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466. 703. The Niobe of nations. Niobe, all of
whose children were slain by Apollo and Diana because of her pride, stands as a
symbol of grief and suffering. 467. 732. When Brutus, etc. The reference
is to the murder of Julius Cæsar by
combats. 459. 1648. I have loved thee, Ocean. Byron was a swimmer of extraordinary ability.
DON JUAN: DEDICATION 460. 1. Bob Southey! You're a Poet. The
satiric dedication to Robert Southey was
461. 730. Thermopylæ. The most famous
battle at the pass of Thermopylæ was
ing the southern extremity of Attica. 462. 813. Troy owes to Homer what whist
owes to Hoyle. Edmund Hoyle (1672–
462. 838. The Morning Post. Coleridge first hand of the sculptor and the heart of the
became a regular contributor to the Post king.
ODE TO THE WEST WIND partners. Coleridge and Southey married 473. 21. Mænad. A priestess of Bacchus. Sarah and Edith Fricker, of Bristol.
32. Baiæ's bay. Baiæ, near Naples, 842. Botany Bay. An English penal was a famous watering place during the settlement was established in 1787 at Roman empire. Botany Bay, New South Wales.
43. If I were, etc. The first stanza of the 847. The Excursion. See note on the poem has to do chiefly with the effect of dedication to Don Juan, line 25, above.
the West Wind on the leaves; the second, 864. Ariosto. An Italian poet (1474
with its effect on the clouds; and the third, 1533), author of the Orlando Furioso.
with its effect on the waves. In the first 871. The épopée. The epic poem.
three lines of this stanza these three ideas 463. 876. His dear “ Waggoners.” Words
are woven together.
THE INDIAN SERENADE
474. 11. Champak. An Indian tree, somewhat
475. 81. Cenotaph. A monument built in 945. O Hesperus! thou bringest all good
honor of a person who is buried in some things. The stanza is an adaptation of
PROMETHEUS UNBOUND: ACT IV
479. 1. This is the day, etc. Demogorgon's from execution following the Senate's
speech gives Shelley's idea of the reconproclamation of Galba as emperor.
structed universe for which he was always 975. We Cantabs. Students or graduates of Cambridge University.
Shelley's elegy, reminiscent of Milton's
Lycidas, was written in memory of John CANTO IV
Keats, who died at Rome, Febru
ary 22, 1821. This canto, of which the greater part is 12. Urania. The heavenly Muse, prophere reprinted, recounts the culmination erly the patroness of Astronomy. of the romance between Juan, hero of the 30. The Sire of an immortal strain. John epic, and Haidée, daughter of a wealthy Milton. pirate and slavedealer on the shores of 55. That high Capital. Keats was buried whose island the sea had cast Juan, sole in the Protestant cemetery at Rome. survivor of a shipwreck. Haidée finds 481. 133. She pined away. Narcissus dishim, loves him, and nurses him back to dained the love of the nymph Echo; health. The episode of Haidée and Juan Echo died of grief. occupies cantos ii, iii, and iv.
482. 140. To Phæbus was not Hyacinth so 464. 43. Pulci was sire. Luigi Pulci (1432– dear. The youth Hyacinth, greatly be
1487), Italian poet, author of a burlesque loved by Apollo, was turned into the epic entitled Il Morgante Maggiore.
flower that bears his name. 469. 456. The Simoom. A hot wind from the 141. Nor to himself Narcissus. Narcissus desert.
fell in love with his own reflection in a 484-6. Venus ... Laocoön ... Glad
pool, and was turned into a flower. iator. It is impossible to decide what 151, 2. The curse of Cain Light on his statue of Venus Byron had in mind. The head. On the head of the critic who, Laocoon group is a well-known piece of according to the belief of the times, Roman statuary; the so-called “Dying killed Keats with his brutal reviews. Gladiator,” equally famous, is not a rep 483. 238. The unpastured dragon. The world. resentation of a gladiator, but of a dying 244 ff. The herded wolves, ... ravens, Gaul.
... vultures. Critics “ to the conquer
or's banner true,” i. e., subservient to SHELLEY
the political party in power. Keats's
friendship with Leigh Hunt, a very adOZYMANDIAS
vanced Liberal, brought many attacks 472. 8. The hand that mocked them and the
upon him. heart that fed. The passions survive the | 250. The Pythian of the age one arrow
sped. Byron, and his English Bards and
LINES ON THE MERMAID TAVERN
The “ Mermaid Tavern" to which Keats
33. Gone the merry morris din. A 276. Actæon-like. Actæon, in punish
“ morris dance"-probably from“ Moorment for having seen Diana in the bath,
ish dance "—was an outdoor revel in was turned into a stag and torn by his
which the performers wore grotesque cosown dogs.
tumes and bells. 307. What softer voice. Leigh Hunt.
34. The song of Gamelyn. A pseudo 486. 325. Live thou! The author of an excep
Chaucerian tale of outlawry is called tionally brutal attack on Keats in the
“ The Tale of Gamelyn.” Keats uses Quarterly Review. Compare Byron's
the phrase as synonymous with the outtwo stanzas beginning “ Who killed John
door life of Robin Hood.
36. “Grenè shawe.” Green wood.
THE EVE OF ST. AGNES
Day; the evening of the twentieth is “ the 486. 399. Chatterton. Cf. note to Words
Eve of St. Agnes.” The superstition worth's Resolution and Independence, around which the poem centers is made 1. 43, p. 407.
sufficiently clear in the course of the story. 401. Sidney. Died at the age of thirty 115. The holy loom, etc. On St. Agnes's two.
day, during the celebration of the mass, 404. Lucan. A Latin poet, forced by
two lambs might be offered to the church Nero to commit suicide at the age of (cf. I. 71). The nuns afterwards spun and twenty-six.
wove the wool. 487. 439. Slope of green access. The Protest
171. Since Merlin paid his Demon, etc. ant cemetery.
Merlin, the famous wizard and prophet of Arthurian romance, was the son of a
demon, and became himself the victim KEATS
of magic. See Tennyson's Merlin and SLEEP AND POETRY
174. Tambour frame. An embroidery 490. This poem appeared in Keats's 1817
frame shaped like a tambour, or drum. volume. It is a somewhat formless collection of Keats's own ideas concerning
241. Clasped like a missal, etc. Clasped
probably modifies soul; in the two followpoetry and its joys; the selection here
ing lines her soul is likened to a rose that reprinted shows Keats protesting against
is shut. The line means, then, that her the formalism of the 18th century, and
soul was clasped as tightly in sleep as a particularly against those critics who traced their ancestry back to Boileau.
prayer-book would be by a Christian in
a land of Pagans. ODE TO A NIGHTINGALE
HYPERION 492. 4. Lethe. One of the four rivers of Hades;
502. Keats planned to write an epic dealing whoever drank of its waters became oblivious of all the past.
with the overthrow of Saturn by Jupiter.
When the poem was published in 1820, 7. Dryad. A tree nymph. 13. Flora. Goddess of the flowers.
however, only two books and a fragment
of a third had been written. 14. Provençal song. The lyrics of Pro
23. There came one. Thea, sister of vence.
Hyperion. 16. Hippocrene. The fountain of the
30. Ixion's wheel. Ixion was chained for Muses on Mt. Helicon. 32. Bacchus and his pards. Leopards
all eternity to a revolving wheel. are often represented as drawing the car
147. The rebel three. Jupiter, Neptune, of Bacchus.
166. Hyperion. When the action of the ODE ON A GRECIAN URN
poem commences, the victory of Jupiter
is incomplete. Hyperion is still god of the 493. 7. Tempe, Arcady. Here used simply to sun.
indicate places of beauty and carefree | 606. 246. Tellus. Goddess of the earth.
307. Cælus. God of the heavens.
ON FIRST LOOKING INTO CHAPMAN'S HOMER 607. George Chapman (15597-1634) published
his translation of Homer in 1598 and
BRIGHT STAR 608. Usually known as Keats's “ last sonnet,”
written while he was en route to Italy.
YE MARINERS OF ENGLAND 15. Blake. Oliver Cromwell's most successful admiral. He died at sea in 1657. Nelson. The victor of Trafalgar.
THE HARP THAT ONCE THROUGH TARA'S HALLS 509. Tara was formerly an Irish capital city.
OH, BREATHE NOT HIS NAME The famous Irish rebel was executed in 1803 because of treasonable correspondence with Napoleon, and armed rebellion against the crown.
WOLFE THE BURIAL OF SIR JOHN MOORE Sir John Moore, an English general in charge of an army in the Peninsular War, was shot at Corunna, Spain, in January, 1809. At his own request he was buried within the ramparts of the town.
514. 240. He ate strange flesh. See Antony
and Cleopatra, I. iv. 67. 616. 316. A hypochondriac lad. True of Lamb
559. Rabidus furor. Rabid rage. 618. 585. Literary life. Coleridge's Biographia
Literaria. 588. The Country Spectator. A magazine edited by T. F. Middleton in 1792-3; see below, l. 629. 600. Grecian. The two best scholars among the senior boys of Christ's Hospital were called Grecians, and received scholarships at Cambridge University. 617. Fasces. Bundles of rods, with axes in their centers, symbolic of the authority of Roman magistrates; here, the birch rod.
CHRIST'S HOSPITAL 612. The essay purports to be written by a
student of Christ's Hospital who feels
44. Caro equina. Horseflesh. 613. 54. Griskin. Lean loin of pork.
62. The Tishbite. Elijah.
Mary, Devonshire. 614. 187. Upon the leads. On the lead-covered
618. 636. Regni novitas. The newness of the
The Worthies of England, 1662. Lamb
famous Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, who twice ran away from school, once
turning chimney sweep. 623. 232. Defiliations. Instances of parents
being deprived of their children.
him to sleep.
290. Jem White. A schoolfellow of Lamb's at Christ's Hospital. 299. The fair of St. Bartholomew. Held in Smithfield, one of the poorer districts of London, originally on St. Bartholomew's Day, August 24; later, when the calendar was revised, on September 3. It became the occasion of great disorder and scandal, and was abolished in 1855. Ben Jonson wrote a comedy of this title, dealing with the humors of the Fair, and severely satirizing the Puritans. 312. Quoited. Thrown, as a quoit would be. 335. Rochester. The Earl of Rochester (1647-1680), one of the courtiers of Charles II, noted for his riotous excesses. 341. Old dame Ursula. Lamb so names the woman after one of the characters in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, mentioned above, a fat pig-woman,-i. e., woman who sold roast pig,-indescribably coarse of behavior. 345. Whereat the universal host ... brightness. A paraphrase of Paradise Lost, I. 541-543; see p. 161. 360. Kissing-crust. The soft part of the crust of a loaf where it has touched an
other in baking. 626. 388. Golden lads, etc. From Cymbeline,
DREAM CHILDREN 621. 221. John L. Lamb's brother John, who
died shortly before this essay was written.
THE PRAISE OF CHIMNEY SWEEPERS 5. Nigritude. Blackness. 9. Professional notes. Their call of á Sweep! Sweep!” 19. Sport their cloth. Wear a garb of black, like a clergyman. 28. Fauces Averni. The jaws of hell. 53. Kibed. Chilblained. . 56. Tester. Sixpence. 59. 'Yclept. Called. 71. The only Salopian house. The only shop devoted to the sale of saloop, or sassafras tea. 88. Fuliginous. Sooty. 137. Covent Garden. The fruit and
vegetable market of London. 623. 165. Westward. I. e., homeward from
work, for Lamb lived in the Temple,
DISSERTATION UPON ROAST PIG The Chinese manuscript, and the volume ascribed to Confucius, are inventions of Lamb, who, however, obtained the suggestion for the essay from his friend Thomas Manning, who had travelled in China. 188. Locke. John Locke (1632-1704), author of the Essay concerning Human Uderstanding. 209. Mundus edibilis. World of edibles. 211. Princeps obsoniorum. Chief of tidbits. 217. Amor immunditiæ. Love of filth. 253. Radiant jellies . . . shooting stars. There was a popular superstition that if a shooting star could be found fallen on the ground it would turn out to be nothing but a mass of jelly. 262. Conversation. Behavior. 264. Ere sin, etc. One of Lamb's most exquisite touches of humor; the quotation is from Coleridge's Epitaph on an Infant. 273. Sapors. Flavors.