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216. 56. Act of Toleration. Passed in 1689,
abolishing the old penalties for non-
143. A sordid impostor. Cromwell. 218. 213. Rye House Plot. A conspiracy,
discovered in 1683, to murder Charles II
must be destroyed. 220. 432. The Counter. A prison in London.
433. A Conventicle. Meeting of Noncon-
THE APPARITION OF MRS. VEAL This narrative had always been considered an admirable example of Defoe's ability to write pure fiction so that it would seem simple truth, until Mr. George Aitken published in The Nineteenth Century, Jan., 1895, an article showing that Defoe in all probability was telling a story in which, as Aitken puts it, “ nearly all the details are true, ... the characters are real persons,” and in which “ Defoe invented nothing, or next to nothing, but ... told, very skilfully, a ghost story which was attracting notice
at the time.” 224. 324. Escutcheons. Hatchments; funeral
tablets bearing the arms of the deceased person.
THE TALE OF A TUB 226. The Tale of a Tub was published anony
mously in 1704; Swift had written it some time before, during the closing years of the seventeenth century. It consisted of eleven sections, and was introduced by four satirical prefaces. \ Of the eleven sections constituting the body of the work, five (II, IV, VI, VIII, XI) contain the story of the three brothers, in the course of which Swift pictures the development of Christian faith to the end of the seventeenth century. The other sections are more general in their import, and, like Gulliver's Travels, expose the vanity and absurdity of human nature in the large.
226. 35. Hobbes's Leviathan. The Leviathan
of Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), which appeared in 1651, was an inquiry into the nature of the State, and the theory of
52. Duchess D'Argent, etc. Duchess of
70. Sub dio. In the open air. 228. 96. A sort of idol. The tailor, god of the
is resumed in section VI. 230. 66, 68. Martin. Martin Luther; Jack.
John Calvin. Martin stands for the mod-
A MODEST PROPOSAL 231. 2. This great town. Dublin. 232. 15. The Pretender. James Stuart, son
of James II, who in 1715 and 1745 made
Elderly, Mrs. Dingley; and Lele appar
ently means “ there." 238. 256. The Duke of Hamilton had fought
with Lord Mohun. The reader of Henry
THE CAMPAIGN 239. Addison's poem was published in 1704,
celebrating the victory of Marlborough at Blenheim.
armed attempts to recover the crown of England, and intrigued with the Spaniards for assistance.
JOURNAL TO STELLA 236. “ The brightest part of Swift's story, the
pure star in that dark and tempestuous
98. Fatal. Fated. 237. 102. Tooke. A London bookseller, who
had published Swift's Tale of a Tub.
drunkenness. 238. 251. Most of the “ little language " be
comes intelligible on the substitution of certain consonants in place of the ones used; Swift commonly, as in this letter, writes i for r, and r for !. Richar = little. FW is “farewell ” ; ME is Madame
ADDISON AND STEELE
THE TATLER: PROSPECTUS 240. 55. White's Chocolate-house. During
Queen Anne's reign the chocolate and coffee-houses served as resorts for men of letters and of fashion much as the taverns had done in the time of Elizabeth. The distinguishing characteristics of the group that frequented the various houses are
indicated in Steele's paragraph. 241. 67. Plain Spanish. Perhaps wine; per
haps a syrup made of licorice and wine,
DUELLING The section here reprinted is the first third of the essay. 10. From hence. From White's Coffee
house. 242. 88. Ingenuity. Ingenuousness.
NED SOFTLY 8. Mr. Bickerstaff. Steele chose this as
his pseudonym in writing The Tailer. 243. 36. Little Gothic ornaments. Addison
uses the term contemptuously, as equivalent to rude, barbaric.
FROZEN WORDS 244. 8. Sir John Mandeville. The name as
sumed by the author of The Travels of Sir
244. 43. Nova Zembla. A Russian arctic pos depended upon social standing or in
session, consisting of two large islands. come.
A COQUETTE'S HEART 246. 132. The strappado. A brutal form of | 260. 114. Rosamond's bower. The bower
corporal punishment, formerly practiced which Henry II is said to have built for in the English army and navy.
his favorite. 137. Wapping. A portion of the London
water-front. 246. 200. A kit. A small violin.
POPE 210. Tuer le temps. To kill time.
261. 42. A Stuart reigns. Queen Anne, last of 247. 96. Will's, Child's, etc. All well known the Stuarts to wear the English crown. coffee or cocoa-houses.
147. Now Cancer glows, etc. The sun 101. The Postman. A London weekly is in the sign of Cancer, or the Crab; i. e., newspaper.
it is the period of the summer solstice. 114. Jonathan's. A coffee-house frequented especially by stock brokers.
AN ESSAY ON CRITICISM 248. 202. Little Britain. A street in London.
262. 129. The Mantuan Muse. Virgil; the
Maro of l. 130.
138. The Stagirite. Aristotle. 20. Soho Square. In Addison's day the | 263. 10. The Pierian spring. The sacred well most fashionable quarter of London.
of the Muses in Thessaly. 249. 26. Rochester. À notorious rake of
89. Conceit. Fantastic expression. Charles II's court. Etherege. The first 128. Fungoso. A character in Ben Jonof the Restoration dramatists.
son's Every Man out of his Humor. 28. Bully Dawson. A notorious sharper. | 264. 137. Numbers. Metrical correctness. 59. A justice of the quorum. The phrase 145, 147. It will be noticed that in these means “a member of the Bench."
two lines, as in lines 357, 367-9, Pope is 67. The Inner Temple. One of the so
illustrating in his own verses the exact called Inns of Court, where lawyers and characteristics which he blames or praises. law-students had their offices and fre
161. Denham, Waller. Two of the first quently their places of residence.
17th century poets to popularize the 75. Aristotle, etc. He knows the laws heroic couplet which Dryden and Pope of rhetoric, etc., as laid down by literary afterwards perfected. critics, better than the principles of juris 174. Timotheus' varied lays. The referprudence.
ence is to Dryden's Alexander's Feast. 86. Demosthenes and Tully. Demosthenes and Cicero, the leading orators of Greece and Rome, respectively.
THE RAPE OF THE LOCK: CANTO I 109. The Rose. A tavern near Drury The poem is founded on an actual occurLane Theatre.
rence. Lord Petre, the baron of the 260. 206. Humorists. Men with a particular
poem, clipped a lock of Miss Arabella bent or disposition.
Fermor's hair. John Caryll, a friend of
both persons, suggested to Pope that a WESTMINSTER ABBEY
humorous poem on the subject might
relieve the unpleasantness which the 262. 51. Prebendaries. Officers of a cathedral
theft of the lock occasioned. Miss Fermor or collegiate church who held an ecclesias
appears in the poem as Belinda. In form, tical living or prebend.
the poem is a mock epic, or “ heroi77. The present war. The war of the Spanish Succession.
comical poem," retaining many of the
external characteristics of the epic, but 04. Sir Cloudesley Shovel. An English admiral (1650-1707), commander-in
enlivened throughout by Pope's mildly
satirical view of the society he was reprechief of British fleets from 1704 to his
265. 18. The pressed watch. A “repeater," 122. The repository of our English kings.
or watch that would strike the nearest The eastern end of the Abbey contains
hour. a large number of royal tombs.
32. The silver token. Fairies were sup
posed to put silver coins in the slippers SIR ROGER AT THE ASSIZES
of good house-maids. 264. 35. He is just within the game-act. Until 44. The Ring. A circular drive in Hyde
1831 the right to kill game in England | Park.
266. 56. Ombre. A fashionable game of cards. 276. 138. Galileo's eyes. The telescope.
AN ESSAY ON MAN
1. St. John. Henry St. John, afterwards CANTO II
Lord Bolingbroke, was one of Pope's 267. 3. The rival of his beams. Belinda.
An echo of Milton's line “ Justify the
ways of God to men.” (Paradise Lost, 269. 3. A structure of majestic frame. The i. 26.) royal palace of Hampton Court.
277. 42. Satellites. Pronounced with four 27. At ombre. The description of this syllables, as in Latin. game, which occupies II. 30-100, may well be passed over in reading. Much of the
EPISTLE TO DR. ARBUTHNOT terminology, perfectly familiar to Pope's
278. This portrait of Addison (Atticus) repreaudience, is to-day unintelligible unless accompanied by elaborate illustration and
sents, as well as anything that could be
chosen, Pope's power of satire. explanation.
279. 270. 106. The berries crackle, and the mill
209. Like Cato, give his little senate turns round. Coffee berries were ground
laws. Addison's drama Cato, though on the table.
to-day neglected, was remarkably suc271. 165. Atalantis. The New Atalantis, a
cessful when first produced. romance of the day, by Mrs. Manley.
THE DESERTED VILLAGE
1 Sweet Auburn. Goldsmith is picturper, “a fit of the blues.”
ing English country life and scenery, not 23. She. Spleen.
any one definite village. 272. 46. Angels in machines. An echo of the | 283. 216. Gauge. Estimate the capacity of classical “ deus ex machina," the god
barrels and hogsheads. who appeared at the close of a play and
248. Mantling bliss. Foamy cups of ale. brought affairs to an end.
286. 344. Altama. A river in Georgia. 273. 117. Hyde Park Circus. See note on
286. 418. Torno's cliffs. The cliffs of the Canto I, 1. 44.
Swedish Lake Tornea. Pambamarca. A 118. The sound of Bow. The least fash mountain in Ecuador. ionable quarter of London lay within the
427-30. The last four lines of the poem sound of the bells of Bow church.
were written by Dr. Johnson. 121. Sir Plume. Sir George Brown, one of the members of the party.
THE RETALIATION 156. Bohea. A China tea much prized
The title is explained by the fact that at the time.
Goldsmith wrote the poem as a reply to CANTO v
Garrick's famous epigram at Goldsmith's
expense: 274. 5, 6. The Trojan . . . Anna . . . Dido.
“Here lies Nolly Goldsmith, for shortness Æneas was commanded by Jupiter to
called Noll, leave Carthage, where he had fallen in Who wrote like an angel, but talked like love with Queen Dido. Anna was Dido's
poor Poll.” sister. (Æneid, iv. 416).
23. The good Dean. Thomas Barnard, 276. 53. Umbriel on à sconce's height. Dean of Derry.
“Minerva, in like manner, during the 29. Edmund. Edmund Burke. battle of Ulysses with the suitors, perches 34. Tommy Townshend. A Whig memon a beam of the roof to behold it."
ber of Parliament. (Pope.)
287. 93. David Garrick. The famous actor 276. 125. Rome's great founder. Romulus. and wit.
129. Not Berenice's locks. Berenice was 115. Kenrick, Kelly, Woodfall. The first an Egyptian queen whose hair was two were playwrights; the third, the transformed into a constellation.
editor of the Morning Chronide. 136. Rosamonda's lake. In St. James's 118. Be-Rosciused. Charles Churchill's Park, as was the Mall (1. 133).
poem The Rosciad was a satirical criticism 137. Partridge. “John Partridge was a
of English actors. ridiculous star-gazer, who in his almanacks 124. Ben. Ben Jonson. every year never failed to predict the 137. Reynolds. Sir Joshua Reynolds, downfall of the Pope and the King of the portrait painter (1723-1792). France, then at war with the English." 145. Raphael, Correggio Italian paint(Pope.)
ers of the early sixteenth century.
THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD
DRYDEN 287. The essays in this collection appeared 297. 48. Tuned the numbers. Made the metre first in John Newberry's Public Ledger,
298. 30. Arbiter elegantiarum. Petronius, acPekin, in China ”; the second of the two
cording to Tacitus, was “arbiter elegan
tiæ" at the court of Nero.
rulest Antium pleasing in thy sight. The JOHNSON
first line of Ode xxxv in Bk. I of Horace's THE RAMBLER
32. Wonderful Wonder of Wonders. A 292. 118. The great Mantuan poet. Virgil.
stock phrase, taken from the showmen's 130. When Ulysses visited the infernal bills, etc., of the time. regions. Odyssey, XI. 543 f.
33. The Two Sister Odes. The Progress 159. When Æneas is sent by Virgil to of Poesy and The Bard. the shades. Æneid, VI. 450 f.
26. We are affected only as we believe. 249. The character of Hector. See It would be difficult to find a single senShakespeare's Troilus and Cressida, tence more characteristic of the exaltaII. ii. 163 f.
tion of reason above the imagination, for
which Johnson and his contemporaries LETTER TO THE EARL OF CHESTERFIELD
are notable, than this.
THE LIFE OF JOHNSON
301. 22. Dictionary Johnson. “As great men wrote the two papers referred to in Johnson's first sentence, hoping to have the
of antiquity such as Scipio Africanus had
an epithet added to their names, in consededication of the Dictionary.
quence of some celebrated action, so my 15. Le vainqueur, etc. The conqueror
illustrious friend was often called DICof the conqueror of the world. 39. The shepherd in Virgil.
TIONARY JOHNSON, from that wonderful
achievement of genius and labor, his
Dictionary of the English Language; the not in dalliance, but in hard work.
merit of which I contemplate with more 50. Till I am solitary. An allusion to the
and more admiration." (Boswell.) death of his wife.
37. Mr. Thomas Sheridan. (1719-1788)
Father of Richard Brinsley Sheridan; LETTER TO JAMES MACPHERSON
himself an actor, manager, and play294. Johnson had attacked Macpherson's
wright. Ossian as an imposture; Macpherson
224. Garrick. David Garrick (1717wrote a bitter and insulting letter in
1779), pupil and friend of Johnson; the reply; Johnson's answer is here printed.
most popular actor of the time. 14. Your Homer. Macpherson published
556. Čolley Cibber (1671-1757). Actor, a translation of the Iliad in 1773.
dramatist, and poet-laureate 1730-1757; attacked by Pope in the Dunciad as the
prince of dunces. MILTON
577. Whitehead. Cibber's successor in the 32. Lion, etc. “Sporting the lion | laureateship. ramped, and in his paw Dandled the kid." 589. Gray. Compare these remarks with Par. Lost, iv. 343.
the opinions expressed in the selections 45. Rough satyrs, etc. Lycidas, l. 34.
from Johnson's Life of Gray. 62. We drove afield. Lycidas, l. 279. | 308. 776. He studied physic. Studied medi296. 189. The Measure. See Milton's re
cine. marks, prefixed to Book i of Paradise 789. An usher to an academy. A subLost.
ordinate teacher in a private school.