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628. 312. Villatic. Of the village; the quota my condition overwhelmed me. It was tion is from Samson Agonistes.

like passing from life into eternity. Every 378. Intenerating and dulcifying. Making year to be as long as three, i. e., to have tender and sweet. The use of such long, three times as much real time-time that highsounding words of Latin derivation, is my own, in it! I wandered about with reference to a subject so common

thinking I was happy, but feeling I was place, has much to do with the flavor of the not. But that tumultuousness is passing essay.

off, and I begin to understand the nature 387. St. Omer's. A French Jesuit col of the gift. Holidays, even the annual lege, where, of course, Lamb never at month, were always uneasy joys; their tended school.

conscious fugitiveness; the craving after 529. 404. Shalot. A kind of onion.

making the most of them. Now, when

all is holiday, there are no holidays. I THE SUPERANNUATED MAN

can sit at home, in rain or shine, without

a restless impulse for walkings. I am One of the most autobiographically exact

daily steadying, and shall soon find it of Lamb's essays. Lamb was a clerk in

as natural to me to be my own master, the service of the East India Company

as it has been irksome to have had a for thirty-three years, resigning his post master. ... in March, 1825, on a pension of two “I eat, drink, and sleep sound as ever. thirds his regular salary.

I lay no anxious schemes for going hither Sera tamen, etc. Quoted from Virgil's first

and thither, but take things as they occur. eclogue: Liberty, though late, yet looked

Yesterday I excursioned twenty miles; upon, or visited, me.

to-day I write a few letters. Pleasuring 630. 162. Boldero ... Lacy. Fictitious

was for fugitive playdays; mine are names under which Lamb conceals the

, fugitive only in the sense that life is fugidirectors of the East India Company.

tive. Freedom and life coexistent!”
164. Esto perpetua. Be thou eternal.
631. 241. A Tragedy by Sir Robert Howard.
The Vestal Virgin, or the Roman Ladies;

Howard was brother-in-law of Dryden,
and did some dramatic work in collabora-

tion with him.
286. Gresham. Sir Thomas Gresham | 633. 24. The Fancy. Sportsmen, especially
(d. 1579), a wealthy London merchant

prize-fighters. who founded the Royal Exchange and 28. Alter idem. A second self. became Lord Mayor. Whittington. Sir 89. Lines from Spenser. From MuioRichard, better known as Dick, Whitting

polmos, I. 209 ff. ton, whose rise from poverty to the Lord 104. One of the mails. One of the mail Mayorship is familiar from nursery

coaches. rhymes.

180. The Brentford Jehu. See 2 Kings, 298. Aquinas. St. Thomas Aquinas, ix: 20: “ The driving is like the driving Italian philosopher of the thirteenth of Jehu the son of Nimshi; for he driveth century; his writings filled seventeen


635. 268. Follows so the ever-running sun. 632. 310. Carthusian. The Carthusian order

“ Follows so the ever-running year, of monks was founded by St. Bruno With profitable labor." Henry V, IV. i. c. 1084, at La Grande Chartreuse (Latin

293. Carthusia); the Carthusian rule was strict. 348. The vein of Gilpin. See Cowper's 333. Elgin marbles. Parts of the pedi John Gilpin's Ride. ments and frieze of the Parthenon, 359. Frank us. Send us down on a pass. brought to England by Lord Elgin and 388. A lusty man. Canterbury Tales, placed in the British Museum.

Prologue, I. 167; p. 3. 361. Cantle. Slice.

405. Standing like gray-hounds. 392. Cum dignitate. From Cicero's “ I see you stand like gray-hounds in the phrase, otium cum dignitate-ease with

slips, dignity.

Straining upon the start." Henry V, 397. Opus operatum est. The work has

III. i. 31. been done.

411. Oaken towel. Staff or club. On the sixth of April, 1825, Lamb wrote 415. A firebrand like Bardolph's. Barto his friend Wordsworth, “Here I am

dolph is one of the characters in Henry IV then, after thirty-three years' slavery, whom Falstaff is forever twitting about sitting in my own room at eleven o'clock his red nose; e. g.: “O thou art a perthis finest of all April mornings, a freed petual triumph, an everlasting bonfireman, with 441£ a year for the remainder light. Thou hast saved me a thousand of my life. ..

marks in links and torches, walking in I came home FOREVER on Tuesday in

the night betwixt tavern and tavern.' last week. The incomprehensibleness of (III. iii.)



V. v.

637. 437. Hogarth. See note on The Praise of 547. 490. The Bodleian. The University Chimney Sweepers, p. 523, 1. 181.

library at Oxford.
443. Cobbett. William Cobbett (1766-
1835), an English radical journalist, editor

of Cobbett's Weekly Political Register,
whose attacks on the government resulted

teri 549. 112. Cum grano salis. With a grain of from time to time in his being imprisoned

salt. and fined.

176. Mr. Cobbett. See note on The 520. Alas! the Bristol man, etc. See

Fight, l. 443. Cowper's The Task, II. 322:

247. A weli of native English undefiled. "Alas, Leviathan is not so tamed.”

Adapted from Spenser's “ Dan Chaucer, 538. 551. The Game Chicken. The nom de

well of English undefyled,” Faerie Queene, guerre of Henry Pearce, a well-known

IV. ii. 32.
English pugilist.

251. Erasmus's Colloquies. The Col585. Stone. An English weight, legally

loquia of Erasmus (1466-1536), appeared fourteen pounds.

in 1519. 640. 826. Sir Fopling Flutter. A fashionable

261. What do you read? etc. See Hamfop in Etherege's comedy, The Man of

let, II. ii. Mode, or Sir Fopling Flutler.

272. Florilegium. Anthology; here rather 641. 889. Procul este profani. Æneid, VI.

a collection of big words. Tulippomania. 258. Stay far off, unholy ones.

Craze for tulips. 906. New Eloise. La Nouvelle Héloïse,

289. Sermo humi obrepens. Talk that

creeps on the ground. by Rousseau; a sentimental romance published in 1760.

561. 314. Fantoccini beings. Puppets.

315. That strut and fret, etc. Macbetk, ON GOING A JOURNEY

320. And on their pens, etc. Adapted 642. 30. May plume her feathers, etc. Comus, from Paradise Lost, IV. 988-9: 378 ff.

“And on his crest 36. A Tilbury. A two wheeled gig without

Sat Horror plumed.” a cover.

395. Cowper's description. The Task, 543

97. Sterne. The Rev. Laurence Sterne V. 173 ff. (1713-1768), author of A Sentimental

Journey and Tristram Shandy. 644. 170. All-Foxden. Near Nether-Stowey,

DE QUINCEY Somersetshire, where Hazlitt visited his “old friend C- " (Samuel Taylor Cole

CONFESSIONS OF AN OPIUM-EATER ridge) in 1798. “L--," 1. 204, is The text here used is the briefer and Charles Lamb, a friend of both Hazlitt better known version which appeared in and Coleridge.

the London Magazine in 1821, and was 176. Here be woods as green, etc. reprinted in the first edition of 1822; an Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess, I. iii.

expanded version was published in Sela238. Sancho. Sancho Panza, Don tions Grave and Gay, 1856. Quixote's esquire and servant in Cer- 652. 108. Archididascalus. Head master. vantes' burlesque romance Don Quixote. 663. 18o. I came to leave - The Man244. Procul este profani. See The Fight, chester Grammar School. note on I. 889.

216. Towers of -- Manchester 646. 312. Gribelin's engravings. Simon Gri Cathedral.

belin (1661-1733), an engraver of some 664. 293. Lustrum. Period of five years. ability, published in 1707 seven plates 315. vxohuepov. A day of twentyof the cartoons of Raphael.

four hours. 325. Paul and Virginia, ... Camilla. 320. That moveth altogether, etc. From The former a pastoral novel by Bernadin Wordsworth's Resolution and Independde St. Pierre, published 1788; the latter, ence, l. 77. a novel by Madame D'Arblay (Fanny | 666. 414. Anastasius. A novel, published Burney), published 1796, much inferior 1819, the hero of which was an opiumto her masterpiece Evelina.

eating Greek. 331. New Eloise. See The Fight, note 416. Mithridates. The title of a dicon l. 906.

tionary of all languages, published by 646. 381. Where is he now? In 1822, when Johann Christoph Adelung in 1806.

this essay was first published, Coleridge's Mithridates was renowned as a linguist; creative power was in eclipse, and his hence the title. whole constitution broken by ill health 667. 582. The Scriptures speak of. Revelaand the use of laudanum.

tion, xx: 12. 647. 472. Stonehenge. A prehistoric monu- | 668. 646. A certain day in August. The Civil

ment in the shape of a roughly circular War may be said to have begun when group of huge monoliths, on Salisbury Charles I raised the royal standard at Plain, Wiltshire.

Nottingham, August 22, 1642.


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663. 649. Marston Moor, -- Newbury, - | she became priestess. Compare with LanNaseby. Battlefields of the war.

dor's treatment, stanzas 26-29 of Tenny661. Paludaments. Robes.

son's Dream of Fair Women. 662. Paulus or Marius. Both Roman Consuls.

TENNYSON 664. Tunic ... on a spear. Carried thus as a signal for battle.

ENONE 665. Alalagmos. “A word expressing collectively the gathering of the Roman

670. Enone was a nymph of Mt. Ida near war-cries--Alála, Alala." (De Quincey.)

Troy, beloved by Paris, but deserted by 729. Officina gentium. Workshop, or

him after Venus, as a reward for his decilaboratory of the peoples.

sion that she was most beautiful of the 669. 764-7. Brahma . .. Osiris, etc. The

goddesses, had promised him the fairest first three Hindu deities, the last two

woman in the world, Helen, for his wife. Egyptian.

671. 39, 40. As yonder walls, etc. According

to one form of the story Apollo raised the

walls of Troy by playing on his lyre. SUSPIRIA DE PROFUNDIS

79. Peleus. It was at the marriage feast 661. DeQuincey planned a series of approxi

of Peleus and Thetis that the golden mately twenty papers,“ Sighs from the apple was thrown which caused the strife Depths," of which that here reprinted is among the goddesses. one of the earliest. The series was never 81. Iris. Messenger of the gods. completed, only six being published. 672. 102. Peacock. Juno's bird. DeQuincey had himself experienced the 170, 171. Idalian, Paphian. At Idalia sorrows he writes of,—the death of father and Paphos, in Crete, were special and sisters, social ostracism, and a subjec

shrines to Venus. tion to opium which might easily have 673 220. The Abominable. Eris, goddess of

driven him mad. 562. 79. On the foundation. Holding a 257. The Greek woman. Helen. scholarship.

259. Cassandra. Daughter of Priam, 98. The Parcæ. The Fates.

gifted with a power of prophecy, but 159. Telegraphed. De Quincey means doomed never to be believed." She foresimply "signalled,” or “ communicated told the fall of Troy. by signs." 195. Keys more than papal. The“ papal

THE LOTOS-EATERS keys ” are the keys of St. Peter, symbolic

Based on Homer's account of how Ulysses of the Pope's power. 564. 257. Pariah. An outcast.

and his mariners touched at the land of 294. The tents of Shem. Shem, son of

the lotos, the eating of whose flower proNoah, was supposed to be the ancestor of

duced forgetfulness of home. the Jews and wandering races. 307. Cybele. See note on Childe Harold,


576. 5. Dan. Don, Master, from Latin 339. Eumenides. The “ benevolent” or dominus. “gracious ones," a euphemistic name for 27. Tortoise. Latin testudo; the name the Furies.

applied to the mode of defence used by 666. 380. Accomplished. Made perfect.

the Roman legionaries in attacking a

walled city, the holding and interlocking LANDOR

of their shields over their heads to form a

solid protection against missiles hurled THE DEATH OF ARTEMIDORA

from the walls. 666. 11. Iris. Messenger of the gods, who

676. 85. A lady. Helen of Troy. liberated the souls of the dying by loosen

100. One that stood beside. Iphigeneia,

daughter of Agamemnon, sacrificed to ing their hair.

Artemis before the Greek fleet sailed for

Troy. Cf. Landor's poem, p. 567.

127. A queen. Cleopatra. 667. Because Agamemnon had slain a stag | | 677. 146. Canopus. One of the brightest stars

sacred to Diana, the goddess held the of the southern sky. Grecian fleet, gathered for the Trojan

155. The other. Octavius Cæsar. war, in port at Aulis. Calchas, the sooth 678. 195. Her that died. Jephtha's daughter; sayer, reported that according to the cf. Judges, xi. oracle the goddess's wrath would endure 251. Rosamond. Rosa mond Clifford, until Iphigeneia, daughter of Agamemnon, called Fair Rosamond, paramour of should be sacrificed to her. According Henry II. to one form of the story, Diana did not 255. Eleanor. Wife of Henry II. allow the sacrifice to be consummated, 679. 259. To Fulvia's waist. “ Cleopatra puts but carried Iphigeneia to Tauris, where the name of the wife of her paramour

Antony for that of Eleanor, wife of Rosa

mond's paramour.” (Rolfe.)
679. 263. Captain of my dreams. Venus, the

morning star.
266. Her who clasped. Margaret Roper,
daughter of Sir Thomas More; after he
was beheaded she took his head down from
London Bridge where it was exposed, and
when she died had it buried in her arms.
269. Her who knew. Eleanor, wife of
Edward I, who accompanied her husband
on the First Crusade, and when he was
stabbed with a poisoned dagger, sucked
out the poison with her lips.

moon, not eyes, as has sometimes been

591. 1. Wild bird. The nightingale, whose song

has always been celebrated for passionate
mingling of joy and pain.
2. Quicks. Quickset; slips, especially of
hawthorn, set to form a hedge.

THE CHARGE OF THE LIGHT BRIGADE 594. Written to commemorate a fatal charge

at Balaclava in the Crimean War, 1854; the poem was based on a phrase in the London Times's account of the battle: “Some one had blundered.”

NORTHERN FARMER Written in the Lincolnshire dialect. “It is a vivid piece out of the great comedy of man, not of its mere mirth, but of that elemental humorousness of things which belongs to the lives of the brutes as well as to ourselves, that steady quaintness of the ancient earth and all who are born of her ... continually met in the peasant and farmer class.” (Stopford Brooke: Tennyson, His Art and Relation to Modern Life).

MORTE D’ARTHUR Written in 1835, first published in 1842; afterwards incorporated, with additions, in The Passing of Arthur in Idylls of the King. Cf. Malory's account, pp. 47.ff. 4. Lyonnesse. A legendary country, including part of Cornwall, now supposed

to be submerged beneath the sea. 680. 21. Camelot. Arthur's capital.

23. Merlin. Arthur's magician and chief
31. Samite. A heavy silk, sometimes inter-

woven with gold thread.
581. 139. Northern mor. Aurora Borealis.

140. Moving isles. Icebergs.
147. Cf. the metrical effect of this line

with that of l. 65 and l. 112.
682. 186–192. The contrast between the first

five lines of this passage and the last two
is one of the best examples in English
verse of the fitting of sound to sense; for
a similar effect cf. II. 49-51.
242. One good custom should corrupt the
world. “E. g., chivalry, by formation of
habit or by any other means." (Tenny-
son's note.)
259. Avilion. See Malory, p. 48.

THE REVENGE 697. Tennyson found the story in Raleigh's

spirited account; see p. 103.


599. Based on an incident read by Tennyson

in a magazine. For significance of title

see 2 Samuel, xxi. 600. 73. Election and Reprobation. Calvinis

tic doctrines; all men were supposed to be damned for original sin, except a chosen few whom God elected for salvation.


MERLIN AND THE GLEAM The poem was written soon after Arthur

601. An allegory of Tennyson's literary life. Hallam's death, and it gives the feeling about the need of going forward and

For commentary see the preface to the

present Lord Tennyson's Memoir of his braving the struggle of life perhaps more

father. simply than anything in In Memoriam." (Tennyson's note.)

CROSSING THE BAR 10. Rainy Hyades. The constellation

| 603. Tennyson directed that this poem should Hyades was associated by the ancients

be placed at the end of all collected ediwith stormy weather.

tions of his works.
684. 26. Every hour is saved. Every hour
that is saved is something more.


CAVALIER TUNES 590. Composed in memory of Arthur Henry

In these three dashing lyrics Browning Hallam, whose acquaintance Tennyson made at Cambridge, and who was later

reflects the spirit of reckless loyalty to the engaged to Tennyson's sister. He died

King, and contempt for the Puritans, which

animated the supporters of Charles I. at Vienna in 1833, and the lyrics composing the poem were written at various times between then and 1850, the date

MARCHING ALONG of their final arrangement and publication. 2. Crop-headed. The Puritans wore 5. Orbs of light and shade. Sun and their hair cut short in contrast with the

Cavaliers, whose long curls fell upon
their shoulders.

“Řoundheads,” the
name frequently applied to the Puritans, 615. The speaker, in contrast with the person
has the same implication. Parliament. he addresses, is so intense an admirer of
The Long Parliament, controlled by the Shelley that it seems to him that if he
Puritan party.

could once have seen and spoken with the 603. 7. Pym.' One of the Puritan leaders in poet the meeting would have dwarfed in

the Long Parliament, as were Hampden, importance all the other events of his
Hazelrig, Fiennes, and Sir Henry Vane life. Browning in his youth admired
the Younger (II. 13-14).

Shelley greatly.
15. Rupert. Prince Rupert, nephew of
Charles I, and leader of the Royalist

MY LAST DUCHESS cavalry. 22. Nottingham. Where Charles raised The dramatic monologue, Browning's his standard at the opening of the Civil favorite poetic form, and one which he War in 1642.

uses with the utmost skill, presents some difficulty to the reader on account of its

directness and compression. It differs THE LOST LEADER

from the soliloquy, e. g., of Shakespeare, 604. Suggested by Wordsworth's change from in that the presence of a second person, a

Liberalism to Conservatism in politics, listener, is to be inferred; oftentimes the though Browning expressly denied that speaker responds to a question or gesture, he was in any way attempting a portrait implied only in the answer, on the part of Wordsworth.

of this silent listener. Cf. My Last Duchess, II. 53-54. It is a good plan for

the student to read the poem through HOW THEY BROUGHT THE GOOD NEWS

once or twice in an effort to get the situa606. Browning wrote: “There is no sort of tion and some conception of the speaker's

historical foundation about 'Good News character before trying to discover the from Ghent.' I wrote it under the bul meaning of each line. The poem may wark of a vessel off the African coast, then be studied in detail; it should be after I had been at sea long enough to ap

noted that no break in the thought, no preciate even the fancy of a gallop on the interjection, is without its significance. back of a certain good horseYork,' then

The speaker is Duke of Ferrara, one of in my stable at home.”

the oldest and proudest of the Italian

communes. There could be no greater PARTING AT MORNING

contrast in character than that between

the Duke- of impeccable manners and 606. Companion piece to Meeting at Night; | exquisite artistic taste, but selfish to the the speaker is, in each case, a man.

core and absolutely heartless-and the 3. Him. The sun.

young Duchess-naive, filled with the 4. Need of a world of men for me. This

joy of life, whose graciousness springs may mean either the need I have for the

from a heart pure and generous. world, or, the need the world has for me,

3. Frà. Brother. Pandolf, an imaginary my duty in society.

character, is a monk, like so many of the

painters of the Italian Renaissance. SOLILOQUY OF THE SPANISH CLOISTER 616. 9. Since none puts by, etc. The paren606. 39. Arian. The Arian heresy held that

thesis gives a hint of the Duke's esteem

for the picture: he values it not at all as Christ was created by God, and was inferior to God in nature and dignity.

a reminder of his Duchess, but simply as 607. 56. Manichee. Manicheans were a sect

a work of art, and as such, is careful to in the early Christian centuries who com

protect it from possible harm. bined Persian and Christian beliefs.

45, 6. I gave commands; Then all smiles stopped together. Generally interpreted

to mean that the Duke gave orders for HOME-THOUGHTS, FROM THE SEA

the lady's death. In reply to a question The speaker is on shipboard, off the north by Corson, Browning himself said, “ Yes, west coast of Africa.

I meant that the commands were that 1. Cape St. Vincent. On the southwest she be put to death,” adding after a coast of Spain, where Nelson defeated a pause, “ Or he might have had her shut Spanish fleet in 1797.

up in a convent.” 3. Trafalgar. The scene of Nelson's 53, 4. Nay, we'll go Together down, sir. victory in 1805.

The envoy, in deference to the Duke's 5. Say. Imperative; “ let him say."

birth, has dropped back, but the Duke, with perfect condescension, calls him

forward to a position of equality. SAUL

56. Claus of Innsbruck. Another imagFor the situation see 1 Samuel, xvi: 14-23. | inary artist.

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