Imágenes de página

466. 703. The Niobe of nations. Niobe, all of

whose children were slain by Apollo and Diana because of her pride, stands as a

symbol of grief and suffering. 467. 732. When Brutus, etc. The reference

is to the murder of Julius Cæsar by
Brutus and the other conspirators. See
North's translation of Plutarch, p. 91,
this volume.
734. Tully. Marcus Tullius Cicero.
1252. I see before me the gladiator lie.
Byron seems to have had in mind the
statue of the “ Dying Gaul,” now known
to have no connection with gladiatorial

combats. 459. 1648. I have loved thee, Ocean. Byron was a swimmer of extraordinary ability.

DON JUAN: DEDICATION 460. 1. Bob Southey! You're a Poet. The

satiric dedication to Robert Southey was
only one shot in the war between the two
men. See the Introduction to Byron's
Vision of Judgment.
3. You turned out a Tory. Southey, like
Coleridge, was an enthusiastic republican
in his young manhood; later he became
strongly conservative.
5. My Epic Renegade. Byron probably
has in mind Southey's early work, Wat
Tyler, which was strongly republican,
and was published contrary to Southey's
wishes after he had given up his re-
13. Coleridge ... explaining meta-
physics to the nation. During the latter
part of his life Coleridge all but aban-
doned poetry in favor of philosophy.
The Biographia Literaria was published
in 1817.
25. Wordsworth, in a rather long “ Ex-
cursion.” Wordsworth's philosophical
poem, The Excursion, was published in
132. Buff and blue. Here used, as often,
as symbolic of republicanism.

690. Sappho. The only woman among the
world's great poets. She lived approxi-
mately 600 B. C.
692. Delos. A Greek island, the birth-
place of Phæbus Apollo.
695. The Scian and the Teian muse.
Homer and Anacreon, so called from their
birthplaces, real or supposed, Scio and
Teos, respectively.
701. Marathon. The battle of Marathon,
fought in 490 B. C. between the Persians
and the Greeks, resulted in an overwhelm-
ing victory for the latter. It took place
on the plains of Marathon, overlooking
the sea.
708. Salamis. In 480 B. C. the Greek
feet under Themistocles defeated the
Persian feet. The battle was fought in
the strait between the island of Salamis
and the mainland of Attica.

461. 730. Thermopylæ. The most famous

battle at the pass of Thermopylæ was
the contest in 480 B. C. between Leonidas
and three hundred Spartans, and the
Persian army of Xerxes.
743. Pyrrhic dance. A martial dance.
744. Pyrrhic phalanx. Pyrrhus (318?-
272 B. C.), King of Epirus, achieved
several military successes through his use
of the closely massed phalanx.
747. You have the letters Cadmus gave.
Cadmus, one of the world's “culture
heroes,” was supposed to have given the
alphabet to men.
751. Anacreon's song ... Polycrates.
Anacreon, Greek eulogist of love and
wine, lived at the court of Polycrates,
Tyrant of Samos.
755. Tyrant of the Chersonese. Mil-
tiades, who, as leader of the Greeks at
Marathon, was “ freedom's best and
bravest friend."
762. Suli's rock and Parga's shore. The
first a mountain district, the second a
seaport, in Albania. Both were famous
for their warlike inhabitants.
764. Doric. Spartan.
766. Heracleidan. Of Hercules.
779. Sunium's marbled steep. A ruined
temple at Sunium, or Cape Colonna,
served as a landmark for vessels approach-

ing the southern extremity of Attica. 462. 813. Troy owes to Homer what whist

owes to Hoyle. Edmund Hoyle (1672–
1769), whose Short Treatise on Whist
was published in 1742, was long the un-
questioned authority on the game.
815. The great Marlborough. ... Life
by Archdeacon Coxe. William Core
(1747-1828), archdeacon of Wiltshire,
published his Memoirs of John, Duke of
Marlborough in the years 1818 and 1819.
Marlborough is, of course, Queen Anne's
great general.
819. An independent being. Probably a
pun; during the latter part of his life
Milton was a member of the religious
sect known as “ Independents."
821. His life falling into Johnson's way.
Dr. Johnson's life of Milton, in his Lives
of the Poets, is unsympathetic.
826. Lord Bacon's bribes. These are
facts; the stories concerning Cæsar,
Shakespeare, etc., may be apocryphal.
828. Burns (whom Doctor Currie well
describes). Dr. James Currie (1756-
1805) published an edition of Burns's
works, with a memoir, in 1800.
833. Southey ... Pantisocracy. Southey
and Coleridge were the two leaders in
an attempt, which came to naught, to
found an ideal commonwealth on the
banks of the Susquehanna River.
835. Wordsworth unexcised, unhired. In
the year 1812 Wordsworth was appointed
Distributor of Stamps for the county of
Westmoreland. The office was worth
£400 per year.

462. 838. The Morning Post. Coleridge first hand of the sculptor and the heart of the

became a regular contributor to the Post king.
in December, 1799.
839. He and Southey ... espoused two

ODE TO THE WEST WIND partners. Coleridge and Southey married 473. 21. Mænad. A priestess of Bacchus. Sarah and Edith Fricker, of Bristol.

32. Baiæ's bay. Baiæ, near Naples, 842. Botany Bay. An English penal was a famous watering place during the settlement was established in 1787 at Roman empire. Botany Bay, New South Wales.

43. If I were, etc. The first stanza of the 847. The Excursion. See note on the poem has to do chiefly with the effect of dedication to Don Juan, line 25, above.

the West Wind on the leaves; the second, 864. Ariosto. An Italian poet (1474

with its effect on the clouds; and the third, 1533), author of the Orlando Furioso.

with its effect on the waves. In the first 871. The épopée. The epic poem.

three lines of this stanza these three ideas 463. 876. His dear “ Waggoners.” Words

are woven together.
worth's poem The Waggoner, written in
1805, was published in 1819. The poem

is minutely descriptive of the lake country
that Wordsworth knew so well.

474. 11. Champak. An Indian tree, somewhat
877. He wishes for "a boat.” See, the like a magnolia.
Prelude to Wordsworth's Peter Bell.
883. Charles's Wain. Charles's Wagon;

the constellation usually known as the
Great Bear.

475. 81. Cenotaph. A monument built in 945. O Hesperus! thou bringest all good

honor of a person who is buried in some things. The stanza is an adaptation of

other place.
one of the Sapphic fragments.
961. When Nero perished. Nero com-

mitted suicide in 68 A. D., to save himself

479. 1. This is the day, etc. Demogorgon's from execution following the Senate's

speech gives Shelley's idea of the reconproclamation of Galba as emperor.

structed universe for which he was always 975. We Cantabs. Students or graduates of Cambridge University.

984. Aristotle. Aristotle's Poetics is one

of the world's most famous discussions
of the principles of poetry.

Shelley's elegy, reminiscent of Milton's

Lycidas, was written in memory of John CANTO IV

Keats, who died at Rome, Febru

ary 22, 1821. This canto, of which the greater part is 12. Urania. The heavenly Muse, prophere reprinted, recounts the culmination erly the patroness of Astronomy. of the romance between Juan, hero of the 30. The Sire of an immortal strain. John epic, and Haidée, daughter of a wealthy Milton. pirate and slavedealer on the shores of 55. That high Capital. Keats was buried whose island the sea had cast Juan, sole in the Protestant cemetery at Rome. survivor of a shipwreck. Haidée finds 481. 133. She pined away. Narcissus dishim, loves him, and nurses him back to dained the love of the nymph Echo; health. The episode of Haidée and Juan Echo died of grief. occupies cantos ii, iii, and iv.

482. 140. To Phæbus was not Hyacinth so 464. 43. Pulci was sire. Luigi Pulci (1432– dear. The youth Hyacinth, greatly be

1487), Italian poet, author of a burlesque loved by Apollo, was turned into the epic entitled Il Morgante Maggiore.

flower that bears his name. 469. 456. The Simoom. A hot wind from the 141. Nor to himself Narcissus. Narcissus desert.

fell in love with his own reflection in a 484-6. Venus ... Laocoön ... Glad

pool, and was turned into a flower. iator. It is impossible to decide what 151, 2. The curse of Cain Light on his statue of Venus Byron had in mind. The head. On the head of the critic who, Laocoon group is a well-known piece of according to the belief of the times, Roman statuary; the so-called “Dying killed Keats with his brutal reviews. Gladiator,” equally famous, is not a rep 483. 238. The unpastured dragon. The world. resentation of a gladiator, but of a dying 244 ff. The herded wolves, ... ravens, Gaul.

... vultures. Critics “ to the conquer

or's banner true,” i. e., subservient to SHELLEY

the political party in power. Keats's

friendship with Leigh Hunt, a very adOZYMANDIAS

vanced Liberal, brought many attacks 472. 8. The hand that mocked them and the

upon him. heart that fed. The passions survive the | 250. The Pythian of the age one arrow


sped. Byron, and his English Bards and
Scotch Reviewers.

264. The Pilgrim of Eternity. Byron. 496. A mermaid was a favorite device for the
Shelley is thinking of Childe Harold's sign-board of an old English tavern.

The “ Mermaid Tavern" to which Keats
268, 9. Iemne sent the sweetest lyrist, refers was the gathering place of the most
etc. Ireland sent Tom Moore. As a famous Elizabethan wits and dramatists.
matter of fact, neither Byron nor Moore
was particularly affected by the death of

271. One frail Form. Shelley himself.

33. Gone the merry morris din. A 276. Actæon-like. Actæon, in punish

“ morris dance"-probably from“ Moorment for having seen Diana in the bath,

ish dance "—was an outdoor revel in was turned into a stag and torn by his

which the performers wore grotesque cosown dogs.

tumes and bells. 307. What softer voice. Leigh Hunt.

34. The song of Gamelyn. A pseudo 486. 325. Live thou! The author of an excep

Chaucerian tale of outlawry is called tionally brutal attack on Keats in the

“ The Tale of Gamelyn.” Keats uses Quarterly Review. Compare Byron's

the phrase as synonymous with the outtwo stanzas beginning “ Who killed John

door life of Robin Hood.

36. “Grenè shawe.” Green wood.
343. Peace, peace! he is not dead. With
the conception of immortality set forth

in the remaining stanzas one should 496. The twenty-first of January is St. Agnes's
compare Lycidas, ll. 165-185.

Day; the evening of the twentieth is “ the 486. 399. Chatterton. Cf. note to Words

Eve of St. Agnes.” The superstition worth's Resolution and Independence, around which the poem centers is made 1. 43, p. 407.

sufficiently clear in the course of the story. 401. Sidney. Died at the age of thirty 115. The holy loom, etc. On St. Agnes's two.

day, during the celebration of the mass, 404. Lucan. A Latin poet, forced by

two lambs might be offered to the church Nero to commit suicide at the age of (cf. I. 71). The nuns afterwards spun and twenty-six.

wove the wool. 487. 439. Slope of green access. The Protest

171. Since Merlin paid his Demon, etc. ant cemetery.

Merlin, the famous wizard and prophet of Arthurian romance, was the son of a

demon, and became himself the victim KEATS

of magic. See Tennyson's Merlin and SLEEP AND POETRY


174. Tambour frame. An embroidery 490. This poem appeared in Keats's 1817

frame shaped like a tambour, or drum. volume. It is a somewhat formless collection of Keats's own ideas concerning

241. Clasped like a missal, etc. Clasped

probably modifies soul; in the two followpoetry and its joys; the selection here

ing lines her soul is likened to a rose that reprinted shows Keats protesting against

is shut. The line means, then, that her the formalism of the 18th century, and

soul was clasped as tightly in sleep as a particularly against those critics who traced their ancestry back to Boileau.

prayer-book would be by a Christian in

a land of Pagans. ODE TO A NIGHTINGALE

HYPERION 492. 4. Lethe. One of the four rivers of Hades;

502. Keats planned to write an epic dealing whoever drank of its waters became oblivious of all the past.

with the overthrow of Saturn by Jupiter.

When the poem was published in 1820, 7. Dryad. A tree nymph. 13. Flora. Goddess of the flowers.

however, only two books and a fragment

of a third had been written. 14. Provençal song. The lyrics of Pro

23. There came one. Thea, sister of vence.

Hyperion. 16. Hippocrene. The fountain of the

30. Ixion's wheel. Ixion was chained for Muses on Mt. Helicon. 32. Bacchus and his pards. Leopards

all eternity to a revolving wheel. are often represented as drawing the car

147. The rebel three. Jupiter, Neptune, of Bacchus.

and Pluto.

166. Hyperion. When the action of the ODE ON A GRECIAN URN

poem commences, the victory of Jupiter

is incomplete. Hyperion is still god of the 493. 7. Tempe, Arcady. Here used simply to sun.

indicate places of beauty and carefree | 606. 246. Tellus. Goddess of the earth.
life. Tempe was a valley in Thessaly.

307. Cælus. God of the heavens.



ON FIRST LOOKING INTO CHAPMAN'S HOMER 607. George Chapman (15597-1634) published

his translation of Homer in 1598 and
1609. Keats first read it in 1816.
II. Stout Cortez. Historical accuracy
would compel the substitution of Balboa
for Cortez.


BRIGHT STAR 608. Usually known as Keats's “ last sonnet,”

written while he was en route to Italy.


YE MARINERS OF ENGLAND 15. Blake. Oliver Cromwell's most successful admiral. He died at sea in 1657. Nelson. The victor of Trafalgar.


THE HARP THAT ONCE THROUGH TARA'S HALLS 509. Tara was formerly an Irish capital city.

OH, BREATHE NOT HIS NAME The famous Irish rebel was executed in 1803 because of treasonable correspondence with Napoleon, and armed rebellion against the crown.

WOLFE THE BURIAL OF SIR JOHN MOORE Sir John Moore, an English general in charge of an army in the Peninsular War, was shot at Corunna, Spain, in January, 1809. At his own request he was buried within the ramparts of the town.

514. 240. He ate strange flesh. See Antony

and Cleopatra, I. iv. 67. 616. 316. A hypochondriac lad. True of Lamb

353. Auto da fe. The name given to
executions, usually by burning, under the
Spanish Inquisition; literally, “act of
355. “ Watchet weeds.” Blue uniform.
378. Ultima Supplicia. Last punish-
395. San Benito. A special robe worn by
the condemned at the auto da fe.
419. An accidence. A primer containing
the rudiments of grammar.
446. Insolent Greece, etc. From Ben
Jonson's lines to Shakespeare.
461. Rousseau. Both Rousseau and
Locke believed in letting a child follow
his own natural impulses.
487. Helot ... Spartans. Spartan par-
ents were accustomed to teach their
children sobriety by calling their atten-
tion to drunken Helots, who were slaves.
496. The Samite. The Greek philosopher
Pythagoras, whose pupils were obliged
to listen in silence to his lectures for five
years before they could ask questions.
497. Goshen. That rich and fertile part
of Egypt inhabited by the Israelites be-
fore the captivity.
503. Gideon's miracle. The method by
which Gideon tested God's promise to
deliver the Midianites into his hand: a
fleece left on the ground over night was
drenched by the dew, while the ground
about it was dry. See Judges, vi.
518. Ululantes. The howlers; e. g., in
Tartarus, hell.
523. Scrannel pipes. Quoted from Lyc-
idas, l. 124.
525. Flaccus's quibble. A pun in one of
Horace's satires (I. vii) on rex as king, and
as a surname.
526. Tristis severitas in vultu. Gloomy
sternness in his face; applied to a rascal
in Terence's Andria.
527. Inspicere in patinas. Look into
your saucepans; the advice of a slave to
scullions, parodying some serious counsel
given by a father to his son, in Terence's
535. Caxon. Slang term for wig.

559. Rabidus furor. Rabid rage. 618. 585. Literary life. Coleridge's Biographia

Literaria. 588. The Country Spectator. A magazine edited by T. F. Middleton in 1792-3; see below, l. 629. 600. Grecian. The two best scholars among the senior boys of Christ's Hospital were called Grecians, and received scholarships at Cambridge University. 617. Fasces. Bundles of rods, with axes in their centers, symbolic of the authority of Roman magistrates; here, the birch rod.


CHRIST'S HOSPITAL 612. The essay purports to be written by a

student of Christ's Hospital who feels
that Lamb's earlier essay, Recollections,
etc., is too flattering an account of life
at the institution.
37. Banyan ... days. Days on which
no meat was served.
39. Double-refined. Sugar.

44. Caro equina. Horseflesh. 613. 54. Griskin. Lean loin of pork.

62. The Tishbite. Elijah.
73. I was a poor friendless boy. True of
Coleridge, for whom Lamb is speaking in
the two paragraphs beginning here.
94. Sweet Calne in Wiltshire. Cole-
ridge's house was really at Ottery St.

Mary, Devonshire. 614. 187. Upon the leads. On the lead-covered

191. Caligula's minion. A horse which
Caligula named first consul.

618. 636. Regni novitas. The newness of the

639. Jewel or Hooker. English bishops
and writers of the sixteenth century;
Hooker was author of the Laws of Eccle-
siastical Polity.
664. Mirandula. Pico della Mirandola,
Italian philosopher of the fifteenth cen-
tury, one of the leading scholars of the
666. Jamblichus, Plotinus. Neo-Pla-
tonic philosophers of the fourth and third
centuries A. D.
674. Fuller. Thomas Fuller, author of

The Worthies of England, 1662. Lamb
adapts Fuller's description of the trials
of wit between Shakespeare and Ben
Jonson, substituting Coleridge for Jonson,
and C. V. Leg. for Shakespeare.
695. Nireus formosus. Handsome Nireus;
Homer called Nireus the handsomest of
all the Greek host before Troy.
709. Sizars. University students who
received free board; formerly they per-
formed certain menial duties in return
for the financial assistance.

famous Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, who twice ran away from school, once

turning chimney sweep. 623. 232. Defiliations. Instances of parents

being deprived of their children.
242. Ascanius. Son of Æneas; in the
first book of the Æneid (1. 695 ff.) we are
told how on one occasion Venus lulled

him to sleep.
524. 283. Incunabula. Cradle.

290. Jem White. A schoolfellow of Lamb's at Christ's Hospital. 299. The fair of St. Bartholomew. Held in Smithfield, one of the poorer districts of London, originally on St. Bartholomew's Day, August 24; later, when the calendar was revised, on September 3. It became the occasion of great disorder and scandal, and was abolished in 1855. Ben Jonson wrote a comedy of this title, dealing with the humors of the Fair, and severely satirizing the Puritans. 312. Quoited. Thrown, as a quoit would be. 335. Rochester. The Earl of Rochester (1647-1680), one of the courtiers of Charles II, noted for his riotous excesses. 341. Old dame Ursula. Lamb so names the woman after one of the characters in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, mentioned above, a fat pig-woman,-i. e., woman who sold roast pig,-indescribably coarse of behavior. 345. Whereat the universal host ... brightness. A paraphrase of Paradise Lost, I. 541-543; see p. 161. 360. Kissing-crust. The soft part of the crust of a loaf where it has touched an

other in baking. 626. 388. Golden lads, etc. From Cymbeline,

IV. ii.

DREAM CHILDREN 621. 221. John L. Lamb's brother John, who

died shortly before this essay was written.

THE PRAISE OF CHIMNEY SWEEPERS 5. Nigritude. Blackness. 9. Professional notes. Their call of á Sweep! Sweep!” 19. Sport their cloth. Wear a garb of black, like a clergyman. 28. Fauces Averni. The jaws of hell. 53. Kibed. Chilblained. . 56. Tester. Sixpence. 59. 'Yclept. Called. 71. The only Salopian house. The only shop devoted to the sale of saloop, or sassafras tea. 88. Fuliginous. Sooty. 137. Covent Garden. The fruit and

vegetable market of London. 623. 165. Westward. I. e., homeward from

work, for Lamb lived in the Temple,
west from Cheapside.
181. Hogarth. William Hogarth (1697-
1764), the famous eighteenth century
painter of London life. The March 1o
Finchley, one of his most animated pieces
of work, depicts a company of soldiers
marching through a crowd in the utmost
confusion; one of the figures in the fore-
ground is that of a sweep, with just
such a grin as Lamb describes, except
that he is grinning not at the pie-man,
but at a soldier who is stealing milk from
a milkmaid.
208. A sable cloud, etc. Adapted from
Comus, l. 221 f.
229. The young Montagu. Edward Wort-
ley Montagu (1713-1776), son of the


DISSERTATION UPON ROAST PIG The Chinese manuscript, and the volume ascribed to Confucius, are inventions of Lamb, who, however, obtained the suggestion for the essay from his friend Thomas Manning, who had travelled in China. 188. Locke. John Locke (1632-1704), author of the Essay concerning Human Uderstanding. 209. Mundus edibilis. World of edibles. 211. Princeps obsoniorum. Chief of tidbits. 217. Amor immunditiæ. Love of filth. 253. Radiant jellies . . . shooting stars. There was a popular superstition that if a shooting star could be found fallen on the ground it would turn out to be nothing but a mass of jelly. 262. Conversation. Behavior. 264. Ere sin, etc. One of Lamb's most exquisite touches of humor; the quotation is from Coleridge's Epitaph on an Infant. 273. Sapors. Flavors.

« AnteriorContinuar »