin, Design, and present State, classed alphabetically under the denominations of Hospitals, Dispensaries, Colleges, Alms-houses, Schools, and miscellaneous Charities. Dedicated by Permission to the King. By Ant. Highmore, Esq. Author of the Law of Mortmain and Charitable Uses, &c. 20s. boards.

The Hospital. Book I. 2s.

English Minstrelsy; being a Selection of fugitive Poetry from the best English Authors, with some original Pieces hitherto unpublished. 2 vols. small 8vo. 14s.

Musa Cantabrigienses; seu Carmina quædam numismate aureo Cantabrigiæ ornata, et Procancellarii permissu edita. 10s. 6d. boards.

The Prince. Translated from the Italian of Niccolo Machiavelli; with an Introduction shewing the close Analogy between the Principles of Machiavelli and the Actions of Buonaparte. By J. Scott Byerley, 8vo. 9s.

Reasons for declining to become a Sub'scriber to the British and Foreign Bible Society, stated in a Letter to a Clergyman of the Diocese of London. By C. Wordsworth, D. D., &c. 1s.

A Letter to the Rev. C.Wordsworth, D.D. in Reply to his Strictures on the British and Foreign Bible Society. By Lord Teignmouth, its President.


A Letter addressed to the Rev. Dr. Words worth, in Reply to his Reasons for declining to become a Subscriber to the British and Foreign Bible Society." By William Dealtry,

M. A.

These two Pamphlets will be found to contain a most complete refutation of Dr. Wordsworth's "Reasons." But of this more in our next.


MISSIONS of the UNITED BRETHREN. The fifty-sixth number of the Periodical Accounts of these missions having been published, we will as usual extract from it such passages as are likely to interest our readers,


Extracts from the Diary at Gruenekwof. "October 1808. Having hitherto narrowly observed the external conduct and manner of living among our Hottentots, with

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