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ed into her gates. It is asserted in
the Syrian Nineveh, and that the others The uncertainty of the testimony may be fact that Ammianus and others place the w the Lycus, in opposition to the declaStrabo, Arrian, Ptolemy, Eustathius
, etc. e in placing the Assyrian Nineveh on the
city Mosul are not united in respect to ayris; some placing it on the eastem até bank. But it is possible that the city was was the case with Babylon. d to consider the questions in respect t9 ity. There are three statements in the 3. 4: 11. In the first two passayesi
and "an exceeding great city of three e days' journey has reference to the cir: than to its length. So Abenezra, de loret interpret.f Strabo, who makes 35 stadia in circuit, says that Nineren odorus asserts that Ninus, the founder
, ity which should surpass not only all Il which any one would afterwards be cions that the circuit of Nineveh was somewhat more than sixty miles, and ws' journey; twenty miles a day beon for a foot-traveller. Diodorus de hundred feet high, and sufficiently ariots being driven abreast. On the ch 200 feet high. Cyrill in conrks that the walls were regarded as alace is represented as having been
Nahum 2: 8 says that " Nineveh Per,” signifying, by this expression
Jonah 4: 11, that in Nineveh " there were more than six score thousand persons who could not discern between their right hand and their left hand, and also much cattle.”* According to the common estimate this would give 600,000 for the entire population ; the same number which Pliny attributes to Seleucia near Babylon. A city of the dimensions, which Diodorus gives to Nineveh, might easily contain more than 600,000 people, while there might be, at the same time, large vacant spaces for gardens, or for pasture, as is common in the cities of the East.
Nineveh was situated very commodiously for the purposes of commerce. The Tigris,
The Tigris, - connected with the Euphrates by means of canals, - opened a ready communication with the Persian gulf, southern Asia, and the shores of the Indian ocean.
4: 16 that “ her merchants were more than the stars of heaven." The commerce, which was carried on between eastern and western Asia must have passed through Nineveh, as here was a common route, as well as a bridge over the Tigris, a convenience which existed in but few places. But as in other great and rich cities, so in Nineveh there prevailed extreme depravity of morals.
This general corruption of manners is asserted in the book of Jonah, in the expressive declaration : “ Their wickedness is come up before me.' of the period in which this prophet flourished we are not left in doubt. According to 2 K. 14: 35, he prophesied of the restoration of the coasts of Israel taken by the king of Syria, which was accomplished by Jeroboam II ; and, therefore, Jonah must have lived before that time. Bishop Lloyd supposes that he prophesied at the latter end of Jehu's reign or at the beginning of the reign of Jehoahaz, when the kingdom of Israel was reduced very low, by the oppression of Hazael king of Syria. He might, however, have prophesied at the beginning of Jeroboam's reign, which was about 42 years
Menahem reigned, in whose time Pul, the first king of Assyria mentioned in the Scriptures, invaded the land of Israel. Jonah was, therefore, without doubt, sent to Nineveh at the time of the reign of one of the predecessors of Pul; but at what period particularly, we are unable to discover.t
* Comp. Deut. 1: 39, Your children, which in that day had no knowledge between good and evil, etc. ; i. e. who had not come to the exercise of their reasoning powers.
# None of the Scripture narratives has been subjected to rougher
vos. Lib. 16.
The repentance of the people of Nineveh was probably not of long duration. Isaiah 10: 5 seq., denounces the judgments of God against them :5. Wo to the Assyrian, the rod of mine anger !
The staff in his hand is the instrument of my indignation. 6. Against a godless people I sent him,
Against a people with whom I was angry I commissioned him;
To tread down as the mire of the streets ; 7. Yet he thought not so,
His heart meant not thus,
To cut off nations not a few.
Or Hamath as Arpad, or Samaria as Damascus ? 10. As my hand hath found the idolatrous kingdoms, Whose idols were more in number than those at Jerusalem
and Samaria, 11. Lo! thus as I have done to Samaria and to her idols,
So will I do to Jerusalem and to her idols." 12. Now (when) the Lord hath fully accomplished his work on
mount Zion and Jerusalem, Then will he punish the fruit of the haughtiness of the king of
Assyria, And his proud boasting. The prophecy of Nahum is entirely occupied in denunciations
treatment at the hands of writers unfriendly to the inspiration of the Bible than the story of Jonah. The profune laugh has been raised at its expense, and serious attempts have been made to demonstrate the utter impossibility of many of the facts therein recorded. Eichhorn devotes twenty-five pages of his Einleitung in das alte Testament to the subject. See Vol. IV, p. 33) seq. 1834. Rosenmueller considers it to be a mythus, perhaps of Phenician origin ; also in vogue among the Greeks in the form of Hercules swallowed by a sea-monster, but thrown out by him uninjured. But is it not much more probable that the Phenician and the Grecian story, along with various embellishments, was drawn from the scriptural narrative? Would our Saviour refer to a Phenician mythus ? Is not his repeated reference to Jonah's narrative as a matter of fact decisive of the question? No one denies but that some of the facts recorded in Jonah are not in accordance with the ordinary laws of nature. But who will limit the omnipotence of God ?
ot thus, his thoughts,
drawn froin the scriptural narrative? Phenician mythus ? Is not his repeated
it some of the facts recorded in Jopah
of the people of Nineveh was probably na saiah 10: 5 seq., denounces the judgmerr
: an, the rod of mine anger! and is the instrument of my indignation. people I sent him, with whom I was angry I commissioned hin: d seize the prey, the mire of the streets ; not a few. - not my princes altogether kings! Chemish, ed, or Samaria as Damascus ?
und the idolatrous kingdoms, more in number than those at Jerusalem done to Samaria and to her idols, salem and to her idols." ord hath fully accomplished his work co Jerusalem,
the fruit of the haughtiness of the king of ng um is entirely occupied in denunciations vriters unfriendly to the inspiration of the mah. The profune laugh has been raisrious attempts have been made to demoty of many
of the facts therein recorded. ive pages of his Einleitung in das alte
See Vol. IV, p. 331 seq. 1834. Rosena mythus, perhaps of Phenician origin; eks in the form of Hercules swallowed by it by hiin uninjured. But is it not much sician and the Grecian story, along with
as a matter of fact decisive of the ques e ordinary laws of nature. But who God?
against Nineveh, in descriptions of her pride and wickedness, and in predictions of her utter overthrow.* We here give a translation of this prophecy :
[Inscription.] Oracle against Nineveh; book of the prophecy of Nahum, the
CAAP. I, 2–14. II, 1-14. [Jehovah takes vengeance on Nineveh on account of the oppression which the children of
Israel had suffered at her hands; she is given up to destruction ] 2. God is angry, and Jehovah taketh vengeance ;
Jehovah taketh vengeance, and is full of wrath ;
And he retaineth his anger against those who hate him. 3. Jehovah is long-suffering, yet great in power,
And he will by no means always pardon.
Jehovah his way is in the whirlwind, and in the storm, * The time in which this prophet flourished is a matter of doubt. There are some things in the prophecy itself which furnish room for conjecture. In his time it is clear that both the Israelitish and Jewish kingdoms had endured severe oppression at the hands of the Assyrians. According to chap. 2: 3, the splendor of both these kingdoms was on the wane. No-Ammon, or the Egyptian Thebais had been ravaged, and the Ethiopians and others who had brought succor to that territory had been carried captive by the conqueror. At what time these events occurred is not certain. The conjecture is not improbable that the Thebais was ravaged in the expedition undertaken against Egypt by Tartan, the geveral of Sargon, the Assyrian king, in the first part of the reign of Hezekiah. See Isaiali 20: 1. In the 14th year of Hezekiah, the Assyrian arıny wus miraculously destroyed, and Sennacherib was assassinated by bis sons. The remainder of Hezekiah's reigo was quiet. Probably this was the period in which Nahum prophesied. See Rosenmueller Comnieni. on Nahum, and Eichhorn's Einleitung.
There has been much controversy respecting the word No-Ammou of Nah. 3: 8. Jer. 46: 21 and Ezekiel. Mr. Wilkinson bas lately solved the difficulty, for he has proved it to be the Egyptian name for the Thebais. The Septuagint has, indeed, translated it by Diospolis, the ancient name of Thebes atnong the Greeks. In fact the mame Thebes, or Thebae, is supposed by Champollion to be the Egyptian word Tapé, the head or capital, in the Thelan dialect. The Hebrew name No-Animon, is purely Egyprian, and signifies the possession, or portion of the god Amon, by wh the same version once renders it uspis "Au pov, Nah. 3: 8.
Vol. IX. No. 25. 19
And the clouds are the dust of his feet.
And all the rivers he maketh dry;
And the glory of Lebanon languisheth.
And the hills melt,
The world, and all who inhabit it.
And his burning anger — who can abide ?
And the rocks are torn up before him.
A refuge is he in the day of trouble,
And he knoweth those who put their trust in him. 8. But with an overwhelming flood,
He will utterly destroy her dwelling-place, (Nineveh],
And darkness shall pursue his enemies.
He will make an utter end,
Calamity shall not rise up the second time. 10. Like thorns are they woven together,
And they are like those who have drunk deeply of wine ;
They shall be consumed as stubble fully dry.* 11. From thee (Nineveh) goes forth
He who devised evil against Jehovah,
Who meditated destruction.
I have afflicted thee (Judah], I will afflict thee no more.
And thy bands I will sunder. 14. But in respect to thee (the king of Assyria), Jehovah com
mandeth ; That no more of thy name be propagated ; † From the house of thy gods, I will cut off the carved and the
* The prophet here seems to give the reason why in the preceding verse he had said that they should be cut off. They have become so entangled, (as if fallen among thorns), and intoxicated to such a degree, that they will soon be consuined like dry stubble.
That there be town no more of thy' , לֹא־יִזָרַע מִשְׁמְךְ עוֹד +
I soon be consumed like dry stubble.
I will prepare thy grave, because thou art vile.
allen among thorns), and intoxicated to
are the dust of his feet. sea, and drieth it up, Ers he maketh dry; neth and Carmel,
Lebanon languisheth. uake before him, It, ed up at his presence, all who inhabit it. eation - who can stand ? anger — who can abide ? -ed out like fire, e torn up before him. the day of trouble, those who put their trust in him. helming flood, stroy her dwelling-place, (Ninereh), 1 pursue his enemies. Tians) devise against Jehovah? itter end, rise up the second time. ey woven together, Those who have drunk deeply of wine ; sumed as stubble fully dry.* ch) goes forth il against Jehovah, truction. : though they be powerful and though the ut off, and shall perish; (Judah), I will afflict thee no more. k his yoke from off thee, ! sunder. hee (the king of Assyria), Jehovah como name be propagated ; # y gods, I will cut off the carved and 'ms to give the reason why in the preced: they should be cut off.
II, 1. Behold on the mountains the feet of the messenger,
who proclainneth peace! Celebrate, O Judah, thy festivals, perform thy vows ! For there shall no more pass through thee, the waster;
He is wholly cut off.
Guard the fortress!
Increase greatly the force,
As the glory of Israel,
And destroyed their branches.
Clothed in scarlet are his warriors,
They run to and fro on the broad ways,
They run like the lightnings.
They stumble on their way,
The vinea is brought up,
And the palace is dissolved and made to flow down ;(
* Make every possible defence, yet it will all be in vain.
That is of the armies marching against Nineveh.
" Tanta est, inquit propheta, multitudo venientium, ut commixtum agmen sit in itinere, et discerni nequeat. Ipsae quoque quadrigue, dum viam non reperiunt, prae multitudine, inter se colliduntur in plateis." -Jerome.
Ś yaio part. from 720, covering, and hence shed, mantlet, vinea, used in besieging cities. Comp. the vinea and testudo of the Romans.
11 “ Apertae sunt portae Ninive, quae ad instar fluminum habebat civiuin multitudinem."-Jerome. Others suppose that the gates on the side of the Tigris are referred to; or that that river made a breach in the walls.
934m after the Chaldee form, from 23%, where the words may be
They have be
• That there be sown no more of thg