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169. 403. Opprobrious hill. The Mount of Charlemain and all his peerage. Charle

Olives, where Solomon built a temple to magne and his twelve knights are the Moloch.

heroes of the Chanson de Roland, which 404, 5. Hinnom. A valley south of the gives an account of their defeat in the Mount of Olives. Tophet, Gehenna. pass of Roncesvalles, not far from FonSynonyms for hell. Gehenna means, lit

tarabbia. erally, “ Valley of Hinnom.”

674. The work of sulphur. It was form406. Chemos. A god of the Moabites.

erly believed that ores could not exist 411. The Asphaltic pool. The Dead Sea. independent of sulphur. 420. The brook that parts. The river 678. Mammon. God of riches. Besor.

164. 720. Belus, Serapis. The first an As422. Baalim and Ashtaroth. Phænician syrian god, the second an Egyptian. gods, here used in the plural form for 728. Cressets. Hanging iron vessels, deities of the sun and moon.

open at the top, containing a burning 438. Ashtoreth. Goddess of love, corre

illuminant. sponding to the Aphrodite of the Greeks. 737. Orders. The nine ranks of angels in 444. That uxorious king. Solomon.

the celestial hierarchy. 446. Thammuz. Corresponding to the 738. His name. Hephæstus, the Greek Greek Adonis, slain by a wild boar.

god of fire; analogous to the Latin Vulcan. 450. Adonis. A river in Phænicia whose 739. Ausonian land. Italy. water is reddened by the soil through 756. Pandemonium. “The hall of all which it flows.

the devils.” Milton coined the word on 455. Ezekiel. See Ezekiel, viii: 14.

the analogy of Pantheon, “ the ball of all 462. Dagon. A Philistine deity; see the gods. I Samuel, v.

769. The Sun with Taurus rides. The 464-6. Azotus ... Gaza. Philistine sun is in the sign of Taurus, or the Bull, cities.

from the middle of April till the middle 471. A leper, etc. See 2 Kings, v.

of May. Cf. Chaucer's Prologue, I. 7. 478. Osiris, Isis, Orus. Egyptian gods. 161. 484. The calf in Oreb. See Exodus, xii:

BOOK II 35-6, and xxxii: 4. The rebel King. 2. Ormus. The island of Hormuz in the Jeroboam; see i Kings, xii: 28-9.

Persian Gulf. 488. Equalled with one stroke. See

167. 74. That forgetful lake. The lake of Exodus, xii: 29.

liquid fire into which the angels had fallen. 490. Belial. Milton's personification of 100. At worst on this side nothing. In wickedness.

as bad a condition as we can be and still 495. As did Eli's sons. See i Samuel, ii:

exist. 12-17.

168. 152. Let this be good. Granting that 502, 3. Sodom, Gibeah. See Genesis, xix; absolute annihilation be good. Judges, xix.

224. For happy. As regards happiness. 508. Ionian Greek. Of Javan's issue.

336. To our power. To the extent of our By the descendants of Javan (Noah's

power. grandson). The account of the supplant 173. 531. The goal. The turning-post in a ing of Titan by Saturn, who was in turn

chariot race. deposed by Jove, is the accepted classical 539. Typhæan rage. Rage like that of myth.

Typhon, who, according to the fables, 519. Doric. Greek.

was imprisoned beneath a volcano. 520. Adria. The Adriatic Sea. Hes

542. Alcides. Hercules. perian. Western; i. e., of Italy.

592. Serbonian bog. An Egyptian lake, 550. Dorian mood. Martial music like near the city of Damietta and Mt. Casius. that of the Spartans.

638. Bengala. Bengal. 162. 573. Since created man. Since man was 639. Ternate and Tidore. Two of the created.

Molucca Islands. 575, 6. That small infantry Warred on by 641. Ethiopian. The Indian Ocean. cranes. The battle between the pygmies Cape. Cape of Good Hope. and the cranes, to which Homer refers 176. 660. Vexed Scylla. Scylla, transformed at the beginning of the third book of the into a monster like Sin, cast herself into Iliad.

the sea between Italy and Sicily, and be577. Phlegra. On the west coast of came a menace to navigation. Italy, where gods and giants fought a 709. Ophiucus. One of the northern congreat battle.

stellations. 580. Uther's son. King Arthur, hero of 178. 904. Barca, Cyrene. Cities of northern many romances.

Africa. 583-7. Aspramont ... Fontarabbia. 922. Bellona. The Roman goddess of The names are those of places mentioned

war. in mediæval romances describing con- | 179. 945. Pursues the Arimaspian. The leg. flicts between Christians and Saracens. endary Arimaspians, of Scythia, fought

the gryphons for the gold which the

monsters guarded. 180. 1029. The utmost orb. The outermost of

the ten concentric spheres which, according to Ptolemaic astronomy, constituted the universe; at the center was the earth.

BOOK XII 604. He ended. The archangel Michael, who had been sent to drive Adam and Eve out of Paradise.

183. 187. Pluralities. The churchman who

was the possessor of several benefices
was said to hold a plurality.
219. Ferular. Rod. Fescu. Pointer.
220. Imprimatur. Let it be printed; the
word signifying that the book had been
licensed for publication.
247. Palladian. Pertaining to Pallas
Athene, goddess of wisdom.
359. Pyrrhus. After the battle of Hera-
clea (280 B. C.) Pyrrhus declared that
if he had Roman soldiers the control of

the world would be easy. 186. 412. Janus. The two-faced god of the

Romans, whose temple doors were opened
only in war-time.
426. Beyond the discipline of Geneva.
Beyond what seems proper to the Pres-
459. The old Proteus. Proteus, the sea
god, whose power of assuming many
forms has given its significance to the
adjective Protean, prophesied when bound
in chains.
464. Micaiah before Ahab. See 1 Kings,

xxii: 13-15. 186. 502. Many subdichotomies. Many minor

subdivisions. 187. 613. She is now fallen from the stars.

The Star-chamber court was abolished in
620. These sophisms and elenchs of
merchandise. False arguments used
by the bookselling trade.

AREOPAGITICA 181. “I wrote my Areopagitica,said Milton

in his Defensio Secunda, “in order to
deliver the press from the restraints with
which it was encumbered; that the power
of determining what was true and what
was false, what ought to be published
and what to be suppressed, might no
longer be entrusted to a few illiterate and
illiberal individuals, who refused their
sanction to any work which contained
views or sentiments at all above the level
of the vulgar superstition.” The treatise
appeared in November, 1644, four months
after the defeat of Rupert at Marston
Moor, and when Milton felt confident
that the Parliamentary cause would
prosper. The immediate occasion was
the enactment, in June, 1643, of an order
forbidding the printing or sale of any book
that had not been properly licensed.
14. Those fabulous dragon's teeth. The
dragon's teeth, sown by Jason, sprang
up armed men.
46. The thing. The custom of requiring

a license. 182. 58. Lullius. Raymond Lully, a scientist

of the thirteenth century. Sublimate.
67. That unapocryphal vision. See Acts,
X: 9-16.
85. Mr. Selden. John Selden (1584-
1654), a writer on law and constitutional
history and member of Parliament for
Oxford University.
107. Omer. A measure, mentioned in
Exodus, xvi: 18. It was between half and
four-fifths of a gallon.
1 28. Seeds which were imposed on
Psyche. The story, told in Apuleius's
Golden Ass, pictures Venus as punishing
Psyche for winning the love of Cupid by
forcing her to arrange in proper piles all
the seeds of a vast heap of mixed grain.
The ants, taking pity on Psyche, per-
formed the labor for her.
164. Scotus; Aquinas. Duns Scotus,
(1265?-1308), a famous mathematician;
Thomas Aquinas (1224?-1274), the “an-
gelic doctor" of the scholastic philos-

ophers. 183. 166. Guyon. The knight of temperance,

hero of Book II of the Faerie Queene.
181. It. The licensing act.


THE DIARY 23. The Covenant. The Scottish Covenant, or agreement for the conduct of the church, was promulgated in 1638; in 1643 the “ Solemn League and Covenant" between the Parliamentary forces and Scotland was signed, providing for the abolition in England of Popery and Prelacy. In 1662 Charles abrogated the covenants. 34. My Lord. Sir Edward Montagu, to whom Pepys was secretary, and who afterwards secured Pepys's appointment as Clerk of the Acts in the Navy Office. 39. The Long Reach. The part of the

river between Erith and Gravesend. 188. 73. Trimmed in the morning. Thus

Pepys records his visits to the barber.
108. His escape from Worcester. In
1651 Cromwell won what he called the
crowning mercy” at Worcester, when
he defeated Charles II and his army of
Scottish supporters.
143. Wide canons. Ornaments attached
to the legs of a pair of breeches.
167. General Monk. Cromwell's old
companion-in-arms, whose decision to
welcome Charles II was largely influen-

tial in bringing about the Restoration. 190. 301. The Three Cranes. A tavern on

upper Thames Street.

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190. 379. The Custom of the Country. A

tragi-comedy by Fletcher; printed in the
1647 edition of Beaumont and Fletcher.
391. By link. By the light of a torch, or
407. Sir Martin Mar-all. A comedy
adapted for the stage by Dryden, from a
translation by the Duke of Newcastle.
445. The Indian Emperor. Dryden's
heroic drama dealing with the conquest
of Mexico by the Spaniards. The play
was a brilliant success. Nell. Nell
Gwynn, the most popular actress of the
day; a favorite of Charles II.
459. The Black Prince. Roger Boyle,
Earl of Orrery (1621-1679), won a con-
siderable success with Mustapha; The
Black Prince was a comparative failure.

The long struggle to dispossess the House
of Stuart, beginning in the first quarter
of the seventeenth century, was not
finally ended until Prince Charles Stuart,
“ the Young Pretender,” grandson of
James II, had been defeated at Culloden,
in 1746, by the Duke of Cumberland.
As the fortunes of the Stuarts waned,
their attacks on their opponents-Parlia-
mentarians, Whigs, Hanoverians-be-
came more bitter. During the Civil
War, and again at the time of the Revolu-
tion of 1688, the flood of satire of which
these street songs are typical examples,
was of almost unbelievable magnitude.
The six ballads here printed are from the
time of the Civil War and the Common-

Shaftesbury (Achitophel) planned to set
aside tradition and present Monmouth as
a sort of people's candidate in opposi-
tion to the Duke of York. For many
years Shaftesbury had been the virtual
leader of the Whigs and Protestants.
During the “ Popish Plot” he had been
Titus Oates's most prominent supporter;
he championed the Exclusion Bill, and
was accused of fomenting a rebellion in
Scotland. In July, 1681, he was im-
prisoned in the Tower on charge of high
treason; but when his case came before
the grand jury at the end of November,
he was released through an ignoramus
verdict. In November, 1682, he fled to
Holland, where in 1683 he died. The
Duke of Monmouth made his ill-fated
attempt to win the crown in 1685, but his
followers were dispersed at the battle
of Sedgemoor, and he himself was soon
afterwards beheaded. Dryden under-
took in Absalom and Achitophel to in-
fluence public opinion against Shaftes-
bury, and timed its publication so that
it appeared only two weeks before the
earl's trial was to begin. For the Biblical
account of the revolt of Absalom see
2 Samuel, xiii-xviii.
7. Israel's monarch. Charles II, the
David of the poem.
23. In foreign fields he won renown.
Monmouth had won something of a
reputation as a soldier during three cam-
paigns on the continent.
34. The charming Annabel. Anne Scott,
Countess of Buccleuch, whom Monmouth
married in 1665.
39. Amnon's murder. It is uncertain
just what Dryden had in mind; perhaps
an assault on Sir John Coventry in which
Monmouth had been involved in 1670;
the Duke had also participated in a park
riot in which a beadle was killed.
42. Sion. London.
45. The Jews. The English.
57. Saul. Oliver Cromwell.
58. Ishbosheth. Richard Cromwell.
59. Hebron Scotland, where Charles II

was first crowned. 196. 82. The good old cause. The cause of

the Commonwealth; the phrase was
generally used with this meaning, and
usually with a tinge of sarcasm.
85. oid Jerusalem. London.
86. Jebusites. Roman Catholics. The
chosen people (1. 88) were the Protestants.
108. That Plot, the nation's curse. The
Popish Plot of 1678–79.
118. The Egyptian rites. French rites.
“Where gods were recommended," etc.,
is an attack on the doctrine of transub-

197. 150. Achitophel. Shaftesbury.

175. The triple bond. An alliance formed in 1668 between England, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic.

THE PROTECTING BREWER 193. The legend that Cromwell was a brewer

by trade appears in many of the songs and satires of the period.

THE LAWYERS' LAMENTATION Charing Cross had been torn down by Parliament along with many other insignia of royalty and ecclesiasticism.


ABSALOM AND ACHITOPHEL 195. The poem appeared in 1681, when the

question of the successor to Charles II, in the event of the King's death, was agitating all England. The heir-apparent was the King's brother James, the Duke of York, who was generally unpopular on account of his Catholicism. James, Duke of Monmouth, the Absalom of the poem, an illegitimate son of Charles, was a Protestant, and in general favor with the Whig and anti-Catholic parties. Despite the stain on his birth his friends, led by Anthony Ashley Cooper, first earl of

197. 177. A foreign yoke. An alliance with

188. Abbethdin. The highest officer of

the Jewish court of justice. 198. 264. Gath. Brussels.

270. Jordan's sand. Dover beach, where
Charles II landed at the Restoration.
. 352. The collateral line. James, Duke of

York, brother of the king, stood at the
head of this line of descent.
529. A numerous host of dreaming saints.
The non-conforming Protestants, sar-
castically called “ saints.”
539. Born to be saved. A sarcastic refer-
ence to the doctrine of election.
544. Zimri. George Villiers, Duke of
Buckingham, who in The Rehearsal had
satirized Dryden as “ John Bayes." In
his Discourse Concerning Satire Dryden
afterwards wrote: “ The character of
Zimri in my Absalom is, in my opinion,
worth the whole poem: 'tis not bloody,
but 'tis ridiculous enough; and he for whom
it was intended was too witty to resent
it as an injury."
585. Shimei. Slingsby Bethel, whom
the Whigs had elected one of the two

Sheriffs in 1680. 201. 617. No Rechabite, etc. “ The words

of Jonadab the son of Rechab, that he commanded his sons not to drink wine, are performed; for unto this day they

drink none." Jeremiah, xxxv: 14. 202. 817. Barzillai. James Butler, Duke of

Ormond, always a staunch loyalist.
902. The Sanhedrin. The House of
910. Unequal ruler of the day. Apollo's
son Phaethon, who could not guide suc-

cessfully his father's car of the sun. 203. 921. The true successor. James, Duke

of York.

There is also a reference to the title of
Shadwell's play Epsom Wells."'-(Noyes;

Camb. ed., p. 959). 204. 43. The new Arion. Arion was a Greek

musician of the eighth century B. C.
53. St. André. A French dancing-master.
54. Thy own Psyche. One of Shadwell's

plays. 206. 57. Singleton. A contemporary singer

who had taken the role of Villerius in
Davenant's The Siege of Rhodes.
64. Fair Augusta. London, which at the
time was fearful of Popish plotters.
74. A Nursery. A theatre given over to
training young actors.
78. Maximin. A defiant character in
Dryden's Tyrannic Love.
79, 80. Buskins, socks. See notes on
L'Allegro, l. 132, and Il Penseroso, 1. 102.
81. Gentle Simkin. A clown.
84. Panton. “A celebrated punster,
according to Derrick.” (Scott.)
105. Herringman. A contemporary pub-
122. Love's Kingdom. A play by Fleck-

noe. 206. 149. Let Virtuosos, etc. The Virtuoso

was a play by Shadwell.
151. Gentle George. Sir George Ether-
edge, the contemporary dramatist.
152. Dorimant, Loveit, Cully, etc. All
characters in plays by Shadwell.
163. Let no alien Sedley interpose. Sir
Charles Sedley, who had assisted Shad-
well in his play-writing.
168. Sir Formal. Sir Formal Trifle ap-
pears in Shadwell's The Virtuoso.
172. By arrogating Jonson's hostile name.
Shadwell was fervid in his praise of Ben
179. Prince Nicander. A character in
Shadwell's Psyche.
185. Oil on water's flow. Flow is a

noun. 207. 212. Bruce and Longville had a trap

prepared. Thus the two gentlemen dispose of Sir Formal in The Virtuoso.

MAC FLECKNOE 204. After the release of Shaftesbury in 1681,

his Whig friends caused a medal to be
struck commemorating the event. Dry-
den at once published The Medal: A
Satire Against Sedition. Among the re-
plies was a violent one by Thomas
Shadwell, The Medal of John Bayes. In
October, 1682, Dryden answered with
Mac Flecknoe, than which nothing illus-
trates more effectively the caustic nature
of his satire.
3. Flecknoe. An inoffensive poet who had
died in 1678, over whose shoulder Dryden
strikes Shadwell.
29. Heywood and Shirley. Elizabethan
dramatists, not deserving of such harsh
36. To King John of Portugal I sung.
King John had entertained Flecknoe at
42. In Epsom blankets tossed. “ Tossing
in a blanket is the punishment visited
upon Sir Samuel Hearty in The Virtuoso.

THE HIND AND THE PANTHER James II, who came to the throne in 1685, was a Roman Catholic. In 1687 Dryden published this poem, an allegory in which the Hind, “immortal and unchanged,” represents the Roman, and the Panther, the English Church. The various dissenting sects are satirized much more harshly than the English Church. 9. Her young. Roman Catholic priests. 27. The common hunt. The other beasts; i. e., the other sects. 35. The bloody Bear. The Independents, later the Congregationalists. 37. The quaking Hare. The Quakers, who would not take oaths in court. 39. The buffoon Ape. The Freethinkers. 41. The Lion. The King of England.

207. 43. The Boar. The Anabaptists.

49. In German forests. "The sect originated in Germany, where their early history is connected with a revolt of the

peasantry.” (Noyes.) 208. 53. False Reynard. The Unitarians.

Athanasius (293--373) was instrumental
in having the early church embody the
Trinitarian conception of God in the
Nicene creed. Socinus was opposed to
this orthodox Trinitarian belief.
327. The Panther. The Church of Eng-
338. The Wolf. The Presbyterians.

In 1701 a satirist named Tutchin lam-
pooned King William as a "Dutchman."
Defoe, “ filled with a kind of rage," re-

plied in The True-Born Englishman. 216. 39. Shibboleth. See Judges, xü: 6.

45. The Norman bastard. William the
91. Blue-coat Hospitals. Charity schools.
Christ's Hospital, the famous “Blue-
Coat School ” of which Lamb wrote so
delightfully, was founded by Henry VI,
and was originally intended to be a school
for orphans. The scholars wore a blue
gown and blue cap. The Bridewell,
later a reformatory, was originally a school
of the same nature.
95. The Counter. A London prison.

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ESSAY OF DRAMATIC POESY 1. Neander. The essay is in dialogue form, Neander representing Dryden Eugenius may be Charles Sackville, Lord Buckhurst, afterwards Earl of Dorset. 2. The Silent Woman. A play by Ben

212. 36. Clenches. Puns.

43. Quantum lenta, etc. As the cypresses
rise above the low shrubs..
45. Mr. Hales of Eton. John Hales
(1584-1656), fellow of Eton, an English
scholar and critic.
54. The last king. Charles I.
84. Humor. A man's particular bent, or

ruling passion, was called his “humor.” | 213. 156. The greater wit. The greater genius.

THE SHORTEST WAY WITH THE DISSENTERS 216. The Dissenters, or Nonconformists, were

members of the various anti-episcopal
sects which had flourished during the
Civil War, had been suppressed, some
times by the sword, under Charles II
and his brother James, and had again
revived under the sympathetic govern-
ment of William III. In the spring of
1702 Anne, a Stuart, succeeded to the
throne; in November of the same year a
Tory ministry introduced a bill against
“ occasional conformity.” The practice
thus attacked was a means whereby Dis-
senters, through occasional attendance
at the Church of England, made them-
selves eligible to office. Had the bill
passed,-and the Queen was ardently in
favor of it,--this avenue of escape would
have been closed, and the pains and
penalties of the old Stuart régime, with
some modifications, would have been
again in force. Defoe, a Nonconformist,
at once attacked the government in this
pamphlet. Writing with an ironic gravity
hardly surpassed by Swift in his Modest
Proposal, he argued that at last the time
had arrived for wiping the Dissenters out
of existence, and proposed measures far
more rigorous than Tory or High-church-
man had dreamed of. At first neither
party saw through the veil of irony, and
the pamphlet was accepted at its face
value. But when the government dis-
covered that it had been hoaxed, Defoe
was arrested, fined, exhibited three times
in the pillory, and imprisoned in New-
gate, and his pamphlet was burned in
public by the hangman.
1. Sir Roger L'Estrange. A seventeenth
century pamphleteer, founder of The
13. Some people. The Nonconformists.
23. Near fourteen years. William III
took the throne, by invitation of Parlia-
ment, in 1688.

PREFACE TO THE FABLES The Fables, translations of Homer, Chaucer, and others, were published in 1700. 14. One of our late great poets. Abraham Cowley. 16. Forgive. Forego, leave alone. 41. Nimis poeta. Too much a poet. 46. Auribus istius, etc. Adapted to the ears of that time. 56. The last edition. In 1687 there appeared a reprint, with some additions, of Thomas Speght's 1602 blackletter edition of Chaucer. 65. Numbers. Metre. 72. Dryden did not understand the pronunciation of Chaucer's final e. 88. Baptista Porta. An Italian quack and physiognomist.

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