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466. 703. The Niobe of nations. Niobe, all of

whose children were slain by Apollo and Diana because of her pride, stands as a

symbol of grief and suffering. 467. 732. When Brutus, etc. The reference

is to the murder of Julius Cæsar by
Brutus and the other conspirators. See
North's translation of Plutarch, p. 91,
this volume.
734. Tully. Marcus Tullius Cicero.
1252. I see before me the gladiator lie.
Byron seems to have had in mind the
statue of the “ Dying Gaul,” now known
to have no connection with gladiatorial

combats. 459. 1648. I have loved thee, Ocean. Byron was a swimmer of extraordinary ability.

DON JUAN: DEDICATION 460. 1. Bob Southey! You're a Poet. The

satiric dedication to Robert Southey was
only one shot in the war between the two
men. See the Introduction to Byron's
Vision of Judgment.
3. You turned out a Tory. Southey, like
Coleridge, was an enthusiastic republican
in his young manhood; later he became
strongly conservative.
5. My Epic Renegade. Byron probably
has in mind Southey's early work, Wat
Tyler, which was strongly republican,
and was published contrary to Southey's
wishes after he had given up his re-
13. Coleridge. explaining meta-
physics to the nation. During the latter
part of his life Coleridge all but aban-
doned poetry in favor of philosophy.

The Biographia Literaria was published
in 1817.
25. Wordsworth, in a rather long “ Ex-

Wordsworth's philosophical poem, The Excursion, was published in 1814, 132. Buff and blue. Here used, as often, as symbolic of republicanism.

461. 730. Thermopylæ. The most famous

battle at the pass of Thermopylæ was
the contest in 480 B. C. between Leonidas
and three hundred Spartans, and the
Persian army of Xerxes.
743. Pyrrhic dance. A martial dance.
744. Pyrrhic phalanx. Pyrrhus (318?-
272 B. C.), King of Epirus, achieved
several military successes through his use
of the closely massed phalanx.
747. You have the letters Cadmus gave.
Cadmus, one of the world's “culture
heroes,” was supposed to have given the
alphabet to men.
751. Anacreon's

song : .. Polycrates.
Anacreon, Greek eulogist of love and
wine, lived at the court of Polycrates,
Tyrant of Samos.
755. Tyrant of the Chersonese. Mil-
tiades, who, as leader of the Greeks at
Marathon, was “ freedom's best and
bravest friend."
762. Suli's rock and Parga's shore. The
first a mountain district, the second a
seaport, in Albania. Both were famous
for their warlike inhabitants.
764. Doric. Spartan.
766. Heracleidan. Of Hercules.
779. Sunium's marbled steep. A ruined
temple at Sunium, or Cape Colonna,
served as a landmark for vessels approach-

ing the southern extremity of Attica.
462. 813. Troy owes to Homer what whist

owes to Hoyle. Edmund Hoyle (1672–
1769), whose Short Treatise on Whist
was published in 1742, was long the un-
questioned authority on the game.
815. The great Marlborough. ... Life
by Archdeacon Coxe. William Core
(1747–1828), archdeacon of Wiltshire,
published his Memoirs of John, Duke of
Marlborough in the years 1818 and 1819.
Marlborough is, of course, Queen Anne's
great general.
819. An independent being. Probably a
pun; during the latter part of his life
Milton was a member of the religious
sect known as “ Independents."
821. His life falling into Johnson's way.
Dr. Johnson's life of Milton, in his Lives
of the Poets, is unsympathetic.
826. Lord Bacon's bribes. These are
facts; the stories concerning Cæsar,
Shakespeare, etc., may be apocryphal.
828. Burns (whom Doctor Currie well
describes). Dr. James Currie (1756-
1805) published an edition of Burns's
works, with a memoir, in 1800.
833. Southey ... Pantisocracy. Southey
and Coleridge were the two leaders in
an attempt, which came to naught, to
found an ideal commonwealth on the
banks of the Susquehanna River.
835. Wordsworth unexcised, unhired. In
the year 1812 Wordsworth was appointed
Distributor of Stamps for the county of
Westmoreland. The office was worth
£400 per year.


690. Sappho. The only woman among the
world's great poets. She lived approxi-
mately 600 B. C.
692. Delos. A Greek island, the birth-
place of Phæbus Apollo.
695. The Scian and the Teian muse.
Homer and Anacreon, so called from their
birthplaces, real or supposed, Scio and
Teos, respectively.
701. Marathon. The battle of Marathon,
fought in 490 B. C. between the Persians
and the Greeks, resulted in an overwhelm-
ing victory for the latter. It took place
on the plains of Marathon, overlooking
the sea.
708. Salamis. In 480 B. C. the Greek
feet under Themistocles defeated the
Persian fleet. The battle was fought in
the strait between the island of Salamis
and the mainland of Attica.

hand of the sculptor and the heart of the king.


473. 21. Mänad. A priestess of Bacchus.

32. Baiæ's bay. Baiæ, near Naples,
was a famous watering place during the
Roman empire.
43. If I were, etc. The first stanza of the
poem has to do chiefly with the effect of
the West Wind on the leaves; the second,
with its effect on the clouds; and the third,
with its effect on the waves. In the first
three lines of this stanza these three ideas
are woven together.


474. II. Champak. An Indian tree, somewhat

like a magnolia.

THE CLOUD 475. 81. Cenotaph. A monument built in

honor of a person who is buried in some other place.


479. 1. This is the day, etc. Demogorgon's

speech gives Shelley's idea of the reconstructed universe for which he was always longing.


Shelley's elegy, reminiscent of Milton's
Lycidas, was written in memory of John
Keats, who died at Rome, Febru-
ary 22, 1821.
12. Urania. The heavenly Muse, prop-

erly the patroness of Astronomy. 480. 30. The Sire of an immortal strain. John

55. That high Capital. Keats was buried

in the Protestant cemetery at Rome. 481. 133. She pined away: Narcissus dis

dained the love of the nymph Echo;

Echo died of grief. 482. 140. To Phoebus was not Hyacinth so

dear. The youth Hyacinth, greatly be-
loved by Apollo, was turned into the
flower that bears his name.
141. Nor to himself Narcissus. Narcissus
fell in love with his own reflection in a
pool, and was turned into a flower.
151, 2. The curse of Cain Light on his
head. On the head of the critic who,
according to the belief of the times,

killed Keats with his brutal reviews. 483. 238. The unpastured dragon. The world. 244 ff. The herded wolves, ravens,

vultures. Critics to the conqueror's banner true,” i. e., subservient to the political party in power.

Keats's friendship with Leigh Hunt, a very advanced Liberal, brought many attacks

462. 838. The Morning Post. Coleridge first

became a regular contributor to the Post
in December, 1799.
839. He and Southey . espoused two
partners. Coleridge and Southey married
Sarah and Edith Fricker, of Bristol.
842. Botany Bay. An English penal
settlement was established in 1787 at
Botany Bay, New South Wales.
847. The Excursion. See note on the
dedication to Don Juan, line 25, above.
864. Ariosto. An Italian poet (1474-
1533), author of the Orlando Furioso.

871. The épopée. The epic poem.
463. 876. His dear " Waggoners." Words-

worth's poem The Waggoner, written in
1805, was published in 1819. The poem
is minutely descriptive of the lake country
that Wordsworth knew so well.
877. He wishes for "a boat.” See the
Prelude to Wordsworth's Peter Bell.
883. Charles's Wain. Charles's Wagon;
the constellation usually known as the
Great Bear.
945. O Hesperus! thou bringest all good
things. The stanza is an adaptation of
one of the Sapphic fragments.
961. When Nero perished.
mitted suicide in 68 A. D., to save himself
from execution following the Senate's
proclamation of Galba as emperor.
975. We Cantabs. Students or graduates
of Cambridge University.
984. Aristotle. Aristotle's Poetics is one
of the world's most famous discussions
of the principles of poetry.

This canto, of which the greater part is
here reprinted, recounts the culmination
of the romance between Juan, hero of the
epic, and Haidée, daughter of a wealthy
pirate and slavedealer on the shores of
whose island the sea had cast Juan, sole
survivor of a shipwreck. Haidée finds
him, loves him, and nurses him back to
health. The episode of Haidée and Juan

occupies cantos ii, iii, and iv.
464. 43. Pulci was sire. Luigi Pulci (1432-

1487), Italian poet, author of a burlesque

epic entitled Il Morgante Maggiore.
469. 456. The Simoom. A hot wind from the

484-6. Venus ... Laocoön ... Glad-
iator. It is impossible to decide what
statue of Venus Byron had in mind. The
Laocoon group is a well-known piece of
Roman statuary; the so-called Dying
Gladiator,” equally famous, is not a rep-
resentation of a gladiator, but of a dying



472. 8. The hand that mocked them and the

heart that fed. The passions survive the

upon him.

250. The Pythian of the age one arrow however, only two books and a fragment 13. Flora. Goddess of the flowers.


sped. Byron, and his English Bards and

LINES ON THE MERMAID TAVERN Scotch Reviewers. 484. 264. The Pilgrim of Eternity. Byron. 496. A mermaid was a favorite device for the

Shelley is thinking of Childe Harold's sign-board of an old English tavern. Pilgrimage.

The “ Mermaid Tavern" to which Keats 268, 9. Ieme sent the sweetest lyrist, refers was the gathering place of the most etc. Ireland sent Tom Moore.

As a

famous Elizabethan wits and dramatists. matter of fact, neither Byron nor Moore was particularly affected by the death of

ROBIN HOOD Keats. 271. One frail Form. Shelley himself.

33. Gone the merry morris din. А 276. Actæon-like. Actæon, in punish

* morris dance"-probably from “ Moorment for having seen Diana in the bath,

ish dance "-was an outdoor revel in was turned into a stag and torn by his

which the performers wore grotesque cosown dogs.

tumes and bells. 307. What softer voice. Leigh Hunt.

34. The song of Gamelyn. A pseudo485. 325. Live thou! The author of an excep

Chaucerian tale of outlawry is called tionally brutal attack on Keats in the

“ The Tale of Gamelyn.” Keats uses Quarterly Review. Compare Byron's

the phrase as synonymous with the outtwo stanzas beginning “ Who killed John

door life of Robin Hood. Keats?"

36. “Grene shawe.” Green wood. 343. Peace, peace! he is not dead. With the conception of immortality set forth in the remaining stanzas one should

496. The twenty-first of January is St. Agnes's compare Lycidas, Il. 165-185.

Day; the evening of the twentieth is “ the 486. 399. Chatterton. Cf. note to Words

Eve of St. Agnes.” The superstition worth's Resolution and Independence, around which the poem centers is made 1. 43, p. 407.

sufficiently clear in the course of the story. 401. Sidney. Died at the age of thirty- 498. 115. The holy loom, etc. On St. Agnes's two.

day, during the celebration of the mass, 404. Lucan.

A Latin poet, forced by two lambs might be offered to the church Nero to commit suicide at the age of

(cf. I. 71). The nuns afterwards spun and twenty-six.

wove the wool. 487. 439. Slope of green access. The Protest- 499. 171. Since Merlin paid his Demon, etc. ant cemetery.

Merlin, the famous wizard and prophet of Arthurian romance, was the son of a

demon, and became himself the victim KEATS

of magic. See Tennyson's Merlin and SLEEP AND POETRY


174. Tambour frame. An embroidery 490. This poem appeared in Keats's 1817 volume. It is a somewhat formless collec

frame shaped like a tambour, or drum. tion of Keats's own ideas concerning

600. 241. Clasped like a missal, etc. Claspod poetry and its joys; the selection here

probably modifies soul; in the two follow

ing lines her soul is likened to a rose that reprinted shows Keats protesting against

is shut. The line means, then, that her the formalism of the 18th century, and

soul was clasped as tightly in sleep as a particularly against those critics who traced their ancestry back to Boileau.

prayer-book would be by a Christian in

a land of Pagans. ODE TO A NIGHTINGALE 492. 4. Lethe. One of the four rivers of Hades; whoever drank of its waters became ob

602. Keats planned to write an epic dealing livious of all the past.

with the overthrow of Saturn by Jupiter.

When the poem was published in 1820, 7. Dryad. A tree nymph.


of a third had been written. 14. Provençal song. The lyrics of Pro

603. 23. There came one. Thea, sister of 16. Hippocrene. The fountain of the


30. Ixion's wheel. Ixion was chained for Muses on Mt. Helicon. 32. Bacchus and his pards. Leopards

all eternity to a revolving wheel. are often represented as drawing the car

504. 147. The rebel three. Jupiter, Neptune,

and Pluto, of Bacchus.

166. Hyperion. When the action of the

poem commences, the victory of Jupiter ODE ON A GRECIAN URN

is incomplete. Hyperion is still god of the 493. 7. Tempe, Arcady. Here used simply to

sun. indicate places of beauty and carefree 606. 246. Tellus. Goddess of the earth. life. Tempe was a valley in Thessaly.

307. Cælus. God of the heavens.


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ON FIRST LOOKING INTO CHAPMAN'S HOMER 607. George Chapman (15592-1634) published

his translation of Homer in 1598 and
1609. Keats first read it in 1816.
II. Stout Cortez.

Historical accuracy would compel the substitution of Balboa for Cortez,

BRIGHT STAR 608. Usually known as Keats's “ last sonnet,”

written while he was en route to Italy.



15. Blake. Oliver Cromwell's most successful admiral. He died at sea in 1657. Nelson. The victor of Trafalgar.

MOORE THE HARP THAT ONCE THROUGH TARA'S HALLS 609. Tara was formerly an Irish capital city.

OH, BREATHE NOT HIS NAME The famous Irish rebel was executed in 1803 because of treasonable correspondence with Napoleon, and armed rebellion against the crown.

WOLFE THE BURIAL OF SIR JOHN MOORE Sir John Moore, an English general in charge of an army in the Peninsular War, was shot at Corunna, Spain, in January, 1809. At his own request he was buried within the ramparts of the town.


CHRIST'S HOSPITAL 512. The essay purports to be written by a

student of Christ's Hospital who feels
that Lamb's earlier essay, Recollections,
etc., is too flattering an account of life
at the institution.
37. Banyan ... days. Days on which
no meat was served.
39. Double-refined. Sugar.

44. Caro equina. Horseflesh. 613. 54. Griskin. Lean loin of pork.

62. The Tishbite. Elijah.
73. I was a poor friendless boy. True of
Coleridge, for whom Lamb is speaking in
the two paragraphs beginning here.
94. Sweet Calne in Wiltshire. Cole-
ridge's house was really at Ottery St.

Mary, Devonshire. 614. 187. Upon the leads. On the lead-covered famous Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, who twice ran away from school, once

614. 240. He ate strange flesh. See Antony

and Cleopatra, I. iv. 67.
616. 316. A hypochondriac lad. True of Lamb

353. Auto da fe.

The name given to
executions, usually by burning, under the
Spanish Inquisition; literally, “act of

Watchet weeds.” Blue uniform. 616. 378. Ultima Supplicia. Last punish

395. San Benito. A special robe worn by
the condemned at the auto da fe.
419. An accidence. A primer containing
thé rudiments of grammar.
446. Insolent Greece, etc. From Ben
Jonson's lines to Shakespeare.
461. Rousseau. Both Rousseau and
Locke believed in letting a child follow

his own natural impulses.
617. 487. Helot ... Spartans. Spartan par-

ents were accustomed to teach their
children sobriety by calling their atten-
tion to drunken Helots, who were slaves.
496. The Samite. The Greek philosopher
Pythagoras, whose pupils were obliged
to listen in silence to his lectures for five
years before they could ask questions.
497. Goshen. That rich and fertile part
of Egypt inhabited by the Israelites be-
fore the captivity.
503. Gideon's miracle. The method by
which Gideon tested God's promise to
deliver the Midianites into his hand: a
fleece left on the ground over night was
drenched by the dew, while the ground
about it was dry. See Judges, vi.
518. Ululantes. The howlers; e. g., in
Tartarus, hell.
523. Scrannel pipes. Quoted from Lyc-
idas, l. 124.
525. Flaccus's quibble. A pun in one of
Horace's satires (I. vii) on rex as king, and

as a surname.

191. Caligula's minion. A horse which
Caligula named first consul.

526. Tristis severitas in vultu. Gloomy
sternness in his face; applied to a rascal
in Terence's Andria.
527. Inspicere in patinas. Look into
your saucepans; the advice of a slave to
scullions, parodying some serious counsel
given by a father to his son, in Terence's
535. Caxon. Slang term for wig.

559. Rabidus furor. Rabid rage.
618. 585. Literary life. Coleridge's Biographia

588. The Country Spectator. A magazine
edited by T. F. Middleton in 1792-3;
see below, I. 629.
600. Grecian. The two best scholars
among the senior boys of Christ's Hospi-
tal were called Grecians, and received
scholarships at Cambridge University.
617. Fasces. Bundles of rods, with axes
in their centers, symbolic of the authority
of Roman magistrates; here, the birch

turning chimney sweep. 623. 232. Defiliations. Instances of parents

being deprived of their children.
242. Ascanius. Son of Æneas; in the
first book of the Æneid (1. 695 ff.) we are
told how on one occasion Venus lulled

him to sleep:
624. 283. Incunabula. Cradle.

290. Jem White. A schoolfellow of
Lamb's at Christ's Hospital.
299. The fair of St. Bartholomew. Held
in Smithfield, one of the poorer districts
of London, originally on St. Bartholo-
mew's Day, August 24; later, when the
calendar was revised, on September 3. It
became the occasion of great disorder and
scandal, and was abolished in 1855. Ben
Jonson wrote a comedy of this title, deal-
ing with the humors of the Fair, and
severely satirizing the Puritans.
312. Quoited. Thrown, as a quoit would
335. Rochester. The Earl of Rochester
(1647-1680), one of the courtiers of
Charles II, noted for his riotous excesses.
341. Old dame Ursula. Lamb so names
the woman after one of the characters in
Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, mentioned
above, a fat pig-woman,-i. e., woman
who sold roast pig,-indescribably coarse
of behavior.
345. Whereat the universal host ...
brightness. A paraphrase of Paradise
Lost, I. 541-543; see p. 161.
360. Kissing-crust. The soft part of the
crust of a loaf where it has touched an-

other in baking. 626. 388. Golden lads, etc. From Cymbeline,

IV. ii.

DISSERTATION UPON ROAST PIG The Chinese manuscript, and the volume ascribed to Confucius, are inventions of Lamb, who, however, obtained the suggestion for the essay from his friend Thomas Manning, who had travelled in

China. 627. 188. Locke. John Locke (1632-1704), au

618. 636. Regni novitas. The newness of the

639. Jewel or Hooker. English bishops
and writers of the sixteenth century;
Hooker was author of the Laws of Eccle-
siastical Polity
664. Mirandula. Pico della Mirandola,
Italian philosopher of the fifteenth cen-
tury, one of the leading scholars of the
666. Jamblichus, Plotinus. Neo-Pla-
tonic philosophers of the fourth and third
centuries A. D.
674. Fuller. Thomas Fuller, author of
The Worthies of England, 1662. Lamb
adapts Fuller's description of the trials
of wit between Shakespeare and Ben
Jonson, substituting Coleridge for Jonson,

and C. V. Leg. for Shakespeare.
619. 695. Nireus formosus. Handsome Nireus;

Homer called Nireus the handsomest of
all the Greek host before Troy.
709. Sizars.

University students who received free board; formerly they performed certain menial duties in return for the financial assistance.


621. 221. John L. Lamb's brother John, who

died shortly before this essay was written.

THE PRAISE OF CHIMNEY SWEEPERS 5. Nigritude. Blackness. 9. Professional notes.

Their call of “Sweep! Sweep!" 19. Sport their cloth. Wear a garb of black, like a clergyman.

28. Fauces Averni. The jaws of hell. 622. 53. Kibed. Chilblained.

56. Tester. Sixpence.
59. 'Yclept. Called.
71. The only Salopian house. The only
shop devoted to the sale of saloop, or
sassafras tea.
88. Fuliginous. Sooty.
137. Covent Garden. The fruit and

vegetable market of London.
623. 165. Westward. I. e., homeward from

work, for Lamb lived in the Temple,
west from Cheapside.
181. Hogarth. William Hogarth (1697-
1764), the famous eighteenth century
painter of London life. The March 10
Finchley, one of his most animated pieces
of work, depicts a company of soldiers
marching through a crowd in the utmost
confusion; one of the figures in the fore-
ground is that of a sweep, with just
such a grin as Lamb describes, except
that he is grinning not at the pie-man,
but at a soldier who is stealing milk from
a milkmaid.
208. A sable cloud, etc. Adapted from
Comus, l. 221 f.
229. The young Montagu. Edward Wort-
ley Montagu (1713-1776), son of the

thor of the Essay concerning Human U *-
209. Mundus edibilis. World of edibles.
211. Princeps obsoniorum. Chief of
217. Amor immunditiæ. Love of filth.
253. Radiant jellies . . . shooting stars.
There was a popular superstition that if a
shooting star could be found fallen on the
ground it would turn out to be nothing but
a mass of jelly.
262. Conversation. Behavior.
264. Ere sin, etc. One of Lamb's most
exquisite touches of humor; the quota-
tion is from Coleridge's Epitaph on an
273. Sapors. Flavors.

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