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my condition overwhelmed me. like passing from life into eternity. Every year to be as long as three, i. e., to have three times as much real time-time that is my own, in it! I wandered about thinking I was happy, but feeling I was not. But that tumultuousness is passing off, and I begin to understand the nature of the gift. Holidays, even the annual month, were always uneasy joys; their conscious fugitiveness; the craving after making the most of them. Now, when all is holiday, there are no holidays. I can sit at home, in rain or shine, without a restless impulse for walkings. I am daily steadying, and shall soon find it as natural to me to be my own master, as it has been irksome to have had a master. I eat, drink, and sleep sound as ever. I lay no anxious schemes for going hither and thither, but take things as they occur. Yesterday I excursioned twenty miles; to-day I write a few letters. Pleasuring was for fugitive playdays; mine are . fugitive only in the sense that life is fugitive. Freedom and life coexistent!”


THE FIGHT 533. 24. The Fancy. Sportsmen, especially

78. Alter idem. A second self.
89. Lines from Spenser. From Muio-

polmos, I. 209 f. 634. 104. One of the mails. One of the mail

180. The Brentford Jehu. See 2 Kings,
ix: 20: “The driving is like the driving
of Jehu the son of Nimshi; for he driveth

636. 268. Follows so the ever-running sun.

Follows so the ever-running year, With profitable labor.” Henry V, IV. i.

528. 312. Villatic. Of the village; the quota

tion is from Samson Agonistes.
378. Intenerating and dulcifying. Making
tender and sweet. The use of such long,
highsounding words of Latin derivation,
with reference to a subject so common-
place, has much to do with the flavor of the
387. St. Omer's. A French Jesuit col-
lege, where, of course, Lamb never at-

tended school.
629. 404. Shalot. A kind of onion.

THE SUPERANNUATED MAN One of the most autobiographically exact of Lamb's essays.

Lamb was a clerk in the service of the East India Company for thirty-three years, resigning his post in March, 1825, on a pension of twothirds his regular salary, Sera tamen, etc. Quoted from Virgil's first eclogue: Liberty, though late, yet looked

upon, or visited, me. 630. 162. Boldero . . . Lacy. Fictitious

names under which Lamb conceals the directors of the East India Company.

164. Esto perpetua. Be thou eternal. 631. 241. A Tragedy by Sir Robert Howard.

The Vestal Virgin, or the Roman Ladies;
Howard was brother-in-law of Dryden,
and did some dramatic work in collabora-
tion with him.
286. Gresham. Sir Thomas Gresham
(d. 1579), a wealthy London merchant
who founded the Royal Exchange and
became Lord Mayor. Whittington. Sir
Richard, better known as Dick, Whitting-
ton, whose rise from poverty to the Lord
Mayorship is familiar from nursery
298. Aquinas. St. Thomas Aquinas,
Italian philosopher of the thirteenth
century; his writings filled seventeen

632. 310. Carthusian. The Carthusian order

of monks was founded by St. Bruno
C. 1084, at La Grande Chartreuse (Latin
Carthusia); the Carthusian rule was strict.
333. Elgin marbles. Parts of the pedi-
ments and frieze of the Parthenon,
brought to England by Lord Elgin and
placed in the British Museum.
361. Cantle. Slice.
392. Cum dignitate. From Cicero's
phrase, otium cum dignitate-ease with
397. Opus operatum est. The work has
been done.
On the sixth of April, 1825, Lamb wrote
to his friend Wordsworth, “ Here I am
then, after thirty-three years' slavery,
sitting in my own room at eleven o'clock
this finest of all April mornings, a freed
man, with 441£ a year for the remainder
of my life.
I came home FOREVER on Tuesday in
last week. The incomprehensibleness of

636. 348. The vein of Gilpin. See Cowper's

John Gilpin's Ride.
359. Frank us. Send us down on a pass.
388. A lusty man. Canterbury Tales,
Prologue, l. 167; P. 3.
405. Štanding like gray-hounds.
“I see you stand like gray-hounds in the

Straining upon the start.” Henry V,
411. Oaken towel. Staff or club.
415. A firebrand like Bardolph's. Bar-
dolph is one of the characters in Henry IV
whom Falstaff is forever twitting about
his red nose; e. g.: “O thou art a per-
petual triumph, an everlasting bonfire-
light. Thou hast saved me a thousand
marks in links and torches, walking in
the night betwixt tavern and tavern."
(III. iii.)

III. i. 31.

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637. 437. Hogarth. See note on The Praise of

Chimney Sweepers, p. 523, 1. 181.
443. Cobbett.

William Cobbett (1766-
1835), an English radical journalist, editor
of Cobbelt's Weekly Political Register,
whose attacks on the government resulted
from time to time in his being imprisoned
and fined.
520. Alas! the Bristol man, etc. See
Cowper's The Task, II. 322:

“Alas, Leviathan is not so tamed." 638. 551. The Game Chicken. The nom de

guerre of Henry Pearce, a well-known
.English pugilist.
585. Stone.

An English weight, legally fourteen pounds. 640. 826. Sir Fopling Flutter. A fashionable

fop in Etherege's comedy, The Man of

Mode, or Sir Fopling Flutler. 541. 889. Procul este profani. Æneid, VI.

258. Stay far off, unholy ones.
906. New Eloise. La Nouvelle Héloïse,
by Rousseau; a sentimental romance
published in 1760.

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ON GOING A JOURNEY 642. 30. May plume her feathers, etc. Comus,

378 ff.
36. A Tilbury. A two wheeled gig without

a cover. 643. 97. Sterne. The Rev. Laurence Sterne

(1713-1768), author of A Sentimental

Journey and Tristram Shandy. 644. 170. All-Foxden. Near Nether-Stowey,

Somersetshire, where Hazlitt visited his
“old friend C (Samuel Taylor Cole-
ridge) in 1798. “L--" 1. 204, is
Charles Lamb, a friend of both Hazlitt
and Coleridge.
176. Here be woods as green, etc.
Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess, I. iii.
238. Sancho. Sancho Panza, Don
Quixote's esquire and servant in Cer-
vantes' burlesque romance Don Quixote.
244. Procul este profani. See The Fight,

note on I. 889. 645. 312. Gribelin's engravings. Simon Gri

belin (1661-1733), an engraver of some
ability, published in 1707 seven plates
of the cartoons of Raphael.
325. Paul and Virginia, Camilla.
The former a pastoral novel by Bernadin
de St. Pierre, published 1788; the latter,
a novel by Madame D'Arblay (Fanny
Burney), published 1796, much inferior
to her masterpiece Evelina.
331. New Eloise.

See The Fight, note on l. 906. 646. 381. Where is he now? In 1822, when

this essay was first published, Coleridge's creative power was in eclipse, and his whole constitution broken by ill health

and the use of laudanum. 647. 472. Stonehenge. A prehistoric monu

DE QUINCEY CONFESSIONS OF AN OPIUM-EATER The text here used is the briefer and better known version which appeared in the London Magazine in 1821, and was reprinted in the first edition of 1822; an expanded version was published in Sela.

tions Grave and Gay, 1856. 552. 108. Archididascalus. Head master. 663. 180. I came to leave —— The Man

chester Grammar School.
216. Towers of

Manchester Cathedral. 664. 293. Lustrum. Period of five years. 315. νυχθήμερον. .

ment in the shape of a roughly circular group of huge monoliths, on Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire.

A day of twenty-
four hours.
320. That moveth altogether, etc. From
Wordsworth's Resolution and Independ-

ence, l. 77.
666. 414. Anastasius. A novel,

1819, the hero of which was an opium-
eating Greek.
416. Mithridates. The title of a dic-
tionary of all languages, published by
Johann Christoph Adelung in 1806.
Mithridates was renowned as a linguist;

hence the title.
667. 582. The Scriptures speak of. Retela-

tion, xx: 12.
668. 646. A certain day in August. The Civil

War may be said to have begun when
Charles I raised the royal standard at
Nottingham, August 22, 1642.

published she became priestess. Compare with Landor's treatment, stanzas 26-29 of Tennyson's Dream of Fair Women.

563. 649. Marston Moor, Newbury,

Naseby. Battlefields of the war.
661. Paludaments. Robes.
662. Paulus or Marius. Both Roman
664. Tunic ... on a spear.

thus as a signal for battle.
665. Alalagmos. A word expressing
collectively the gathering of the Roman
war-cries-Alála, Alala.” (De Quincey.)
729. Officina gentium. Workshop, or

laboratory of the peoples. 669. 764–7. Brahma . . . Osiris, etc. The

first three Hindu deities, the last two Egyptian.



663. 159.

661. De Quincey planned a series of approximately twenty papers,

Sighs from the Depths,” of which that here reprinted is one of the earliest. The series was never completed, only six being published. De Quincey had himself experienced the sorrows he writes of,—the death of father and sisters, social ostracism, and a subjection to opium which might easily have

driven him mad.
562. 79. On the foundation. Holding

98. The Parcæ. The Fates.

Telegraphed. DeQuincey
simply "signalled," or communicated
by signs.”
195. Keys more than papal. The“ papal
keys are the keys of St. Peter, symbolic

of the Pope's power.
664. 257. Pariah. An outcast.

294. The tents of Shem. Shem, son of
Noah, was supposed to be the ancestor of
the Jews and wandering races.
307. Cybele. See note on Childe Harold,
iv., l. 10.
339. Eumenides. The “benevolent





570. Enone was a nymph of Mt. Ida near

Troy, beloved by Paris, but deserted by him after Venus, as a reward for his decision that she was most beautiful of the goddesses, had promised him the fairest

woman in the world, Helen, for his wife. 671. 39, 40. As yonder walls, etc. According

to one form of the story Apollo raised the
walls of Troy by playing on his lyre.
79. Peleus. It was at the marriage feast
of Peleus and Thetis that the golden
apple was thrown which caused the strife
among the goddesses.

81. Iris. Messenger of the gods.
672. 102. Peacock. Juno's bird.

170, 171. Idalian, Paphian. At Idalia and Paphos, in Crete, were special

shrines to Venus. 673. 220. The Abominable. Eris, goddess of

strife. 674. 257. The Greek woman. Helen. 259. Cassandra.

Daughter of Priam, gifted with a power of prophecy, but doomed never to be believed. She foretold the fall of Troy.

gracious ones," a euphemistic name for

the Furies. 666. 380. Accomplished. Made perfect.

THE LOTOS-EATERS Based on Homer's account of how Ulysses and his mariners touched at the land of the lotos, the eating of whose flower produced forgetfulness of home.



THE DEATH OF ARTEMIDORA 666. 11. Iris. Messenger of the gods, who

liberated the souls of the dying by loosening their hair.

676. 5. Dan. Don, Master, from Latin

27. Tortoise.

Latin testudo; the name applied to the mode of defence used by the Roman legionaries in attacking a walled city, the holding and interlocking of their shields over their heads to form a solid protection against missiles hurled

from the walls.
676. 85. A lady. Helen of Troy.

100. One that stood beside. Iphigeneia,
daughter of Agamemnon, sacrificed to
Artemis before the Greek fleet sailed for
Troy. Cf. Landor's poem, p. 567.

127. A queen. Cleopatra. 677. 146. Canopus. One of the brightest stars

of the southern sky.

155. The other. Octavius Cæsar.
678. 195. Her that died. Jephtha's daughter;

cf. Judges, xi.
251. Rosamond. Rosa mond Clifford,
called Fair Rosamond, paramour of
Henry II.

255. Eleanor. Wife of Henry II. 679.259. To Fulvia's waist. “ Cleopatra puts

the name of the wife of her para mour


567. Because Agamemnon had slain a stag

sacred to Diana, the goddess held the Grecian fleet, gathered for the Trojan war, in port at Aulis. Calchas, the soothsayer, reported that according to the oracle the goddess's wrath would endure until Iphigeneia, daughter of Agamemnon, should be sacrificed to her. According to one form of the story, Diana did not allow the sacrifice to be consummated, but carried Iphigeneia to Tauris, where

Antony for that of Eleanor, wife of Rosa

mond's paramour.” (Rolfe.) 679. 263. Captain of my dreams. Venus, the

morning star.
266. Her who clasped. Margaret Roper,
daughter of Sir Thomas More; after he
was beheaded she took his head down from
London Bridge where it was exposed, and
when she died had it buried in her arms.
269. Her who knew. Eleanor, wife of
Edward I, who accompanied her husband
on the First Crusade, and when he was
stabbed with a poisoned dagger, sucked
out the poison with her lips.

moon, not eyes, as has sometimes been

suggested. 591. 1. Wild bird. The nightingale, whose song

has always been celebrated for passionate
mingling of joy and pain.
2. Quicks. Quickset; slips, especially of
hawthorn, set to form a hedge.


694. Written to commemorate a fatal charge

at Balaclava in the Crimean War, 1854; the poem was based on a phrase in the London Times's account of the battle: “Some one had blundered.”

NORTHERN FARMER Written in the Lincolnshire dialect. “It is a vivid piece out of the great comedy of man, not of its mere mirth, but of that elemental humorousness of things which belongs to the lives of the brutes as well as to ourselves, that steady quaintness of the ancient earth and all who are born of her . . . continually met in the peasant and farmer class." (Stopford Brooke: Tennyson, His Art and Relation to Modern Life).

MORTE D'ARTHUR Written in 1835, first published in 1842; afterwards incorporated, with additions, in The Passing of Arthur in Idylls of the King. Cf. Malory's account, pp. 47.ff. 4. Lyonnesse. A legendary country, including part of Cornwall, now supposed

to be submerged beneath the sea. 680. 21. Camelot. Arthur's capital.

23. Merlin. Arthur's magician and chief
31. Samite. A heavy silk, sometimes inter-

woven with gold thread. 581. 139. Northern morn. Aurora Borealis.

140. Moving isles. Icebergs.
147. Cf. the metrical effect of this line

with that of l. 65 and l. 112. 682. 186–192. The contrast between the first

five lines of this passage and the last two is one of the best examples in English verse of the fitting of sound to sense; for

a similar effect cf. ll. 49-51. 683. 242. One good custom should corrupt the

world. “ E. g., chivalry, by formation of
habit or by any other means. (Tenny-
son's note.)
259. Avilion. See Malory, p. 48.


697. Tennyson found the story in Raleigh's

spirited account; see p. 103.


599. Based on an incident read by Tennyson

in a magazine. For significance of title

see 2 Samuel, xxi. 600. 73. Election and Reprobation. Calvinis

tic doctrines; all men were supposed to be damned for original sin, except a chosen few whom God elected for salvation.


ULYSSES “ The poem was written soon after Arthur Hallam's death, and it gives the feeling about the need of going forward and braving the struggle of life perhaps more simply than anything in In Memoriam." (Tennyson's note.) 10. Rainy Hyades. The constellation Hyades was associated by the ancients

with stormy weather. 684. 26. Every hour is saved. Every hour

that is saved is something more.

601. An allegory of Tennyson's literary life.

For commentary see the preface to the present Lord Tennyson's Memoir of his father.

CROSSING THE BAR 603. Tennyson directed that this poem should

be placed at the end of all collected editions of his works.


590. Composed in memory of Arthur Henry

Hallam, whose acquaintance Tennyson made at Cambridge, and who was later engaged to Tennyson's sister. He died at Vienna in 1833, and the lyrics composing the poem were written at various times between then and 1850, the date of their final arrangement and publication. 5. Orbs of light and shade. Sun and

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Cavaliers, whose long curls fell upon their shoulders. • Roundheads," the name frequently applied to the Puritans, has the same implication. Parliament. The Long Parliament, controlled by the

Puritan party. 603. 7. Pym. One of the Puritan leaders in

the Long Parliament, as were Hampden,
Hazelrig, Fiennes, and Sir Henry Vane
the Younger (1l. 13-14).
15. Rupert. Prince Rupert, nephew of
Charles I, and leader of the Royalist
22. Nottingham. Where Charles raised
his standard at the opening of the Civil
War in 1642.

MEMORABILIA 616. The speaker, in contrast with the person

he addresses, is so intense an admirer of Shelley that it seems to him that if he could once have seen and spoken with the poet the meeting would have dwarfed in importance all the other events of his life. Browning in his youth admired Shelley greatly.



604. Suggested by Wordsworth's change from

Liberalism to Conservatism in politics, though Browning expressly denied that he was in any way attempting a portrait of Wordsworth.

HOW THEY BROUGHT THE GOOD NEWS 606. Browning wrote: “ There is no sort of

historical foundation about 'Good News from Ghent. I wrote it under the bulwark of a vessel off the African coast, after I had been at sea long enough to appreciate even the fancy of a gallop on the back of a certain good horse' York,' then in my stable at home.”


606. Companion piece to Meeting at Night;

the speaker is, in each case, a man.
3. Him. The sun.
4. Need of a world of men for me. This
may mean either the need I have for the
world, or, the need the world has for me,
my duty in society.

The dramatic monologue, Browning's favorite poetic form, and one which he uses with the utmost skill, presents some difficulty to the reader on account of its directness and compression. It differs from the soliloquy, e. g., of Shakespeare, in that the presence of a second person, a listener, is to be inferred; oftentimes the speaker responds to a question or gesture, implied only in the answer, on the part of this silent listener. Cf. My Last Duchess, II. 53-54. It is a good plan for the student to read the poem through once or twice in an effort to get the situation and some conception of the speaker's character before trying to discover the meaning of each line.

The poem may then be studied in detail; it should be noted that no break in the thought, no interjection, is without its significance.

The speaker is Duke of Ferrara, one of the oldest and proudest of the Italian communes. There could be no greater contrast in character than that between the Duke-of impeccable manners and exquisite artistic taste, but selfish to the core and absolutely heartless-and the young, Duchess-naïve, filled with the joy of life, whose graciousness springs from a heart pure and generous. 3. Frà. Brother. Pandolf, an imaginary character, is a monk, like so many of the

painters of the Italian Renaissance. 616. 9. Since none puts by, etc.

thesis gives a hint of the Duke's esteem
for the picture: he values it not at all as
a reminder of his Duchess, but simply as
a work of art, and as such, is careful to
protect it from possible harm.
45, 6. I gave commands; Then all smiles
stopped together. Generally interpreted
to mean that the Duke gave orders for
the lady's death. In reply to a question
by Corson, Browning himself said, “ Yes,
I meant that the commands were that
she be put to death,” adding after a
pause, “ Or he might have had her shut
up in a convent.”
53, 4. Nay, we'll go Together down, sir.
The envoy, in deference to the Duke's
birth, has dropped back, but the Duke,
with perfect condescension, calls him
forward to a position of equality.
56. Claus of Innsbruck. Another imag-
inary artist.

The paren

SOLILOQUY OF THE SPANISH CLOISTER 606. 39. Arian. The Arian heresy held that

Christ was created by God, and was

inferior to God in nature and dignity. 607. 56. Manichee. Manicheans were a sect

in the early Christian centuries who combined Persian and Christian beliefs.

HOME-THOUGHTS, FROM THE SEA The speaker is on shipboard, off the northwest coast of Africa. 1. Cape St. Vincent. On the southwest coast of Spain, where Nelson defeated a Spanish fleet in 1797. 3. Trafalgar.

The scene of Nelson's victory in 1805. 5. Say. Imperative; “ let him say.”


For the situation see i Samuel, xvi: 14-23.

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