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have flourished under Nehemiah, and to be wholly intent in remonstrating against the crimes of the priests, who did not reverently at. tend to their duties."

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3.Hebräische und Chaldäische Concordanz zu den heiligen Schrif.

ten alten Testaments von Dr. Julius Fürst. Leipzig: bei

Karl Tauchnitz, 1837. Buxtorf, the son, in 1633, edited from his father's MSS. a Hebrew and Chaldee Concordance of the Old Testament, a noble monument to the memory of both. It has, however, many errors, redundances and deficiences. It can now be but rarely obtained, and then at a great price. All lovers of biblical pursuits will, therefore, welcome the new work by Dr. Fürst, which is most beautifully, and apparently with great accuracy, printed by Tauchnitz. The editor promises to examine every word and syllable in the pages of Buxtorf

. He remarks that he has found more than nine thousand mistakes in Buxtorf's references to the chapters and verses of the Hebrew. In the lexical exposition of simple words, the definition is first given in Rabbinic, in which the most ancient glosses are contained that have come to us by the tradition of the synagogue; then by a comparison with the Semitic and Sanscrit tongues and by a careful analysis of the word itself, its origen and native force are demonstrated ; a large number of synonyms are added, so that its use and received meanings can be seen. A Latin explanation follows the Rabbinic, in which first an etymological explanation of the Rabbinic is faithfully given; then fragments of Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, the Targums, the Vulgate and the versions important either in authority or by antiquity are compared ; finally the Greek words employed by the Seventy in translating the Hebrew are enumerated. Many words omitted by the Buxtorfs, including all proper names, many particles, and some important terms as 777 and 17. are subjoined. Various readings, the Qeri, etc. are marked. At the end will be added all Hebrew words arranged according to their roots; another catalogue of words arranged alphabetically ; an alphabetic syllabus of all particles; a complete enumeration of all Aramaic, Talmudic and Rabbinic words; an index of all proper names; an alphabetical exhibition of radical words; a collection of the fragments of the Masora, and a chronological table of the books of the Old Testament.

The work is printed in folio, stereotyped, and will be comprised in 1200 pages, or in ten parts of 120 pages each. The first part is now issued. The others will follow in intervals of two months. The printing and the whole execution are in the best style. The cost in Germany of each part is 1 thlr. 12 gr., equal to $1,08.

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4.-Allgemeine Deutsche Real Encyclopädie für die gebildeten

Stände. (Conversations-Lexicon). In zwölf Banden. Zwölfter
Band. W. bis Z. Achte Originalauflage. Leipzig : F. A.

Brockhaus, 1837.
The first volume of the first edition of the Conversations-Lexicon
was published in 1796 at Leipsic, under the care of Dr. Löbel,
with the intention of completing it in four octavos. The title
was, “ Conversations-Lexicon, with particular reference to the pres-
ent times,” and “The Lady's Lexicon to facilitate Conversation
and Reading.” After the publication of the third volume in 1798,
Löbel died. A fifth volume was published in 1806, and a sixth
and last soon after. A new impression of the whole was issued
in Amsterdam in 1809, to which a supplement of two volumes
was added in 1810. In 1812, a second, and greatly improved
edition was brought out at Amsterdam and Leipsic by F. A.
Brockhaus. This eminent bookseller was assisted in the editori-
al department by Dr. Ludwig Hain. The edition was comprised in
ten volumes. The number of subjects treated of was much increased.
So great was the demand for it, that 3000 copies of the second vol-
ume were issued-double the number of the first. Soon a second
impression of the first two volumes was demanded. A third edition
was issued in 1814, with the assistance of prof. Hasse of Dresden
and of prof. Wendt of Leipsic. A fourth edition was commenced
in 1817. In 1818, a supplementary volume, containing improve-
ments on the first volumes of the fourth edition, was published.
Of the fourth edition, three impressions were published, containing in
all 32,000 copies. At the same time, a supplement to the first four
editions was published. The fifth edition was published in 1822 ;
the sixth in 1826 ; and the seventh was completed in twelve volumes
in 1828. The first edition contained 12,000 copies; a second im-
pression was published in 1829–30.

In 1832, an eighth edition became necessary. This is a great improvement over every preceding edition, and is, in fact, for the most part, a new work. It seems to have been under the general direction of Dr. Espe, assisted in classical literature by Baumgarten-Crusius of Meissen ; in theology by Baumgarten-Crusius of Jena ; in Danish literature by Boje of Copenhagen ; in medicine by Choulant of Copenhagen; in some departments of natural history by Cotta of Tharant; in ethnography, geography, statistics, etc. by Falkenstein of Dresden; in physics and chemistry by Fechner of Leipsic; in music by Fink of Leipsic; in German literature by Forster of Dresden; in moral philosophy by Hartenstein of Leipsic and by Wendt; in mineralogy etc., by Hartmann of Brunswick; in Italian literature, mythology of the Greeks and Romans, numismatics, epigraphy, etc. by Hase of Dresden; in the theory of history, universal history, his

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tory of Rome, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Italy; in chronology, genealogy, diplomatics, biography of statesmen, and many other subjects, by Hasse of Leipsic; in military science by Hoyer of Halle ; in oriental literature, Persians, Indians, Syrians, etc. by Kosegarten of Griefswalde; in botany by Kunze of Leipsic; in the Dutch

language and literature by Leligfeld of the Hague ; in bibliography, English and American literature, history of Great Britain and Ireland, etc. by Lindau of Dresden; in French literature from the fourth volume on, by Mager of Berlin ; in Bohemian liter. ature by Palacki of Prague ; in Swedish literature, by Palmblad of Upsal; in mercantile knowledge, in the first five volumes, by Richter of Hamburg ; in law of nations by Schmid of Jena ; in drawing, etc. by Schom of Weimar; in economy, etc. by Schweitzer of Tharant; in natural history, by Thon of Jena; in technology, for the first half of the work, by Thon of Schwarza ; in northern mythology, from the sixth volume on, by Wachter of Jena ; in moral philosophy, up to the tenth volume, by Wendt of Göttingen; and in Polish literature, from the fifth volume on, by Werner of Gnesen.

It is comprised in twelve royal octavo volumes with four volumes of a supplement embracing matters which were not contained in the earlier volumes. The whole may be obtained in this country at about forty dollars. The Encyclopaedia Americana is a transla. tion from the seventh German edition. Many of the articles in the original relating to foreign countries were omitted in the translation ; others were much abridged, in order to furnish room for the many articles relating to the American continent, in which all the German editions are very much deficient.

The student will find both the American Encyclopaedia and the eighth German edition of the original invaluable volumes in his library. In missionary biography, and in relation to all religious matters, there is a sad deficiency in both the German and American volumes.

5.—The Writings of George Washington; being his Correspondence,

Addresses, Messages and other Papers, official and private, selected and published from the original manuscripts : with a Life of the Author, Notes and Illustrations, by Jared

Sparks. Vols. XII. and I. Boston, 1837, pp. 592, 586. The last two volumes of this great work have just been issued, the twelfth embracing the speeches, messages, proclamations, addresses, etc; and the first, which is almost wholly occupied with the life of the Author. Mr. Sparks's opportunities for doing his work well

have been ample. The original papers, including Washington's own letters and those received by him, and amounting to more than two hundred folio volumes, were all placed in the editor's hands by judge Bushrod Washington. Copies of numerous papers relating to

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the American revolution, and a copy of Washington's whole correspondence with the French government, which was procured from the public offices in Paris, were furnished for Mr. Sparks by Lafayette. Many valuable papers were found in the public offices and libraries of England. Various eminent individuals in this country have also lent their counsel and cooperation in forwarding this great national work. In the progress of our editorial labors, we have repeatedly expressed our opinion of the merits of these volumes. We are glad, that they are now completed in the same substantial and attractive style in which they were commenced. We saw, in an English publication, an article in which the effort was made to cast reproach on the editor of these writings for their interminable length, and for the minutiae into which he occasionally descends. But the writer of the article must have forgotten that these twelve volumes are, in a most important sense, the history of the United States, for forty years, and that they cast no inconsiderable light on the annals of Great Britain herself. How many volumes, moreover, has the English press poured forth on Marlborough, Nelson, and Wellington? Yet, was either of them a Washington? We ought to remark, that the notice in the publication alluded to is not a specimen of the manner in which foreigners generally regard the undertaking. The last volume of the German Conversations Lexicon, for instance, has a long account of the life of Washington, in which reliance is placed on Mr. Sparks's volumes as one of the principal authorities.

The first volume of the works contains an engraving of Washington when forty years of age, from a picture by Peale, an engraving of Martha Washington, in her youth, from a picture by Woollaston, a copy of a gold medal presented to Washington by Congresson the evacuation of Boston, and various plans of battles, etc. The twelfth volume has an engraving of Martha Washington, from a picture taken late in life, a view of Mount Vernon, very copious indexes, etc. Mr Sparks devotes about twelve pages in the last vol. ume to some notices of the religious opinions of Washington. After giving various extracts from his writings, and the letters and memoranda of other persons living and dead, he subjoins : "After a long, minute examination of the writings of Washington, public and private, in print and in manuscript, I can affirm, that I have never seen a single hint, or expression, from which it could be inferred, that he had

any doubt of the Christian revelation, or that he thought with indifference or unconcern of that subject. On the contrary, whenever he approaches it, and indeed whenever he alludes in any manner to religion, it is done with seriousness and reverence." was educated in the Episcopal church, to which he always adhered; and my conviction is, that he believed in the fundamental doctrines of Christianity as usually taught in that church.”

Vol. X. No. 28.

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6.Letters to Young Men preparing for the Christian Ministry.

By William Cogswell, D. D. Secretary of the American Ed

ucation Society. Boston: Perkins & Marvin, 1837. pp. 236. The subject of the Letters in this volume are the following: Consecration to God, call to preach the Gospel, promotion of personal holiness, duties imposed by God, duties imposed by instructors, duties voluntarily assumed, course and manner of reading, thorough education, habits of study, external deportment, pecuniary expenses, teaching school, travelling, traits of character mental and moral, moral practices, intercourse with the world, bodily exercise, revivals of religion in literary institutions, annual concert of prayer for these institutions, and efforts to induce young men to enter the ministry.

A great amount of important advice is contained in this little vol. ume. The author appears to us to have been happy in the selection of his topics. He has clothed his thoughts in simple and perspicuous language, and communicated a variety of counsels, compliance with which, cannot fail of being greatly beneficial to young men, to our literary institutions, and to the christian world. He has answer. ed just such questions and offered just such suggestions as to meet the circumstances of the thousands in our land who are in a course of literary or theological education. Dr. Cogswell has enjoyed, for many years, excellent opportunities for becoming acquainted with the wants and character of our youthful scholars. He has consequently produced such a book as was needed. Advanced students, and even gentlemen in professional life, will find many of its sug. gestions opportune and valuable. A prominent excellence of the book is its freedom from all extravagance. It is properly balanced, consistent, courteous, sufficiently füll, and well-considered. We trust that it will have an extensive currency. 7.The Comprehensive Commentary of the Holy Bible; containing

the text according to the authorized version ; Scott's marginal References; Henry's Commentary condensed but giren substantially, the Practical Observations of Dr. Scott, with extensive Critical and Philological Notes from Scott, Dod. dridge, Clarke, Poole, Patrick, Lowth, Burder, Harmer, Calmet, Stuart, the Rosenmüllers, Kuinoel, Bloomfield and many others. Edited by the Rev. William Jenks, D. D. pastor of Green Street Church, Boston, and formerly prof. of the Oriental Languages and of the English Language in Bowdoin College, assisted by the Rev. L. I. Hoadley and J. W. Jenks, A. M. Brattleboro, Vt.: Fessenden & Co. 1834– 37. Vol. I. Genesis—Judges, pp. 832. Vol. II. Ruth- Ps. 63, pp. 852. Vol. III. Ps. 64—Malachi. pp. 924. Vol. IV.

Matthew-John, pp. 838. This work is the exhibition of the approved and successful labors of

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