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the material universe is safe. But who can tell what would be the effect of the slightest deviation — say in the planet Jupiter from its fixed and settled laws of motion ? Suppose it were to deviate ever so little from its regular path ; and suppose

the deviation should be such as should compare well with the slight deviation of Adam from the path of rectitude. What astronomer could calculate the effect which it would have on the worlds and systems with which it is connected? What part of the universe would be safe from the threatening rush of matter and crush of worlds? The order of the universe, so to speak, depends on the unvarying preservation of an infinite number of simple laws that must be observed, or ruin will rush_at once through all the worlds and systems of the universe. Thus also it is in moral conduct. Is any one ignorant that the mightiest consequences often depend on actions that seem to be of little importance. The safety of the Roman empire, and the destiny of the world once depended on the simple question whether Caesar should or should not cross the Rubicon. The destiny of the kingdom of Persia once depended on the neighing of a horse. The simplest action often determines the destiny of a man or a nation. An error, a fault, an act of neglect in some small matter that passed unnoticed at the time has decided ultimately many a battle, and the destiny of many an empire. Great events often depend on small causes ; and trains of events, most prosperous, or most disastrous in their issue, often result from some action that at the time passed unnoticed, and that sent its influence far into advancing years. So the water gushes forth from the base of the mountain — forms a rill swells to a river -- and rolls on its impetuous torrents to the ocean. The result of conduct thus spreads and widens, and expands, until all connected in any way with the original agent feel its effects, and are blessed or withered by its influence. It is easy to speak of the transaction with Adam in the language of ridicule, and the voice of contempt. But if it shall be carefully examined, it will be found that somehow Moses has stated here an arrangement that accords strikingly with all the arrangements of the world, in which actions themselves apparently of little importance strike onward into coming times, and spread their influence over ages and generations of men. If so, the objection, lying as much against the ordinary course of events as against the statement of revelation, is of force against neither; since it is the actual mode in which the world is governed.

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ARTICLE IX.

Rich's KOORDISTAN.

Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan, and on the site of ancient

Nineveh ; with journal of a voyage down the Tigris to Bagdad, and an account of a visit to Shiraz and Persepolis. By the late Claudius James Rich, Esq. The Hon. East India Company's Resident at Bagdad, author of “ An account of ancient Babylon.” Edited by his widow. London 1836, 2 vols. 8vo. pp. 398, 410.

KOORDISTAN is a mountainous country on the borders of the Turkish and Persian empires, from which issue the different head-streams of the Tigris. Persian Koordistan answers, in a considerable degree at least, to the ancient Elymais or Elamn, having for its chief towns, Sulimania, Sinna, and Kermanshah. A part of this territory embraced Susiana, the modern Khusistan. Sometimes, the sacred writers comprehend under the name, Elam, the Persians generally. Elam, which is mentioned in Gen. 10: 22, as a tribe descended from Shem, the second son of Noah, is in Gen. 14: 1, introduced along with the kingdom of Shinar, and in Is. 21: 2, and Jer. 25: 25, is connected with Media. The Elamites are described in Ezra 4: 9, among the nations of the Persian empire, and according to Dan. 8: 2, Susa lay on the river Ulai, that is the Eulaeus or Choaspes, in the province of Elam. It was in the capacity of archers that the tribes in Elam were chiefly celebrated. In Is. 22: 6, of a hostile army that was to go forth against Jerulasem, it is said :

Elam bears the quiver,

And comes with chariots, footmen, and riders. When Jeremiah, 49: 34, threatens this people with conquest and subjugation, he begins with these words:

Thus saith Jehovah of hosts!
Behold! I break the bow of Elam,

The chief instrument of his might. For further references, see Gen. 14: 1. Ez. 32: 24. Dan. 8: 1, 2. 1 Macc. 6: 1, 2. 2 Macc. 9; 2.

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Turkish Koordistan consists of the territories of Beltis, Arbela and Van, and corresponds generally to the ancient Assyria. The Koords, from whom the country takes its name, are supposed to be the descendants of the ancient Carduchi, who opposed the retreat of the Ten Thousand, as narrated by Xenoplion. They have never been completely subdued by the neighboring States. Detached tribes are scattered over Diarbekir, and in the territories of Erzroom, Erivan, Siwas, and Aleppo; but they rarely pass further south than Antioch. In Syria, they occupy the mountains between Aleppo and Antioch.

This is the country, and these are the people that are introduced to us in the very faithful and interesting sketches of the late Mr. Rich. We gave some account of this distinguished British traveller in Bib. Repos. No. 23. But as we have, in the mean time, ascertained some additional facts in relation to his life, we shall here subjoin them.

Mr. Rich, the writer of this Narrative, was born on the 28th of March, 1787, at Dijon in France; and while yet an infant, was carried to Bristol, England, where he spent the first years of his life. While passing through the usual course of instruction, the elements of Latin and Greek being taught him by a relative, his curiosity led him to acquire several modern languages, without a teacher, and assisted only by books. When but eight or nine years old, having seen some Arabic MSS. at Bristol, he was seized with a strong desire to learn that difficult tongue. At fifteen

years

of age, he had made no mean progress in Hebrew, Syriac, Persian, Turkish and other oriental languages. His extraordinary attainments attracted the attention of Drs. Marshman and Ryland, of Robert Hall, of Sir Charles Wilkins, and other eminent men, and he was nominated to a writership on the Bombay establishment. In order to perfect himself in Arabic and Turkish, he was attached as secretary to Mr. Lock, who was at that time proceeding to Egypt as consul-general. Mr. Lock having died at Malta before entering on his mission, the directors of the East India Company allowed Mr. R. to follow such a course of travels as would be most conducive to the object in view. He remained some time at Constantinople and also at Smyrna. At the latter place, he put himself to school with the young Turkish students of his own age. He then resided for some time in Egypt as assistant to Col. Missett, consul-general, employing his time in perfecting himself in Arabic, etc. From Egypt, he travelled in the dis

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guise of a Mamaluke through Palestine to Damascus, Aleppo,
Vardin, Bagdad, and early in September, 1807, reached Bom-
bay. He there met with Sir James Mackintosh, to whom
Robert Hall had before introduced him. He was received into
the family of that distinguished civilian, whose eldest daughter
he soon after married. Early in 1808, he took up his abode in
Bagdad as British Resident. His high spirit, his sound politi-
cal views, his perfect knowledge of the native character, and
his profuse generosity speedily gained him the highest reputa-
tion both with the local government and the people. He
about six years in Bagdad with no European society but that
of his wife, and of Mr. Hine, the surgeon of the residency, who
was also his assistant. The leisure which he enjoyed from his
public duties he spent in pursuing his favorite studies. He
made collections for a history, and for a geographical and a sta-
tistical account of the pashalik of Bagdad. He examined all
the remains of antiquity within his reach; and commenced
his collection of oriental Mss., which he spared no Jabor or
cost to render complete. He also formed a rich collection of
medals and coins, and of the gems and engraved stones found
at Babylon, Nineveh, Ctesiphon, and Bagdad. The fruit of
his observations was his Memoir on the Ruins of Babylon, first
printed in the Vienna Mines de l'Orient. Major Rennell hav-
ing called in question some of the conclusions in that Memoir,
Mr. Rich, in 1818, published a second Memoir, in which he
confirms the reasoning of the first, and adds a valuable appen-
dix on Babylonian antiques. In 1813 and in 1814, Mr. and
Mrs. Rich proceeded on horseback to Constantinople, Vienna,
Paris, etc. On his return to Bagdad, he took, as far as possi-
ble, a different route from the one on which he had journeyed
towards Europe, visiting the site of ancient Troy, the Syrian
and Chaldean convents in Mesopotamia, etc. During the five
or six years after his return to the residency, Mr. Rich added
so largely to his Mss., as to render them, perhaps, the most ex-
tensive and valuable ever brought together by any private per-
son in the East. His collection of coins, Greek, Parthian,
Sassanian, and Mussulman, was also much enlarged, as was that
of his gems and engraved stones. In 1820 the state of his
health requiring change of air, he made a tour into Koordistan,
of which the two volumes, whose title is at the head of this ar-
ticle

, contain the journal. In his return, he visited many of the ancient christian churches in Chaldea, especially such as he Vol. IX. No. 25.

26

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had not an opportunity of seeing in his former journeys. Besides other curious Mss., he was enabled to preserve and to add to his library many valuable and ancient copies of the Syrian and Chaldean versions of the Scriptures.

It was now his intention to have proceeded to Bombay, where he had been appointed to an important oflice by the Hon. Mr. Elphinstone then governor, when a violent attack was made on the residency by the orders, or with the connivance, of the Pasha. This Mr. Rich succeeded in repelling by force of arms, and moved down to Bussorah until due reparation was offered.

While waiting instructions from his own government, he employed his time in a tour to Shiraz, whence he visited Persepofis, the tomb of Cyrus, etc.

While he was

this city, the cholera morbus appeared, and in a few days carried off 6000 people out of a population of 40,000. Mr. Rich's time was chietly employed for many days in visiting the sick, and administering the necessary medicines. But the disease was already working in his own veins. On leaving the bath on the 5th of October, symptoms of cholera appeared, and in spite of every assistance and care, he expired on the following morning, the 6th of Ociober. He was interred in one of the royal gardens, where a monument has since been erected to his memory. The great excellence of his character is attested in the warmest manner by all who were, at any time, in his society.

The Memoirs on Babylon, and a few papers in the Vienna Journal, were the only writings which he published in his lifetime. He left a considerable number of Mss. ; in particular, an ample journal of his route from Bagdad to Constantinople, in which Mrs. Rich accompanied him on horseback. His journal from Constantinople to Paris, and from Paris back to Bagdad, is likewise preserved, and other papers. Some of them will soon be published. His magnificent collection of Oriental Mss., of coins and antiquities, was purchased by the British parliament, for the use of the British museum, where it is now deposited.

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We now propose to give some account of the journal in Koordistan. “ These volumes,” says Mrs. Rich, *are all which exist of a work begun by Mr. Rich, on a very extensive scale. He therefore applied himself diligently to the study of various scientific subjects, by the knowledge of which he hoped to ac

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