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669. 103. Bello ovile, etc. “ Beautiful fold
where, as a lamb, I slept.'
and “ The Meuse." 661. 255. Once ... twice ... thrice.
Turner painted three pictures commemo-
Canal. 662. 394. Chiaroscuro. Technically the dis
position of lights and shadows in a pic-
(Ruskin.) 663. 517. Whitby Hill . . . Bolton Brook. The (1732-1811), a dramatist whose sentimen
668. 408. Their bluest veins to kiss. Antony
and Cleopatra, II. v. 29. 669. 462. Of them that sell doves. Matthew,
TIME AND TIDE
Under this title appeared twenty-five letters written ostensibly to Thomas Dixon, of Sunderland, but in fact addressed to the workingmen of England who in 1867, the year the letters appeared, were agitating reform. In them Ruskin appears not as the critic of art, but as the sociologist.
THE RELATION OF ART TO MORALS
ruins of Whitby and Bolton Abbeys are
painter and engraver.
Arcola Napoleon gained his reputation as
671. A selection from the third of Ruskin's
Lectures on Art, delivered while he was Slade Professor at Oxford. The portion reprinted comprises paragraphs 71–81 of
the Lectures. 672. 122. My three years. As Slade Professor
of Art at Oxford. 673. 164. The contest of Apelles and Protogenes. The two men
were rivals, and attempted to outdo one another in drawing lines of remarkable fineness. 167. The circle of Giotto. Giotto (1 267?1337) sent as a sample of his work, and
proof of his powers, a perfect circle. 676. 382. Miranda Caliban. Characters
in Shakespeare's Tempest; Caliban is a creature more brute than man; Miranda is the most spotlessly pure of all Shakespeare's heroines.
STONES OF VENICE: ST. MARK's
tion of the interior of the building.
13; xv: 38, 39. (Ruskin.)
a large house.
The life of Goldsmith illustrates the
a man and a thinker. 676. 75. Glorious and Immortal Memory. The
memory of William III.
79. The banished dynasty. The Stuarts. 679. 386. The Dunciad. Pope's greatest sat
satirical portrait of Dryden.
(1739-1777), whose sentimental comedy False Delicacy was brought out with great success at Drury Lane six days before the first performance of The Good-Natured Man at Covent Garden; Richard Cumberland
their old friend among the gipsies; and he gave them an account of the necessity which drove him to that kind of life, and told them that the people he went with were not such impostors as they were taken for, but that they had a traditional kind of learning among them, and could do wonders by the power of imagination, their fancy binding that of others; that himself had learned much of their art, and when he had compassed the whole secret, he intended, he said, to leave their company, and give the world an account
of what he had learned." 690. 95. Lasher. Originally the turbulent wa
ter running through an opening in a
hall in Christ-Church College, Oxford. 692. 208. Averse, as Dido. Æneas, on his
journey through Hades, met the shade of
Iberia was the ancient name for the Spanish peninsula.
SOHRAB AND RUSTUM
The incident was taken by Arnold from
Persian history. 706. 861. Persepolis. Capital city of ancient
tal comedies Goldsmith ridiculed. 681. 601. Maupertuis. Pierre Louis de Mau
pertuis (1698-1759), a French astronomer, 683. 830. A little poem. The Retaliation. See
QUA CURSUM VENTUS The title means “ As the wind, so the course.”
ITE DOMUM SATURÆ 684. The title is taken from a line in the tenth
of Virgil's eclogues, where a goatherd is addressing his herd: “Go home, full-fed; evening comes." Clough makes the speaker a peasant girl, driving home her 2. Rose, Provence, La Palie. Names of the cows.
PHILOMELA 687. Philomela, daughter of Pandion, King of
Attica, was dishonored by her brother-inlaw, Tereus, King of Daulis, in Phocis, a country in northern Greece. Tereus cut out Philomela's tongue that she might not bear witness against him, but she made her secret known to her sister Procne, wife of Tereus, by words woven into a robe. Procne killed her son Itys, served him up as food to his father, and fled with Philomela. On being pursued by Tereus, the sisters prayed for deliverance, and were changed into birds by the gods, Philomela becoming a nightingale. Arnold has reversed the positions of
Philomela and Procne.
which only too clearly revealed the story
Persia, of which Jemshid, or Jamschid,
THE AUSTERITY OF POETRY
1. Son of Italy. Jacopone da Todi, an Italian poet of the thirteenth century.
In memory of Arnold's father, Dr.
The poem is based on the following pas-
LITERATURE AND SCIENCE
ten for his lecture trip of 1883-4. 711. 185. To know the best, etc. Quoted from
Arnold's essay The Function of Criticism
at the Present Time. 714. 511. The powers. The component parts.
540. The desire to relate these pieces of knowledge to our sense for conduct. We acquire knowledge, and then try to answer the questions, “What difference does it make? What bearing has it upon my life? How does this new fact fit into my own
schedule of facts and values?" 716. 630. Professor Sylvester. James Syl
vester (1814-1897), an English mathema
tician, who held chairs at Johns Hopkins
and Oxford Universities. 716. 636. Cambridge. The study of mathe
matics has long been an important part
a summing up of the whole book. 716. 741. A Sandemanian. A member of the
religious sect founded in Scotland by
Robert Sandeman, about 1725. 718. 952. A school report. Arnold was for
many years a government inspector of
schools. 719. 1005. Letters will call out, etc. In this
sentence Arnold sums up his entire argument.
IMPROVING NATURAL KNOWLEDGE
720. This essay was delivered as a lecture in
London, January 7, 1866, and is included in Volume I, Methods and Results, of Hux
ley's collected works. 721. 89. Laud. William Laud (1573-1645),
Archbishop of Canterbury. He was the head of the established English Church, and a violent enemy of the anti-Stuart parties, who accomplished his execution in 1645. The Earl of Rochester and Sir Charles Sedley were court wits and poets
in the time of Charles II. 722. 187. Principia. Sir Isaac Newton (1642
1727) published the Philosophia Naturalis
was writ in water.' 723. 266. Revenant. Ghost.
309. Boyle, ... Evelyn. Robert Boyle (1627-1691), an English chemist; and John
Evelyn (1620-1706), the diarist. 726. 653. Count Rumford. Benjamin Thomp
son (1753-1814), a scientist of international reputation.
731. 361. “ The world is all before it.” An
adaptation of Paradise Lost, xii: 646-7:
guide.” 375. The judgment-stricken king. Pentheus, in Euripides's Baccha, in his
madness sees two suns. 732. 446. St. Thomas. Thomas Aquinas
(1227?-1 274), canonized in 1323; one of
the greatest of the scholastic philosophers. 733. 524. Pompey's Pillar. A column erected
at Alexandria in honor of Diocletian. 734. 627 ff. τετράγωνος.
Nil admirari. To wonder at nothing. Felix qui, etc. Happy is he who has come to know the relationships of things, and has placed beneath his feet all fear, and inexorable ate, and th roar of greedy Acheron. Virgil's Georgics, ii.
Burman. Claude Saumaise (1588-1653)
reward for betraying Rome.
Like It, II. i. 16.
poor boy in the poem. “ Črabbe's Tales of the Hall. This poem, let me say, I read on its first publication, above thirty years ago, with extreme delight, and have never lost my love of it; and on taking it up lately, found I was
more touched by it than heretofore.” (Newman's note.)
APOLOGIA PRO VITA SUA
Early editions of the Apologia contained the correspondence between Newman and Charles Kingsley, author of Westward Ho! The correspondence as a whole, and Newman's summary which is here reprinted, had been given to the public by Newman before the Apologia was published; they were omitted from later editions of the Apologia.
THE IDEA OF A UNIVERSITY
THE BLESSED DAMOZEL
728. 33. On an occasion like this. The Dis
courses on University Subjects were delivered in 1852 before the Catholics of Dublin.
740. The pictorial quality of this poem is char
acteristic of the work of Rossetti, famous as painter as well as poet; his painting of
dream passed through a gate of horn; if false, through one of ivory.
746. 7. Below bridge. Navigation stopped at
London Bridge. 747. 15. Bills of lading. Chaucer was for a
time a clerk of the customs.
ATALANTA'S RACE 748. 63. Fleet-foot One. Ordinarily the epi
thet would indicate Hermes; in this con
nection it may mean Artemis. 760. 177. Saffron gown. Saffron was the
color used at marriages by the Greeks and Romans; cf. L'Allegro:
“ There let Hymen oft appear
In saffron robe, with taper clear." 184. Sea-born one. Venus. 761. 208. Adonis' bane. The wild boar. 762. 275. Three-formed goddess. Artemis,
or Diana, so called because she was wor-
282. Sea-born framer. See note on l. 184. 766. 516. Damascus. Astarte, the Phænician
goddess of love, was identified with Venus. 756. 535. Saturn's clime. Saturn ruled the
world before his place was usurped by Zeus, or Jupiter; Saturn's reign was identified with the golden age, a time of peace,
plenty, and happiness. 768. 663. Mighty Lord. Zeus.
664. Her. Venus.
the same name corresponds exactly to the poem.
741. Founded on the old superstition that a
woman deserted by her lover, could obtain the power of life and death over his body by making a waxen image of him, and laying it in the heat of the fire; as the wax melted the man's life ebbed away. There are three speakers,-the wronged woman, her small brother, who does not understand what is going on, and a spectator, whose comments, slightly varied from verse to verse, keep pace with the progress of the story.
THE HOUSE OF LIFE
746. The name given by Rossetti to a sequence
of one hundred and one sonnets; this and Mrs. Browning's Sonnets from the Portuguese are generally conceded to be the finest collections of sonnets since Shakespeare's.
Similar sonnets on the sonnet-form are
“ the fat weed
Hamlet, I. v. 32-33. 14. Charon's palm. Charon ferried the souls of the dead over the river Styx to Hades; a piece of money was buried with the body to serve as fee for the passage.
MORRIS THE EARTHLY PARADISE: AN APOLOGY 746. The Earthly Paradise is a collection of
twenty-four tales in verse, commonly considered the best body of narrative verse that has been given to English poetry since Chaucer's time. In the Prologue Morris tells how
“ certain gentlemen and mariners of Norway, having considered all that they had heard of the Earthly Paradise, set sail to find it, and after many troubles and the lapse of many years came old men to some Western land, of which they had never before heard"; the inhabitants of this land are of Greek descent. For the entertainment of the wanderers, the dwellers in the western land give semi-monthly feasts, at each of which a story is told. The duty of telling a story alternates between the two peoples; half the tales are, accordingly, from the Greek mythology, half of Scandinavian or Romance origin. 25. The ivory gate. The house of Morpheus, god of sleep, had two gates, through which dreams issued: if true, the
STYLE 760. 22. Efforts to limit art a priori. By argu
ment from hypotheses concerning ma-
lads. 761. 96. Dichotomy. A division into two
Romans, was a historian. 762. 253. At this point Pater notes: Mr.
Saintsbury, in his Specimens of English Prose, from Malory to Macaulay, has succeeded in tracing, through successive English prose-writers, the tradition of that severer beauty in them, of which this admirable scholar of our literature is known to be a lover. English Prose, from Mandeville to Thackeray more recently chosen and edited' by a younger scholar, Mr. Arthur Galton, of New College, Oxford, a lover of our literature at once enthusiastic and discreet, aims at a
more various illustration of the eloquent powers of English prose, and is
a delightful companion. 763. 338. Le cuistre. The academic pedant.
358. Well! Pater is fond of this inter-
valuable. 764. 417. “ Its " which ought to have been in
Shakespeare. Shakespeare uses ' his,”
The Greek word from which the English ascetic and asceticism
are derived. 766. 540. Michelangelo. For a discussion of
one phase of the work of this great Italian
to his death. 767. 769. Swedenborg. Emanuel Swedenborg
(1688-1772), founder of the New Church, or Swedenborgians. The Tracts for the
briand (1768-1848) and Victor Hugo (1802-1885) were both significant in the
development of French romanticism. 773. 173. Reynolds or Gainsborough. The
two greatest English portrait painters:
Lamb. 775. 411. A selection of language really used
Times were written and published by John Henry Newman and his associates in the so-called “ Oxford Movement,' during the years 1833-1841. The last of the tracts, No. 90, was condemned by
the University because of its Romanism. 768. 952. Blake's rapturous design. One of
the illustrations made by Blake for Blair's Grave represents “ Soul and Body
Reunited.” 769. 1057. Buffon. Le Comte de Buffon
(1707-1788), a famous French naturalist.
by men. See the Preface to the Lyrical
Ballads, p. 389.
novel, La Petite Fadette, is known in
Johannes Meinhold (1797-1851) was a little-known novelist whom Pater considered significant in the
history of German romanticism. 777. 588. Anima mundi. Soul of the universe. 778. 703. The Ode . . . had its anticipator.
See Henry Vaughan's The Retreat, p. 123. 779. 747. Grandet, Javert. Characters in
Balzac's Eugenie Grandet and Victor
772. 36. Most serious critical efforts. See the
selections from the Preface to the Lyrical
tion of the Reign of Terror.
learning, of the mystery.
ing that a ship was about to sail.
The third emperor of
position of a sail is controlled. If it be
* We are such stuff
Is rounded with a sleep." 783. 303. As the French say. A cul-de-sac.