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velled the city with the ground, and
The Assurians were thrown into
ne a desolation ! asts! asses by her, shall hiss, and wave his hand! epancy exists in the statements of differene
the time, manner and agents of the ove: Herodotus and Eusebius affirm that it se king of the Medes. Jerome and all the t that it was taken by Nabuchodonosor er chise statements seem to be true, inasmuca
their forces, besieged Nineveh, and finally ook of Tobit 14: 15, we have the follosre his death, he heard of the destructie buchodonosor and Assuerus had taken. ve been the same whom Eusebius and
Eusebius conjectures that it was dem econd year of Cyaxares. The Hebres was taken in the first year of Nabucho
Jer. 25: 1, the first year of this king's r of Jehoiakim, son of Josiah, king di sks in one place that the Assyrian en the Medes; in another, by the Medes dotus asserts that the Medes took Vine syrians, except the Babylonian portion, Diodorus Siculus, ascribe the taking of ion of the Assyrian empire, to Arbea
Belesis the Babylonian. Diodorus es distributed the citizens of Ninereh gold and silver to Ecbatana the roralso relates that while the Assyrian ’ount of their former victories, some
informed by deserters of the negli he camp of the enemies
, assaulted t. ne masters of their camp, slew many he remainder into the city. The , “ that there was an old prophecy, ne in Nahum 2: 12. The following is σε πρινή αποθανείν αυτόν την απώλειας νδονόσορ, και 'Ασύηρος, και εχάρη προ
that Nineveh should not be taken, till the river became an enemy to it; that in the third year of the siege, the river being swollen with continual rains, overflowed part of the city, and broke down the wall for twenty stadia. Then the king, supposing that the oracle was fulfilled, built a large funeral pile in the palace, and collecting his treasures, his concubines and his eunuchs, burnt himself and the palace with them all. Thereupon the enemy entered the breach that the waters had made, and took possession of the city.”
Cyrill of Alexandria in his Comment. on Nahum remarks, “that Nineveh had utterly perished, so that its site could not be found.” Eustathius in Dionysius : “ It is said that Ninus on the Tigris, a much larger city than Babylon, was entirely overthrown along with the Persians." (This writer uses Persians instead of Assyrians.) Abulfeda, in bis Description of Mesopotamia, writes : “On the eastern bank of the Tigris, opposite Mosul, lies the ruined city Nineveh.” Again : “ The city Nineveh is the same to which the prophet Jonah, with whom be peace! was sent.”+
Benjamin of Tudela, who wrote his Itinerary in A. D. 1300, informs us " that there was only a bridge between Mosul and Nineveh ; this latter is laid waste, yet it hath many streets.”. Thevenot remarks: “ Mosul is situated on the west side of the river Tigris, where was anciently only a suburb of the old Nineveh, for the city itself stood on the east side of the river, where are to be seen some of its ruins of great extent even to this day.” Tavernier likewise affirms that“ across the Tigris, which hath a swift stream and whitish water, whereas the Euphrates runs
* See Herod. 1. 106. Diod. Sic. I. 26, II. 26, 27, 28. Rosenmueller in his Bib. Geog. I. 1. p. 97, places the destruction of Nineveh by Nabopolassar and Cyaxares 537 B. C.
t Tacitus Ann. XII. 13: Trumissoque amue Tigri, permeavt Adiabenos – Sed capta in transitu urbs Ninos, vetustissima sedes Assyriae. Ammianus Marcellinus XVIII. 6. § 22: In hac Adiabena Ninus est civitas, quae olim Persidis regna possederat, nomen Nini, potentissimi quondam regis Semiramidis mariti, declarans. The Nineveh of Tacitus and of Ammianus was probably a city or village erected on the site of the ancient Nineveh. Haitho, the Armenian, writes : Ista civitas ad praesens est totaliter devastata. quae adbuc sunt apparentia in eadem, firmiter credi potest quod fuerit una ex majoribus civitatibus hujus mundi. De Tartaris, c. 11. p. 425. Vol. IX. No. 25.
Sed per ea,
slow and is reddish, you come to the ancient city Nineveh, which is now a heap of rubbish only, for a league along the river, full of vaults and caverns.” Niebuhr has the following observations : “ As one comes to Mosul, in this direction, he will pass through Nineveh. This city, according to the opinion of the Christians at Mosul, extended from Kadikend to Jeremdsja, which villages are more than two German miles from each other, and are situated on the Tigris. The Jews say that the ruins are three days' journey long. I was not aware that I was passing over so remarkable a spot, till I was near the river. Here they pointed out to me a village on a large hill, which was called Nunia, and a mosque in which the prophet Jonah lies buried. The Jews even to the present day have a great reverence for this tomb. But since it has been in the hands of the Mohammedans, they do not pay their devotions at it, but remain without the mosque. Another hill on this ground was called Kalla Nunia, or the castle of Nineveh. On this lies the village Koyunjuk. While I was at Mosul, the walls of Nineveh were pointed out to me. These I had not observed in my tour hither, but took them for a part of the hill."*
The next writer, whom we shall introduce to our readers, is the late C. J. Rich, British resident at Bagdad. The most entire dependence may be placed on his accuracy and intelligence. He examined the ruins, at various times, during a course of years, and at one time, resided several weeks on the bank of the Tigris opposite the ruins. We have condensed the description from the second volume of his Residence in Koordistan, just published under the superintendence of his accomplished widow, and which is noticed in another part of this Number.
The ruins lie opposite Mosul, or Mousul, a city of Asiatic Turkey, in the pashalik of Bagdad. This place contains about fifty mosques, fourteen churches, and one synagogue. The population, comprising Turks, Koords, Nestorians, Armenians, Jews, and Arabs, is supposed to be between 35,000, and 40,000. Its present appearance is mean and uninteresting.
The area of Nineveh may be about one and a half to two miles broad, and four miles long. On the river, or west side, there are only remains of one wall
. The same appears to be the case at the north and south extremities; but on the east side there seem to be the remains of three walls.
Niebubr's Reiseschreib. II. 353. Copenhagen 1778.
ou come to the ancient city Ninevet, of rubbish only, for a league along the caverns." Niebuhr has the followme comes to Mosul, in this direction, de
eh. This city, according to the oper Tosul, extended from Kadikend to are more than two German miles free ted on the Tigris. The Jews say that journey long. I was not aware that rkable a spot, till I was near the niver. me a village on a large hill, which wä que in which the prophet Jonah lies to the present day have a great rere
since it has been in the hands of the not pay their devotions at it, but re
Another bill on this ground castle of Ninevel. On this lies the
I was at Mosul, the walls of Ninee. These I had not observed in my for a part of the hill.' we shall introduce to our readers. A resident at Bagdad. The most efuced on his accuracy
, various times, during a course of sided several weeks on the bank of i We have condensed the descri : of his Residence in Koordistan
, perintendence of his accomplished in another part of this Number. Cosul, or Mousul, a city of Asiabo agdad. This place contains about -ches, and one synagogue. The , Koords, Nestorians, Armenians, ed to be between 35,000, ice is mean and uninteresting.
be about one and a half to two ong.
On the river, wall
. The same appears to be ith extremities; but on the east ns of three walls.
We will begin with the east side. The first or inner wall of the enclosure is a line of earth and gravel, out of which large hewn stones are dug, as out of all the walls of the area. Beyond this is a ditch, still very regular, and easily traceable ; on the other side is another wall. Beyond it, leaving only a narrow ravine or ditch, there is still another, and the largest wall. A few feet distant from the wall, in the ravine, is the well of Damlamajeh, with the remains over it of a little dome, in the inside of which is an archway over the water, of massy stonework. The water appears to come out of a conglomeration of pebbles and soil. The breadth from the outside of the boundary to the inside of the last considerable mound, is 2007 feet. About half way between the boundary and the ravine which contains the well, is a hollow-way, about 150 feet broad, sunk a little below the level, and as straight as if it had been run by a line. It appears as if it had been closed up by building, possibly a gate-way. The nature of the country outside of the outermost mound, renders it almost impossible to ascertain to what extent eastward vestiges of the former habitations of men, might be found; but there is reason to think that Nineveh extended still further in that direction. This uneven country is about four miles in breadth, commencing on the eastern part of the enclosure on the road leading to Kermelis, and extending north up to the first elevations which join the Koordish mountains. It then comes to the river's edge. What part
of this space was covered by ancient Nineveh, it is now nearly impossible to ascertain.
The length of the southern face of the enclosure is 2620 feet. At some distance from the south-east angle, is a high, abrupt bank, which was evidently artificial, and broken down by some former overflowing of the Tigris. It is forty-two feet perpendicular height, and 1150 feet long. At its western extremity it turns a little south, and has there also been eaten away by the water. On its south side is situated the village of Yaremjee, the inhabitants of which are of the Turcoman race. The north face of the mound is a prolongation of the step which rises from the low alluvial ground, to the higher country. Here the soil has been cut down to a precipice by the waters, and exhibits remains of buildings, such as layers of large stones, some with bitumen on them, and a few burnt bricks and tiles. Layers of stone-work are to be seen likewise. The breadth of the mound is inconsiderable ; but it is difficult to say what it may have
or west side.
11. 35:3. Copenhagen 1778.
been before the encroachment of the river. The river has not come up to this bank within the memory of man. There is a tradition that this was the pottery of Nineveh ; that it seems to have been a part of Nineveh is certain. Beyond, or south of this mound, there are no appearances of ruins.
On the south side of the enclosure are three openings, the centre one of which, at least, seems to have been part of the original plan. A few yards from it, on the outside of the wall, near the Karakoosh road, is an object apparently of the highest antiquity. Some people, in digging for stones, had turned up many large hewn stones with bitumen adhering to them. The excavation was about ten feet deep, and consisted of huge stones, laid in layers of bitumen and lime-mortar. There were also somne layers of red clay, which were very thick, and had become as indurated as burnt brick. The mass appeared to have been a foundation or superstructure. Among the rubbish were some pieces of coarse, unglazed pottery. It is difficult to say to what extent vestiges of building may exist outside the enclosures, the area of which may have been the royal quarter, but certainly was never sufficient for the city of Nineveh.
The part of the western wall which extends from the southwest angle to the village of Nebbi Yunus, is 2094 feet. The whole of the western wail may be about 9000 feet. The low ground, where it is uncultivated, along the river, is covered with bushes of tamarisk. The cultivation is, however, very extensive.
Such is the nature of the soil in the country north of the enclosure, that it is not easy to say what are ruins, and what are not; what is art converted by the lapse of ages into a semblance of nature, and what is merely nature, broken by the hand of time into ruins approaching in their appearance those of art. In the bank of the river, which is much furowed and worn into hillocks, there are stones, lime, and other fragments which seem to indicate building. Some mounds near the convent of St. George, and a line or mound about a hundred yards long just before it, are quite unequivocally artificial. The convent itself is situated on a mound. Other mounds are scattered in various directions.
The two principal masses of ruins, both within the enclosure, are Nebbi Yunus and Koyunjuk. At Nebbi Yunus, there is a little town of about 300 houses, which is built on an ancient artificial mound, the whole of which it does not cover. Its an
nent of the river. The river has dit
, be Past, seems to have been part of the s from it, on the outside of the wall.
an object apparently of the highest n digging for stones, had turned up h bitumen adhering to them. The t deep, and consisted of huge stones, and lime-mortar. There were also hich were very thick, and had berick. The mass appeared to have ructure. Among the rubbish were ed pottery. It is difficult to say 10 ng may exist outside the enclosures
, een the royal quarter, but certain- city of Nineveh. all which extends from the southebbi Yunus, is 2094 feet. The
5 be about 9000 feet. The low d, along the river, is covered with "ation is, however,
very l in the country north of the en
what are ruins, and what are he lapse of ages into a semblance i nature, broken by the hand of
their appearance those of art. is much fiurowed and worn into nd other fragments which seem inds near the convent of St. out a hundred yards long just artificial. The convent itsel mounds are scattered in vari
tiquity is well ascertained by the remains found on digging deep into it; when fragments of brick, whole bricks, and pieces of gypsum, covered with inscriptions in the cuneiform character, are found. One of these procured by Mr. Rich, and now in the British museum, measures one foot and four inches in thickness, covered with writing. Many antiquities might undoubtedly be found in this mound; but the greater part of it is thickly covered with a labyrinth of small houses, and it is only on the repairing or falling down of these, that such things are discovered. On the north, or higher end of the mound, is a mosque which covers what was supposed to be the tomb of Jonah. The mosque is a considerable building, with its flat roof about fifteen feet above the level of the mound on the south side, but on the north it rises forty feet by measurement, above the mound. On the east side of the court of the mosque, there are three very narrow, ancient passages, one within the other, with several doors, or apertures, opening into each other. They appear as if designed for the reception of dead bodies. The length of the mound east and west, which juts out from Nebbi Yunus, is 4314 feet; its breadth north and south, 355 feet. The village and the tomb, are principally built on the east boundary wall, and a mound of parallel organic form juts out from it easterly, on which is a burying-ground. The mount is ten or twelve feet high. The tomb is on the highest part of the mount, and on what appears to have been the west wall, a few yards of which adjoin the tomb a little in front of the village, and on it are some graves and a very deep well.
The mount of Koyunjuk is of rather an irregular form, except at its west and part of its eastern face. Its sides are very steep, its top nearly flat; its angles are not marked by any lantern or turret. The perpendicular height is forty-three feet; the total circumference 7691 feet. The top does not wear the appearance of ever having been greatly higher than it is at present ; but it has evidently had building on it, at least round its edges. Stones or bricks are ploughed or dug up every where. Coarse stone, mortar, masonry, and floorings, or pavements, are seen. Pottery and other Babylonian fragments are found ; also Lits of brick, with bitumen adhering to them. Mr. Rich discovered a piece of fine brick or pottery, covered with exceedingly small and beautiful cuneiform writing. It was of the finest kind, yellowish, with a polished, or hard surface, and apparently belonged to one of the large cylinders. Not far from this mound,
ns, both within the enclosure,
At Nebbi Yunus, there is a zich is built on an ancient arh it does not cover. Its an