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216. 56. Act of Toleration. Passed in 1689,

abolishing the old penalties for non-
conformity.
72. A Dutch government. William III
was Prince of Orange.
111. The Huguenots in France. The
French Protestants had been persecuted
more viciously than English Noncon-
formists; in 1685 they were expelled from
the country.

143. A sordid impostor. Cromwell. 218. 213. Rye House Plot. A conspiracy,

discovered in 1683, to murder Charles II
and his brother James. Although certain
men were executed for their complicity
in the plot, many persons felt that there
was little besides party jealousy at the
bottom of the exposé.
232. The late king. James II.
291. The common enemy. France.
351. The act“ De heretico comburendo."
For burning heretics.
374. Delenda est Carthago. Carthage

must be destroyed. 220. 432. The Counter. A prison in London.

433. A Conventicle. Meeting of Noncon-
formists for worship.
502. Religious houses. Monasteries and
convents.

22

THE APPARITION OF MRS. VEAL This narrative had always been considered an admirable example of Defoe's ability to write pure fiction so that it would seem simple truth, until Mr. George Aitken published in The Nineteenth Century, Jan., 1895, an article showing that Defoe in all probability was telling a story in which, as Aitken puts it, “ nearly all the details are true, ... the characters are real persons,” and in which Defoe invented nothing, or next to nothing, but ... told, very skilfully, a ghost story which was attracting notice

at the time.” 224. 324. Escutcheons. Hatchments; funeral

tablets bearing the arms of the deceased person.

SWIFT

THE TALE OF A TUB 226. The Tale of a Tub was published anony

mously in 1704; Swift had written it some time before, during the closing years of the seventeenth century. It consisted of eleven sections, and was introduced by four satirical prefaces. \ Of the eleven sections constituting the body of the work, five (II, IV, VI, VIII, XI) contain the story of the three brothers, in the course of which Swift pictures the development of Christian faith to the end of the seventeenth century. The other sections are more general in their import, and, like Gulliver's Travels, expose the vanity and absurdity of human nature in the large.

226. 35. Hobbes's Leviathan. The Leviathan

of Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), which appeared in 1651, was an inquiry into the nature of the State, and the theory of

government.
227. 25. My will. The New Testament.

52. Duchess D'Argent, etc. Duchess of
Money, My Lady of Great Titles, and the
Countess of Pride.
63. Locket's, Will's. The first was a
London inn; the second, the coffee house
which Dryden and the wits of the age
frequented.

70. Sub dio. In the open air. 228. 96. A sort of idol. The tailor, god of the

fashionable world.
112. Primum mobile. In the Ptolemaic
astronomy, the outermost sphere, con-
taining and imparting motion to the other
smaller spheres.
117. Water-tabby. Tabby was a material,
such as silk, that had been watered.
152. The coats their father had left them.
The coats represent church organization,
as appears in the remainder of the satire.
186. Totidem verbis. In so many words.
189. Totidem syllabis. In so many syl-
lables.
200. Tertio modo. By a third method.
Totidem literis. In so many letters.
215. Q. V. C. Quibusdam veleribus
codicibus. In some ancient manuscripts.
224. Jure paterno. In accord with the
paternal law.
226. In the passage omitted Swift tells
how as the fashions changed, and shoulder
knots gave place to gold lace, and gold
lace to satin linings, the brothers juggled
with their father's will, and in each case
gratified their desires.
232. A certain lord. This was Constan-
tine the Great, from whom the popes pre-
tended a donation of St. Peter's patri-
mony, which they have never been able
to produce. (Swift's note.)
Section IV tells how Peter, representing
the church of Rome, got the upper hand
of his brothers after driving the legal
heirs out and getting the “ certain lord's"
house for himself. His pride increased
with his success; he claimed to be his
father's sole heir, and assumed the titles
of Father Peter, My Lord Peter, and
finally Emperor Peter. When the two
other brothers finally protested, Peter
drove them from the house. The story

is resumed in section VI. 230. 66, 68. Martin. Martin Luther; Jack.

John Calvin. Martin stands for the mod-
erate reform in the Church of England;
Jack, for the more violent reform of the
Dissenters.

A MODEST PROPOSAL 231. 2. This great town. Dublin. 232. 15. The Pretender. James Stuart, son

of James II, who in 1715 and 1745 made

Elderly, Mrs. Dingley; and Lele appar

ently means “ there." 238. 256. The Duke of Hamilton had fought

with Lord Mohun. The reader of Henry
Esmond will recall the use Thackeray
makes of this incident.
305. Ben-box sent to Lord-Treasurer.
A band-box containing a pair of loaded
pistols had been sent to Lord Oxford;
the Tories saw in the affair a Whig plot
to assassinate him.

ADDISON

THE CAMPAIGN 239. Addison's poem was published in 1704,

celebrating the victory of Marlborough at Blenheim.

armed attempts to recover the crown of England, and intrigued with the Spaniards for assistance.

JOURNAL TO STELLA 236. “ The brightest part of Swift's story, the

pure star in that dark and tempestuous
life of Swift's, is his love for Hester
Johnson. It has been my business, pro-
fessionally of course, to go through a
deal of sentimental reading in my time,
and to acquaint myself with love making
as it has been described in various lan-
guages and at various ages of the world;
and I know of nothing more manly, more
tender, more exquisitely touching, than
some of these brief notes, written in what
Swift calls his little language' in his
journal to Stella." (Thackeray: Swift,
in English Humorists.)
In the “ little language ” MD stands for
my dears, Stella and her companion,
Mrs. Dingley; or sometimes for Stella
alone; Presto is Swift; so is Pdfr.
2. Premunire. A legal term frequently
used for a penalty incurred.
20. Harley. Robert Harley, Chancellor
of the Exchequer, afterwards Lord Treas-
urer and Earl of Oxford.
30. Lord Halifax. Statesman and writer,
one of the leaders of the Whigs.
71. Will Penn the Quaker. The founder
of Pennsylvania.
81. St. John. One of the ablest of the
Tory ministry, created Viscount Boling-
broke in 1714.
86. Bring me over. I. e., to the Tory
party.

98. Fatal. Fated. 237. 102. Tooke. A London bookseller, who

had published Swift's Tale of a Tub.
109. Tatler, ... late. The Tatler sus-
pended publication in January, 1711.
115. The you know what. Sometimes
interpreted as referring to The Tale of a
Tub, never publicly acknowledged by
Swift.
134. Steele. Steele had lost his office of
Gazetteer, and Swift had been trying
to save him his position as Commissioner
of Stamps.
139. Harrison. A young fellow whom
Swift befriended and established as editor
of a new series of Tatlers, after the failure
of Steele's Tatler.
155. Mr. Harley ... yesterday. Har-
ley had sent Swift a bank note for fifty
pounds; this action Swift regarded as an
insult.
186. Patrick Swift's servant, whom he
at length was obliged to discharge for

drunkenness. 238. 251. Most of the “ little language " be

comes intelligible on the substitution of certain consonants in place of the ones used; Swift commonly, as in this letter, writes i for r, and r for !. Richar = little. FW is “farewell ” ; ME is Madame

ADDISON AND STEELE

THE TATLER: PROSPECTUS 240. 55. White's Chocolate-house. During

Queen Anne's reign the chocolate and coffee-houses served as resorts for men of letters and of fashion much as the taverns had done in the time of Elizabeth. The distinguishing characteristics of the group that frequented the various houses are

indicated in Steele's paragraph. 241. 67. Plain Spanish. Perhaps wine; per

haps a syrup made of licorice and wine,
which was a favorite throat remedy.
70. Kidney. One of the waiters.
81. A figure. A horoscope.
The remaining portion of the essay, which
is not here reprinted, consists of letters
from the three coffee-houses and from
Steele's “ own apartment.”

DUELLING The section here reprinted is the first third of the essay. 10. From hence. From White's Coffee

house. 242. 88. Ingenuity. Ingenuousness.

NED SOFTLY 8. Mr. Bickerstaff. Steele chose this as

his pseudonym in writing The Tailer. 243. 36. Little Gothic ornaments. Addison

uses the term contemptuously, as equivalent to rude, barbaric.

FROZEN WORDS 244. 8. Sir John Mandeville. The name as

sumed by the author of The Travels of Sir
John Mandeville, written c. 1360. The
Travels are famous for their exaggera-
tions and wonders.
12. Ferdinand Mendez Pinto. Portu-
guese adventurer (1509–1583), navigator,
and missionary to Japan. His account
of his travels, the Peregrination, was pub-
lished in 1614.

244. 43. Nova Zembla. A Russian arctic pos depended upon social standing or in

session, consisting of two large islands. come.
45. The author of Hudibras. Samuel 264. 43. Shoots flying. “On the wing.”
Butler (1612–1680), whose Hudibras, pub-
lished 1663, is a brilliant satire on the
Puritans.

A COQUETTE'S HEART 246. 132. The strappado. A brutal form of | 260. 114. Rosamond's bower. The bower

corporal punishment, formerly practiced which Henry II is said to have built for in the English army and navy.

his favorite. 137. Wapping. A portion of the London

water-front. 246. 200. A kit. A small violin.

POPE 210. Tuer le temps. To kill time.

WINDSOR FOREST
THE SPECTATOR: MR. SPECTATOR

261. 42. A Stuart reigns. Queen Anne, last of 247. 96. Will's, Child's, etc. All well known the Stuarts to wear the English crown. coffee or cocoa-houses.

147. Now Cancer glows, etc. The sun 101. The Postman. A London weekly is in the sign of Cancer, or the Crab; i. e., newspaper.

it is the period of the summer solstice. 114. Jonathan's. A coffee-house frequented especially by stock brokers.

AN ESSAY ON CRITICISM 248. 202. Little Britain. A street in London.

262. 129. The Mantuan Muse. Virgil; the

Maro of l. 130.
THE CLUB

138. The Stagirite. Aristotle. 20. Soho Square. In Addison's day the | 263. 10. The Pierian spring. The sacred well most fashionable quarter of London.

of the Muses in Thessaly. 249. 26. Rochester. À notorious rake of

89. Conceit. Fantastic expression. Charles II's court. Etherege. The first 128. Fungoso. A character in Ben Jonof the Restoration dramatists.

son's Every Man out of his Humor. 28. Bully Dawson. A notorious sharper. | 264. 137. Numbers. Metrical correctness. 59. A justice of the quorum. The phrase 145, 147. It will be noticed that in these means “a member of the Bench."

two lines, as in lines 357, 367-9, Pope is 67. The Inner Temple. One of the so

illustrating in his own verses the exact called Inns of Court, where lawyers and characteristics which he blames or praises. law-students had their offices and fre

161. Denham, Waller. Two of the first quently their places of residence.

17th century poets to popularize the 75. Aristotle, etc. He knows the laws heroic couplet which Dryden and Pope of rhetoric, etc., as laid down by literary afterwards perfected. critics, better than the principles of juris 174. Timotheus' varied lays. The referprudence.

ence is to Dryden's Alexander's Feast. 86. Demosthenes and Tully. Demosthenes and Cicero, the leading orators of Greece and Rome, respectively.

THE RAPE OF THE LOCK: CANTO I 109. The Rose. A tavern near Drury The poem is founded on an actual occurLane Theatre.

rence. Lord Petre, the baron of the 260. 206. Humorists. Men with a particular

poem, clipped a lock of Miss Arabella bent or disposition.

Fermor's hair. John Caryll, a friend of

both persons, suggested to Pope that a WESTMINSTER ABBEY

humorous poem on the subject might

relieve the unpleasantness which the 262. 51. Prebendaries. Officers of a cathedral

theft of the lock occasioned. Miss Fermor or collegiate church who held an ecclesias

appears in the poem as Belinda. In form, tical living or prebend.

the poem is a mock epic, or “ heroi77. The present war. The war of the Spanish Succession.

comical poem," retaining many of the

external characteristics of the epic, but 04. Sir Cloudesley Shovel. An English admiral (1650-1707), commander-in

enlivened throughout by Pope's mildly

satirical view of the society he was reprechief of British fleets from 1704 to his

senting. death.

265. 18. The pressed watch. A “repeater," 122. The repository of our English kings.

or watch that would strike the nearest The eastern end of the Abbey contains

hour. a large number of royal tombs.

32. The silver token. Fairies were sup

posed to put silver coins in the slippers SIR ROGER AT THE ASSIZES

of good house-maids. 264. 35. He is just within the game-act. Until 44. The Ring. A circular drive in Hyde

1831 the right to kill game in England | Park.

266. 56. Ombre. A fashionable game of cards. 276. 138. Galileo's eyes. The telescope.
266. 127. The inferior priestess. The waiting
maid, Betty (l. 148).

AN ESSAY ON MAN

1. St. John. Henry St. John, afterwards CANTO II

Lord Bolingbroke, was one of Pope's 267. 3. The rival of his beams. Belinda.

intimate friends.
16. Vindicate the ways of God to man.

An echo of Milton's line “ Justify the
CANTO III

ways of God to men.(Paradise Lost, 269. 3. A structure of majestic frame. The i. 26.) royal palace of Hampton Court.

277. 42. Satellites. Pronounced with four 27. At ombre. The description of this syllables, as in Latin. game, which occupies II. 30-100, may well be passed over in reading. Much of the

EPISTLE TO DR. ARBUTHNOT terminology, perfectly familiar to Pope's

278. This portrait of Addison (Atticus) repreaudience, is to-day unintelligible unless accompanied by elaborate illustration and

sents, as well as anything that could be

chosen, Pope's power of satire. explanation.

279. 270. 106. The berries crackle, and the mill

209. Like Cato, give his little senate turns round. Coffee berries were ground

laws. Addison's drama Cato, though on the table.

to-day neglected, was remarkably suc271. 165. Atalantis. The New Atalantis, a

cessful when first produced. romance of the day, by Mrs. Manley.

GOLDSMITH
CANTO IV

THE DESERTED VILLAGE
20. The dreaded east. The east wind
was supposed to cause spleen, or ill tem-

1 Sweet Auburn. Goldsmith is picturper, “a fit of the blues.”

ing English country life and scenery, not 23. She. Spleen.

any one definite village. 272. 46. Angels in machines. An echo of the | 283. 216. Gauge. Estimate the capacity of classical “ deus ex machina," the god

barrels and hogsheads. who appeared at the close of a play and

248. Mantling bliss. Foamy cups of ale. brought affairs to an end.

286. 344. Altama. A river in Georgia. 273. 117. Hyde Park Circus. See note on

286. 418. Torno's cliffs. The cliffs of the Canto I, 1. 44.

Swedish Lake Tornea. Pambamarca. A 118. The sound of Bow. The least fash mountain in Ecuador. ionable quarter of London lay within the

427-30. The last four lines of the poem sound of the bells of Bow church.

were written by Dr. Johnson. 121. Sir Plume. Sir George Brown, one of the members of the party.

THE RETALIATION 156. Bohea. A China tea much prized

The title is explained by the fact that at the time.

Goldsmith wrote the poem as a reply to CANTO v

Garrick's famous epigram at Goldsmith's

expense: 274. 5, 6. The Trojan . . . Anna . . . Dido.

“Here lies Nolly Goldsmith, for shortness Æneas was commanded by Jupiter to

called Noll, leave Carthage, where he had fallen in Who wrote like an angel, but talked like love with Queen Dido. Anna was Dido's

poor Poll.” sister. (Æneid, iv. 416).

23. The good Dean. Thomas Barnard, 276. 53. Umbriel on à sconce's height. Dean of Derry.

“Minerva, in like manner, during the 29. Edmund. Edmund Burke. battle of Ulysses with the suitors, perches 34. Tommy Townshend. A Whig memon a beam of the roof to behold it."

ber of Parliament. (Pope.)

287. 93. David Garrick. The famous actor 276. 125. Rome's great founder. Romulus. and wit.

129. Not Berenice's locks. Berenice was 115. Kenrick, Kelly, Woodfall. The first an Egyptian queen whose hair was two were playwrights; the third, the transformed into a constellation.

editor of the Morning Chronide. 136. Rosamonda's lake. In St. James's 118. Be-Rosciused. Charles Churchill's Park, as was the Mall (1. 133).

poem The Rosciad was a satirical criticism 137. Partridge. “John Partridge was a

of English actors. ridiculous star-gazer, who in his almanacks 124. Ben. Ben Jonson. every year never failed to predict the 137. Reynolds. Sir Joshua Reynolds, downfall of the Pope and the King of the portrait painter (1723-1792). France, then at war with the English." 145. Raphael, Correggio Italian paint(Pope.)

ers of the early sixteenth century.

293.

THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD

DRYDEN 287. The essays in this collection appeared 297. 48. Tuned the numbers. Made the metre first in John Newberry's Public Ledger,

regular.
between January 24, 1760, and August 67. Every language. With the ideas in
14, 1761. They were published as this and the two following paragraphs,
“ Letters from a Chinese Philosopher, should be compared Wordsworth's views,
Residing in London, to his Friends in expressed in the Preface to the Lyrical
the East”; whence the generally used Ballads, p. 389.
name, “ The Chinese Letters.” Beau
Tibbs a! Home is supposed to be “ From

ADDISON
Lien Chi Altangi, to Fum Hoam, first
President of the Ceremonial Academy at

298. 30. Arbiter elegantiarum. Petronius, acPekin, in China ”; the second of the two

cording to Tacitus, was “arbiter elegan

tiæ" at the court of Nero.
here reprinted bears the same superscrip-
tion. The first collected edition appeared
May 1, 1762.

GRAY
300. 24. O Diva, etc. O goddess, thou who

rulest Antium pleasing in thy sight. The JOHNSON

first line of Ode xxxv in Bk. I of Horace's THE RAMBLER

Odes.

32. Wonderful Wonder of Wonders. A 292. 118. The great Mantuan poet. Virgil.

stock phrase, taken from the showmen's 130. When Ulysses visited the infernal bills, etc., of the time. regions. Odyssey, XI. 543 f.

33. The Two Sister Odes. The Progress 159. When Æneas is sent by Virgil to of Poesy and The Bard. the shades. Æneid, VI. 450 f.

26. We are affected only as we believe. 249. The character of Hector. See It would be difficult to find a single senShakespeare's Troilus and Cressida, tence more characteristic of the exaltaII. ii. 163 f.

tion of reason above the imagination, for

which Johnson and his contemporaries LETTER TO THE EARL OF CHESTERFIELD

are notable, than this.
Johnson, in 1747, addressed the Plan of
his dictionary to Chesterfield, a noted

BOSWELL
patron of arts and letters. Chesterfield
paid no attention to Johnson until the

THE LIFE OF JOHNSON
work was nearing completion, when he

301. 22. Dictionary Johnson. “As great men wrote the two papers referred to in Johnson's first sentence, hoping to have the

of antiquity such as Scipio Africanus had

an epithet added to their names, in consededication of the Dictionary.

quence of some celebrated action, so my 15. Le vainqueur, etc. The conqueror

illustrious friend was often called DICof the conqueror of the world. 39. The shepherd in Virgil.

TIONARY JOHNSON, from that wonderful

See the
Bucolics, viii. 42 ff. Love is to be found

achievement of genius and labor, his

Dictionary of the English Language; the not in dalliance, but in hard work.

merit of which I contemplate with more 50. Till I am solitary. An allusion to the

and more admiration." (Boswell.) death of his wife.

37. Mr. Thomas Sheridan. (1719-1788)

Father of Richard Brinsley Sheridan; LETTER TO JAMES MACPHERSON

himself an actor, manager, and play294. Johnson had attacked Macpherson's

wright. Ossian as an imposture; Macpherson

224. Garrick. David Garrick (1717wrote a bitter and insulting letter in

1779), pupil and friend of Johnson; the reply; Johnson's answer is here printed.

most popular actor of the time. 14. Your Homer. Macpherson published

556. Čolley Cibber (1671-1757). Actor, a translation of the Iliad in 1773.

dramatist, and poet-laureate 1730-1757; attacked by Pope in the Dunciad as the

prince of dunces. MILTON

577. Whitehead. Cibber's successor in the 32. Lion, etc. “Sporting the lion | laureateship. ramped, and in his paw Dandled the kid." 589. Gray. Compare these remarks with Par. Lost, iv. 343.

the opinions expressed in the selections 45. Rough satyrs, etc. Lycidas, l. 34.

from Johnson's Life of Gray. 62. We drove afield. Lycidas, l. 279. | 308. 776. He studied physic. Studied medi296. 189. The Measure. See Milton's re

cine. marks, prefixed to Book i of Paradise 789. An usher to an academy. A subLost.

ordinate teacher in a private school.

303

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