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the church of the quoad civilia parish of 387. 89. The lawless merchant of the main. Alloway; but this parish having been The smuggler. annexed to that of Ayr in 1690, the church fell more or less to ruin, and when Burns

THE BOROUGH wrote had been roofless for half a century. It stands some two hundred yards to the

The story of Peter Grimes forms Letter north of the picturesque Auld Brig of

xxii of the poem. Doon .... Burns's birthplace is about three-fourths of a mile to the north; so that the ground and its legends were fa

WORDSWORTH miliar to him from the first.”

PREFACE TO THE LYRICAL BALLADS A good many local traditions centered

| 389. The first edition of the Lyrical Ballads around the old church; some of them Burns has worked into the poem.

appeared in 1798; the second edition, in

December, 1800, carried a lengthy PrefSCOTS WHA HAE

ace, from which two passages are here

reprinted. 377. The poem is often called “Bruce's Address to his Army."


| 392. The poem is notable as an expression of AULD LANG SYNE

Wordsworth's idea that Nature is a con378. A song of this name, of which various scious, sentient spirit.

Scottish poets had written versions, was well known in Scotland before Burns com

TINTERN ABBEY posed his verses.

393. 22-49. In this passage Wordsworth states OF A' THE AIRTS THE WIND CAN BLAW

the effect that the recollection of the

landscape he has just been describing “ The song I composed out of compliment has had on him. First, it has brought to Mrs. Burns.” (Burns's note, quoted him mental restoration in hours of weariin Centenary Burns, iii. 345.)

ness; second, “ feelings of unremem

bered pleasure” which have prompted FLOW GENTLY, SWEET AFTON

him to “ acts of kindness and of love"; 380. 3. My Mary. If any definite person is

and lastly, it has brought him the mystic's referred to here,-and this is uncertain,

power of seeing beyond the superficial, it is not Mary Campbell. See the Cen

the apparent, into “ the life of things.” tenary Burns, iii. 395.

394. 72-111. This passage, with which one

should compare lines 175-203 of the HIGHLAND MARY

Intimations of Immortality, is the best

statement of Wordsworth's changing 381. The poem is reminiscent of Burns's devo attitude towards Nature. The pan

tion to Mary Campbell. The editors of psychism, almost the pantheism, of the Centenary tell what is known of her lines 93-102, is noteworthy. (iii. 308).

116. My dear, dear friend. Wordsworth's sister Dorothy was the poet's

most intimate companion during the BLAKE

years from 1795 to 1802. On their life

together one can consult no better work CRADLE SONG

than Dorothy Wordsworth's Journals. 384. 20. While o'er thee thy mother weep. The line (like 11-12 and 15-16) is un

SHE DWELT AMONG THE UNTRODDEN WAYS grammatical, but the reading thy seems

396. This and the two following poems are to have the weight of authority on its side; certain editions emend thy to doth.

from a group of five which picture the poet's love for “ Lucy.” No one knows

who Lucy was. It has been suggested CRABBE

that she is simply a creation of the poet's

imagination, but this does not seem probTHE VILLAGE

able. It is significant that when Words386. 9. Smooth alternate verse. See Spenser's

worth commented on his own verses he Shepherd's Calendar, Eclogue second,

remained silent concerning these five for an example of “alternate verse," in

poems. which first Cuddie and then Thenot

THE PRELUDE speaks. 18. Mantuan song. Virgil's poetry (here This poem, one of Wordsworth's two long his pastorals).

autobiographical pieces, was written be27. Honest Duck. A •minor poet of the tween 1799 and 1805, but was not pubfirst half of the 18th century.

lished till after the poet's death in 1850. It was intended to be the first of three

AT THE GRAVE OF BURNS poems to constitute his magnum opus, The Recluse. Of the three only this first 409. 39, 40. Criffel, Skiddaw. Scottish mounand the second, The Excursion, were

tains. completed.

50. “ Poor inhabitant below." A quota

tion from Burns's A Bard's Epitaph. BOOK IX 397. 35. Journeying toward the snow-clad

SHE WAS A PHANTOM OF DELIGHT Alps. Wordsworth had spent the summer 410. The poem characterizes Mrs. Wordsof 1790 in a walking tour through France

worth, whom, as Mary Hutchinson, and Switzerland. This second journey to

Wordsworth had married in 1802. the continent began in the autumn of 1791.

I WANDERED LONELY AS A CLOUD 40. A pleasant town. Orleans. 68. Bastille. The Bastille had been | 411. 21-22. These lines, perhaps the most stormed and captured by the Revolu

“ Wordsworthian” in the entire poem, tionists on the fourteenth of July, 1789.

were written by the poet's wife. 398. 132. Save only one. Beaupuis, a revolutionary officer, whom Wordsworth came

CHARACTER OF THE HAPPY WARRIOR to know intimately during the winter of 1791-92, which he spent at Orleans.

The portrait or character here sketched is not that of any single person, but is, as

Wordsworth pointed out in his note, a BOOK X

sort of composite, based on Lord Nelson, 48. To Paris I returned. He reached and Wordsworth's brother John, master Paris in October, 1792.

of the Abergavenny, East India man. 53. The palace, lately stormed. The mob Nelson and John Wordsworth both died sacked the Tuileries on the tenth of in 1805; the former at Trafalgar, the August. Louis XVI was a prisoner from latter in the wreck of his vessel in the this time until his execution.

English Channel. 399. 73. September massacres. The massacres of the aristocrats in September,

ODE: INTIMATIONS OF IMMORTALITY 1792, marked the beginning of the “ Reign

413. A part of Wordsworth's note on the poem of Terror.”

runs as follows: “ Nothing was more

difficult for me in childhood than to admit MICHAEL

the notion of death as a state applicable Wordsworth notes of this poem: “ Writ

to my own being. ... It was not so ten at Town-end, Grasmere. ... The much from feelings of animal vivacity Sheepfold, on which so much of the poem that my difficulty came as from a sense turns, remains, or rather the ruins of it. of the indomitableness of the Spirit The character and circumstances of Luke within me.... To that dream-like were taken from a family to whom had vividness and splendor which invest belonged, many years before, the house objects of sight in childhood, everyone, we live in at Town-end, along with some I believe, if he would look back, could fields and woodlands on the eastern shore bear testimony, and I need not dwell of Grasmere. The name of the Evening upon it here: but having in the poem reStar was not in fact given to this house, garded it as presumptive evidence of a but to another on the same side of the prior state of existence, I think it right valley, more to the north.”

to protest against a conclusion, which Wordsworth lived at Grasmere from 1799 has given pain to some good and pious to 1813

persons, that I meant to inculcate such a

belief. It is far too shadowy a notion MY HEART LEAPS UP

to be recommended to faith, as more than 406. 9. Natural piety. Reverence, affection

an element in our instincts of immorfor Nature. Wordsworth chose the last

tality.three lines for the motto of his Ode:

The argument of the poems proceeds from Intimations of Immortality.

stanza to stanza as follows:

1. I can no longer see the celestial beauty RESOLUTION AND INDEPENDENCE

which once enfolded every object in nature.

2. Nature is the same, but the glory has 407. 43. I thought of Chatterton, the marvelous passed away.

Boy. Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770), 3. The utterance of this thought brought who poisoned himself, in a fit of despond

relief from the sadness it occasioned: ency, before he was eighteen years old.

“No more shall grief of mine the season 45. Him who walked in glory. Burns.

wrong." 97. Grave Livers. Persons of solemn 4. Despite the happiness of Nature on deportment.

“ this sweet May-morning," the “glory

tenth of November, 1793, the Goddess of Reason was enthroned in Notre Dame

Cathedral. 418. 66. From bleak Helvetia's icy caverns.

The ode was occasioned by the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798.

and the dream” have gone; “ whither is

fled the visionary gleam?” 413.

5. The child brings with him into this world recollections of Heaven; the older we become the farther we journey from the celestial vision of childhood, till at length

“ the Man perceives it die away, And fade into the light of common day." 6. The Earth, man's foster-mother, does all she can to make the child “ Forget the glories he hath known, And that imperial palace whence he came." 7. The child in his play imitates all the businesses of life. 8. Why should he do this, and hurry himself into the yoke of manhood? 9. Let us give thanks for the “ shadowy recollections” which persist from childhood into maturity to uphold and cherish us. 10. Even though the celestial radiance has now departed from the world, I can still be joyful, finding strength in human sympathy, and “In the faith that looks through death, In years that bring the philosophic mind.” II. And Nature still is beautiful, for the love I feel for her is strengthened and enriched by years of experience with the world, and by sympathetic association with men.

KUBLA KHAN 419. Coleridge writes, in his preface to the

poem:“ In consequence of a slight indis-
position, an anodyne had been prescribed,
from the effects of which he Coleridge]
fell asleep in his chair at the moment that
he was reading the following sentence,
or words of the same substance, in Pur-
chas's Pilgrimage: 'Here the Khan Kubla
commanded a palace to be built, and a
stately garden thereunto. And thus
ten miles of fertile ground were inclosed
with a wall. The author continued for
about three hours in a profound sleep,
at least of the external senses, during
which time he has the most vivid confi-
dence that he could not have composed
less than from two to three hundred lines;
if that indeed can be called composition
in which all the images rose up before
him as things, with a parallel production
of the correspondent expressions, without
any sensation or consciousness of effort.
On awaking he appeared to himself to
have a distinct recollection of the whole,
and instantly and eagerly wrote down the
lines that are here preserved. At this
moment he was unfortunately called out
by a person on business . . . and de-
tained by him above an hour, and on his
return to his room found ... that ...
all the rest had passed away.”
Professor William A. Neilson, in his
recent Essentials of Poetry, writes: “In
... Coleridge's Kubla Khan we have
no wrestling with spiritual questions, no
lofty solution of the problem of conduct
found through brooding on the beauties of
nature. Instead, a thousand impressions
received from the senses, from records of
Oriental travel, from numberless roman-
tic tales, have been taken in by the author,
dissolved as in a crucible by the fierce
heat of his imagination, and are poured
forth a molten stream of sensuous im-
agery, incalculable in its variety of sug-
gestion, yet homogeneous, unified, and,
despite its fragmentary character, the
ultimate expression of a whole romantic
world” (p. 43).


REPUBLIC 416. Napoleon entered Venice on the 16th of

May, 1797, and proclaimed the end of the republic.

ON THE SEA-SHORE NEAR CALAIS 416. 9. Dear Child! dear Girl! The poet's

sister Dorothy.

TO TOUSSAINT L'OUVERTURE 417. Wordsworth celebrates in this sonnet the

achievement and character of the African liberator of San Domingo, who, after leading a successful rebellion against the French, and ridding the island of slavery, was captured in 1801 and taken a prisoner to Paris.


FRANCE: AN ODE The ode is perhaps the most notable expression, within the compass of a single poem, of the effect which the French Revolution had on the English republicans, and of the reasons for their subsequent defection from the cause. 30. The Monarchs marched, etc. War was declared by France against Austria, April 20, 1792; against England, Holland,

and Spain, February 1, 1793. 418. 43. Blasphemy's loud scream. On the

THE RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER In Wordsworth's note on his own poem, We Are Seven, the following passage explains the origin of the Ancient Mariner: “ In the spring of the year 1798 (Coleridge), my sister, and myself, started ... to visit Linton. ... In the course of this walk was planned the poem of the

Ancient Mariner, founded on a dream, worth's marriage-in the Morning Posi. as Mr. Coleridge said, of his friend, Mr. Although Wordsworth's name did not Cruikshank. Much the greatest part of appear in this version, it was in fact adthe story was Mr. Coleridge's invention; dressed to him. Later, after an estrangebut certain parts I myself suggested:

ment between the two poets, Coleridge for example, some crime was to be com

revised and enlarged the ode. The first mitted which should bring upon the old form is printed in the Globe edition of Navigator, as Coleridge afterwards de Coleridge's works, p. 522. lighted to call him, the spectral persecu 25. O Lady! In the earlier version, here tion, as a consequence of that crime, and throughout the poem, O Edmund! and his own wanderings. I had been under which pseudonym Coleridge adreading in Shelvocke's Voyages a day or dressed Wordsworth. two before that while doubling Cape 40. What can these avail. What can Horn they frequently saw albatrosses. these beauties of nature avail?

Suppose,' said I, 'you represent him 436. 120. As Otway's self. Originally " as as having killed one of these birds on Edmund's self." entering the South Sea, and that the 138. Friend devoutest of my choice. The tutelary Spirits of those regions take poem originally closed with these lines: upon them to avenge the crime!' The in "O simple spirit, guided from above, cident was thought fit for the purpose, O lofty Poet, full of life and love, and adopted accordingly. I also sug Brother and friend of my devoutest choice, gested the navigation of the ship by the Thus may'st thou ever, evermore rejoice!" dead men, but do not recollect that I had anything more to do with the scheme of

WORK WITHOUT HOPE the poem. ... We began the composi

436. The poem was composed in February, tion together on that, to me, memorable

1827, long after Coleridge's best work evening. I furnished two or three lines at the beginning of the poem, in par

had been done.

7. Amaranths. Legendary flowers symticular:* And listened like a three years' child;

bolic of immortality. The Mariner had his will.'”

BIOGRAPHIA LITERARIA The poem was first printed in the 1798 edition of the Lyrical Ballads. Many

37. The Lyrical Ballads. The title given archaisms, intended to make it resemble to the 1798 volume to which both Wordsthe popular ballads, and a few stanzas,

worth and Coleridge contributed. It were afterwards removed. The marginal

contained, among other poems, Tinters gloss was added when the poem ap

Abbey, and The Ancient Mariner. peared in the Sybilline Leaves, 1817.

437. 85. A preface. See the selections from

this Preface, pp. 389 ff. FROST AT MIDNIGHT

297. Præcipitandus, etc. The free spirit 430. The poem was written in February, 1798, must be urged forward.

while Coleridge was living in his cottage 354. Laxis effertur habenis. He is carat Nether-Stowey.

ried with loose reins. 7. My cradled infant. His son Hartley.

371. Sir John Davies. Lawyer and poet 25. At school. Coleridge entered Christ's (1569-1626), best known for his poems Hospital when he was ten years old, and Orchestra, Ora Poeme of Dancing, and remained there till he went up to Cam

Nosce Teipsum, on the immortality of bridge University in 1791. Cf. Lamb's the soul; the quotation is from the latter. Christ's Hospital Five and Thirty Years Ago, p. 512. 27. That fluttering stranger. “A fake

SCOTT or film of soot hanging on the bar of a

BOAT SONG grate, supposed to foretell the advent of a

442. 10. Roderigh Vich Alpine dhu. “ Black stranger.” (English Dialect Dictionary.) 38. The stern. preceptor. Boyer, the

Roderick, the descendant of Alpine," famous “flogging master” of Christ's


12. Beltane. May-day. Hospital. 43. Sister more beloved. Between Coleridge and his sister Ann, who died in 1791,

CORONACH there was a strong attachment.

443. “ The Coronach of the Highlanders was 55. Thou, my babe! shalt wander, etc. a wild expression of lamentation, poured The prophecy in these lines was fulfilled forth by the mourners over the body of a when in 1800 Coleridge moved to Greta departed friend. When the words of it Hall, Keswick, in the lake district.

were articulate, they expressed the praises

of the deceased, and the loss the clan DEJECTION: AN ODE

would sustain by his death.” (Scott.) 433. The poem was first printed on the fourth 17. Correi. The side of a hill.

of October, 1802,-the day of Words- | 18. Cumber. Difficulty.

[blocks in formation]


CHILLON François de Bonnivard (1493–1570), a patriotic citizen of Geneva, undertook to defend the city against the Duke of Savoy. In this he was unsuccessful, and after various adventures, was imprisoned in the castle of Chillon from 1530 to 1536. The castle stands on the shore of the Lake

of Geneva. 449. 107. Lake Leman. The Lake of Geneva.

BONNY DUNDEE From The Doom of Devor goil. 1. Claver'se. John Graham of Claverhouse (1649?-1689), an ardent and successful partisan of Charles II, won the title “ bloody Claver'se” by his persecution of the Scottish Dissenters during the last years of Charles's reign. In 1688 he was created first Viscount Dundee by James II. After James's flight, Claverhouse maintained a royal army in Scotland, and won the battle of Killiecrankie in July, 1689, but died of a wound the night of the victory. The incident referred to in the poem took place March 18, 1688, when Claverhouse rode out of Edinburgh at the head of some fifty dragoons, having bolted the Convention that was to determine Scotland's attitude towards James II. 13. The Bow. Bow Street, Edinburgh. 14. Ilk carline was flyting and shaking her pow. Every old woman was scolding and wagging her head. 15. The young plants of grace they looked couthie and slee. The young men looked kindly and sly. 17. The Grassmarket. An open square in the center of the city, formerly used for public executions. See The Heart of Midlothian, Chapter üi. 21. Cowls of Kilmarnock. The Presbyterian Whigs, who were all anti-Stuart. 22. Lang hafted gullies. Long handled knives. 23. Close-head. The entrance to a blind alley. (Engl. Dialect Dictionary.) 25. Castle rock. Edinburgh Castle stands on a high rock above the city. 27. Mons Meg and her marrows. “Mons Meg” was a famous cannon of unusual size. 30. Montrose. James Graham (1612– 1650), fifth Earl and first Marquis of Montrose, was Charles I's most successful lieutenant during the Civil War. He was captured and executed by the Earl of Argyle in 1650.

CHILDE HAROLD'S PILGRIMAGE: CANTO III 452. 182. Belgium's capital. Brussels. See

Thackeray's description of Brussels dur-
ing Waterloo, in Vanity Fair.
200. Brunswick's fated chieftain. The
Duke of Brunswick. His father had been
killed at Jena, in 1806.
226. “ Cameron's Gathering.” The pi-
broch, or martial rallying song, played on
the bagpipe. The clan Cameron had been
"out" under Prince Charles Stuart in
1745, but was enthusiastically loyal in
227. Albyn's. Scotland's.
235. Ardennes. Byron notes: “ The
wood of Soignies is supposed to be a
remnant of the forest of Ardennes,'
famous in Boiardo's Orlando, and im-
mortal in Shakespeare's As You Like



466. 848. Cytherea's zone. Venus's girdle,

which inspired the beholder with love for the wearer.

CANTO IV 1. The Bridge of Sighs. The famous bridge leading from the Doge's Palace to the prison. 8. The winged Lion. The winged lion of St. Mark, the emblem of the Venetian republic. 10. Cybele. Daughter of Uranus, and mother of Zeus; sometimes known as Rhea, and represented as wearing a tiara of towers. 19. Tasso. Torquato Tasso (1544-1505), Italian poet, author of Jerusalem Delivered.

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