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There were no means provided by the church for the support of her first missionaries. They depended for sustenance on the labor of their own hands, or on the voluntary contributions of their converts. They were not directed by the churches in relation to their fields of labor. The Holy Spirit forbade Paul and Silas to go into “ Asia," and into “Bithynja.” The same Spirit directed Paul to remain sometime at Corinth. The missionaries, in many respects, seem to have been left entirely to the guidance of their own minds. They naturally preached the gospel first in the large cities of the Roman empire ; and they made use of the common commercial, and literary channels of intercourse, for the dissemination of their doctrines. On their return to the churches from which they went out, they gave to the assembled brethren a relation of the wonders which God had wrought by their hands. This relation, however, does not seem to have been required. It was intended for mutual edification, and, doubtless, resembled what now so frequently occurs; a missionary returns from his field of labor and gives an account of his tour. Contributions for the relief of the temporal necessities of poor saints, it seems, were not uncommon, But in relation to these contributions, the apostle Paul says: “I speak not by commandment, but by occasion of the forwardness of others, and to prove the sincerity of your love." “ And herein I give my advice," etc. “ Every man according as he purposeth in his heart, so let him give ; not grudgingly, or of necessity ; for God loveth a cheerful giver,” 2 Cor. 8: 8, 10. 9: 7.
In the period subsequent to the apostolic age, we find few traces of ecclesiastical organization in the propagation of the gospel. Very ittle effort was put forth, so far as we can learn from history, by he whole church in her distinctive character. Accident, or rathr providential circumstances appear to have been a principal ocasion of the spread of Christianity. The flames of persecution rere not unproductive of good. An extraordinary or a common npulse of the Holy Spirit sometimes prompted to a missionary
At a later age, the edict of a christian emperor, or the der of a particular bishop, or the translation of the Scriptures ntributed to diffuse the religion of Christ. The sight of Briti slave-youths in the market at Rome appears to have been e cause of the evangelization of Britain. Finally, the bishop Rome assumed the responsibility of sending forth missionaries
Our limits will not allow us to go into much further detail. We shall attempt, hereafter, a full investigation of the mode in which the gospel was propagated in the primitive times, and in the successive periods down to the present age. An accurate examination and a candid exhibition of this subject may shed no inconsiderable light, not only on the particular question before us, but on all the fundamental principles, and on the general arrangements of benevolent effort. We may thus bring into review the feeble efforts of the few Christians of the middle ages ; the influence of the crusades and of chivalry ; the history, policy, and results of the missionary efforts of the society of Jesuits, etc. The exertions of the Moravians, or United Brethren, will require particular consideration. We may here, in passing, be allowed to remark, that, great as their labors and successes have been, a very large part of their funds are derived from the voluntary contributions of Christians of other denominations. The present number of this publication records a donation to them from a person of another communion, which is equal in amount to nearly the entire annual cost of all their missions.
The efforts of the friends of missions in Denmark, and of the early English societies, will also claim attention. Of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, instituted in 1688, bishop Burnet remarks, that it was formed after the example of the Dissenters, whose evangelical labors in North America had been regarded by several pious clergymen with warm admiration. Very little energy, however, characterized the labors of this society, till the rise of the British and Foreign Bible Society. The former society, which has been supported mainly by those who were opposed to the British and Foreign Bible Society, were at one time, issuing the Bible in two foreign languages, while the latter were publishing it in more than one hundred and fifty. The greater number of the missionaries of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, (incorporated in 1701, and patronized by the king of England, and the bishops and clergy of the national church), are, for the most part, settled ministers, among the English people in Canada and ihe colonies. Its receipts for 1830, exclusive of a parliamentary grant, were about £19,000. The Church Missionary Society, a voluntary association, was formed by members of the established church in 1801. From that time, the number of societies of the same general character in various Protestant countries have become numerous and efficient.
o pagan lands.
It is sometimes said by those who prefer ecclesiastical organizations for conducting missions, that voluntary societies may be useful in giving the first impulse to charitable effort, yet their continued existence is not necessary. When attention is aroused to the subject, they should withdraw, and allow the church, in her proper character, to prosecute the enterprise. But when will the churches of Christendom be awakened to the claims of pagan nations? Half a century has elapsed since the modern voluntary associations were formed, and yet where is the church in her distinctive capacity ? What are the old and rich establishments of Sweden, Denmark, Prussia, Holland and England doing to send the gospel to the unevangelized world? Why is Scotland asleep, with her learned and numerous ministry, her catechisms, her well educated and christian population ? Must another half century of voluntary exertion elapse before her venerable general assembly will lend their cooperation
We would not imply by any remarks which we have made, nor by any which we may hereafter offer, that we consider voluntary associations as incapable of perversion. Nothing, with which human instrumentality is concerned, is free from imperfection. Combined effort does not render the cherishing of individual responsibility unnecessary. It ought not to destroy or abridge personal freedom of thought and action. Neither would we rely on these associations, in exclusion of the influences of the Holy Spirit. Without his special agency, the most perfect human instrumentality is entirely unavailing. Still, we may be allowed to maintain the position, that for the diffusion of Christianity, and for the accomplishment of philanthropic plans generally, voluntary associations are the most simple, feasible, energetic, and appropriate means which have yet been devised.
* Mr. Duff from India has been the means of awaking some life in this body on the subject of missions. At their session in May, 1835, they named the committee for managing his majesty's royal bounty, to be a committee of the assembly for the propagation of the gospel in foreign parts. The greatest peculiarity in the proceedings of the year was the application from two or three Scottish missionaries in Bombay to be taken under the care of the assembly. This would probably be done, if the funds of the assembly would permit!
THE CONNECTION OF MORAL WITH INTELLECTUAL CULTI
By Charles B. Hadduck, Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory, Dartmouth College.
netimes said by those who prefer ecclesiastical organiconducting missions, that voluntary societies
be giving the first impulse to charitable effort, yet their xistence is not necessary.
When attention is aroused ct, they should withdraw, and allow the church, in character, 10 prosecute the enterprise. But when rches of Christendom be awakened to the claims of as? Half a century has elapsed since the modern sociations were formed, and yet where is the church in e capacity ? What are the old and rich establishden, Denmark, Prussia, Holland and England doing ospel to the unevangelized world? Why is Scotland her learned and numerous ministry, her catechisms, ated and christian population ? Must another half oluntary exertion elapse before her venerable genwill lend their cooperation :* not imply by any remarks which we have made, ich we may hereafter offer, that we consider voltions as incapable of perversion. Nothing, with instrumentality is concerned, is free from imperbined effort does not render the cherishing of insibility unnecessary. It ought not to destroy or al freedom of thought and action. Neither would se associations, in exclusion of the influences of . Without his special agency, the most perfect entality is entirely unavailing. Still, we may be itain the position, that for the diffusion of Christhe accomplishment of philanthropic plans gen7 associations are the most simple, feasible, enropriate means which have yet been devised. m India has been the means of awaking some life e subject of missions. At their session in May, the committee for managing his majesty's royal mmittee of the assembly for the propagation of the arts. The greatest peculiarity in the proceedings e application from two or three Scottish mission
be taken under the care of the assembly. This done, if the funds of the assembly would permit!
WRITERS upon Education have always insisted on the importance of connecting moral with intellectual culture. Even heathen authors have expressed themselves very strongly on this subject. Plato and Quinctilian laid it down as a first principle, that instruction, which does not make men better, as well as wiser, is essentially defective, and unworthy of public patronage. The language of the latter, in that part of his Institutions, which relates to early education, is particularly worthy of remark. In all the departments of instruction, from that of the nurse to that of the master of rhetoric, he inculcates the most watchful care over every moral influence, to which the youthful mind may be exposed. With a degree of caution, which it were well, if christian teachers and parents always exercised, this illustrious Roman, himself a model of mental discipline, taste, and rectitude, and well acquainted with all the principles of education known to his age, or to preceding times, requires the teacher to be a holy man--" praeceptorem sanctissimum;" and to discourse much, to his pupils, of the honorable and the good—“de honesto ac bono.'
In his prescription of a course of reading he would scarcely escape the censure of modern critics, for fastidiousness. Portions of Horace he would not have read by boys. His profound maxim, that none but a good man can be an orator, is more frequently quoted than understood. He evidently saw, what many, under better advantages, have yet to learn, that to the highest order of mind moral rectitude is essential; and, of course, that in professional character, especially that of the orator, we never find the very first eminence attained without a heart delicately attuned to moral emotion.
It would have been natural to think that as our moral constitution came to be better explained, and our relations more accurately traced out, the importance of moral cultivation would be better understood and more clearly illustrated. The reverse, however, happens to be true, at least in respect to a large portion of the community. And by a singular species of logic, the VOL. IX. No. 25.
very importance of the subject is alleged as one of the reasons
It seems, also, to be forgotten, that there is really no such thing as leaving the mind to itself, if we would. Education can never be intermitted. It is not optional ; it is not occasional. It never can be wholly so, even in solitude ; for every scene of nature has a voice and an influence incessantly stealing into the mind. Much less can it be so in society. Nothing could be
of the subject is alleged as one of the reasons rom our systems of education. On points of as our moral judgments and spiritual concerns, cd, men should be left to form their own opin-d be added to this profound maxim, that on ortance men may be safely left to form their aise on such points opinions are of so little we should then be furnished with a theory enough to cover the whole subject. It seems orgotten by men, who have little excuse for
themselves, that the great end of education men to form opinions for themselves; to habits of thought and feeling, which lay the en to argument, and secure it most perfecte forms of error ; and to do this, above all, ce to those subjects, on which the acquisine full understanding of truth, is of greatest y appear to imagine, that there may possiay of educating men, than that so long
minds together. They forget that one in useful or exciting trains of thought; as corrects false impressions; and that the of contemplation by other intellects is the y and enterprise to our own. What else nstruction but occasions of thinking and but the influence of other minds leading
to us to follow, it may be, with unequal .), without yielding our assent to every
the trains of ideas pursued by them? es the copy set by the writing-master, = the notes of music, in the lesson for the nes the course of thought presented to ľ or the written volume. And yet in isarily follow, that the pupil will be an teacher. In neither case is there any
imagined worse in any system of moral education, than total neglect, the entire surrender of the youthful heart to the unchecked and unselected agencies of the world.
Christianity is the perfection of moral science. Yet it has become a question, whether her divine influence should be allowed to mingle at all with academical instruction ; whether even the records of our religious faith should not be excluded from literary institutions, and all religious services, all exercises of devotion banished from our seats of learning. The Bible has been rejected from nearly all our primary schools ; not because its sanctity may be sullied by the familiar use of it as a readingbook ; not because portions of it are above the understandings of children ; but because, it is, in short, unsuitable to be read, it is religious, and religion has nothing to do in schools. In the same spirit prayer also is omitted or forbidden in these institutions. In many places neither the reading of the Bible nor prayer could be introduced by a teacher without giving offence to the district. Difficulties of no small consequence have actually arisen from difference of opinion between the instructor and his employers on this subject. Even in New England it has been proclaimed as a recommendation of certain literary Institutions, that they adopt no religious creed, and enjoin no religious observances; that they profess a “liberality” of faith and practice, which consists, in fact, in discarding religion altogether. Charters have been asked for, and granted to institutions, holding out such claims to public favor. Men, professedly belonging to christian denominations, have urged the merits of such a system of education ; and it cannot be denied that considerable sympathy has been awakened for them in large portions of the community. Indeed it is hardly unjust to New England to say, that her towns are full of men, men of some pretensions and some character too, who suffer themselves to be led astray by this shallow sophistry.
We have seen the most magnificent University, which any State in the Union has endowed, and which, in many of its features, is certainly worthy of the patriotic and high-minded men who projected it, founded expressly on the principle of the exclusion of religion — an university, conceived and carried into operation by no less a man than the author of the Declaration of American Independence, the man, perhaps, whose principles and personal influence have done more than those of any other individual in promoting the popular errors, at this time prevalent in
Corgotten, that there is really no such to itself, if we would. Education can is not optional ; it is not occasional. , even in solitude ; for every scene of influence incessantly stealing into the be so in society. Nothing could be