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125. 23. Cæsar's. Charles the First's. 120. 15. Coal. I. e., on the Day of Judgment.
24. Through his laurels. In spite of his
royal crown. THE COLLAR
29. His private gardens. Until the out
break of the Civil War Cromwell had 6. In suit. Suing for the favor of a su
lived in retirement. perior.
41. Nature, that hateth emptiness. A 8. Me. For me; an example of the so variant of the well known phrase “ Nature called ethical dative.
abhors a vacuum.” 22. The attempt to weave a rope of sand 42. Allows of penetration less. Two was a typical example of folly.
bodies cannot occupy the same space.
47. Hampton. It was long believed that CRASHAW: IN THE HOLY NATIVITY OF OUR
Cromwell connived at the flight of LORD GOD
Charles from Hampton Court to Caris122. 91 ff. She sings Thy tears asleep, etc.
brooke Castle in 1647. The stanza offers a typical example of a
57. He. The King. This fine passage “ conceit." It is thus explained by
has done much to keep the poem alive. Schelling (Seventeenth Century Lyrics):
66. Assured the forced power. Made the “ The Virgin sings to her babe until,
69. A bleeding head. Pliny tells, in his falling asleep, his tears cease to flow.
Natural History (xxviii. 4), an anecdote ' And dips her kisses in Thy weeping eye,'
of the finding of a head while workmen she kisses lightly his eyes, suffused with tears. Here the lightness of the kiss and
were digging on the Tarpeian hill for the the over-brimming fullness of the eyes
foundation of a temple to Jupiter; the
omen was interpreted as indicating a suggest the hyperbole and the implied metaphor, which likens the kiss to some
prosperous future for Rome.
82. In the republic's hand. Submissive thing lightly dipped into a stream. “She
to the Commonwealth's wishes. spreads the red leaves of thy lips,' i. e., kisses the child's lips, which lie lightly
86. A Kingdom. Ireland.
92. Heavy. I. e., with her prey. apart in infantile sleep, and which are
| 126. 101, 2. Cromwell shall be to France what like rosebuds in their color and in their childish undevelopment. “Mother-dia
Cæsar was, to Italy what Hannibal was.
104. Climacteric. The force that brings monds' are the eyes of the Virgin, bright
about the result at a critical time. as diamonds and resembling those of the child. “Points' are the rays or beams of
106. Parti-colored. Variegated, i. e.,
fickle. There is a play on the word Pict, the eye, which, according to the old
derived from “ pictus,” painted, applied physics, passed, in vision, from one eye
to the ancient Celts who were accusto another. Lastly, the eyes of the child are likened to those of a young eagle, and
tomed to paint their bodies. the Virgin tests them against her own as
111. Lay ... in. To send dogs into
cover. the mother eagle is supposed to test her nestling's eyes against the sun.'
DORSET: TO ALL YOU LADIES NOW AT LAND VAUGHAN: THE RETREAT
127. “ Written in 1665, when the author, at 123. The idea of this poem suggests Words the age of twenty-eight, had volunteered worth's Intimations of Immortality, and
under the Duke of York in the first Dutch it is probable that Wordsworth was in
war. It was composed at sea the night fluenced by Vaughan.
before the critical engagement in which
the Dutch admiral Opdam was blown up, MARVELL: HORATIAN ODE
and thirty ships destroyed or taken. It
may be considered as inaugurating the 124. Written in 1650 after Cromwell had re
epoch of vers-de-societé.” (E. Gosse, in turned from putting down a rising in Ward's English Poets.) Ireland.
27. Whitehall stairs. The royal palace 126. 15. His own side. In 1647 the Puritan of Whitehall was situated on the bank of party was split between Independents and
the Thames. Presbyterians, the latter advocating the
44. A merry main. To throw a main was immediate disbanding of the army which to cast dice in a game of chance. was largely made up of Independents; Cromwell led the army to London, and forced the Presbyterians to yield.
BROWNE 17–20. An ambitious man makes no dis
HYDRIOTAPHIA tinction between enemies (of an opposing party) and rivals (in his own party),
The Urn-Burial sets out to be an historical and in the case of such a man (“ with account of the methods of dealing with such ”) it is more difficult to restrain
the dead, but turns into a meditation him than to oppose him.
upon the brevity and vanity of the life of man. It was suggested by the digging 130. 205. Lucina. Goddess of childbirth; here
up of some Roman burial urns in Norfolk. equivalent to midwife. 128. io. Sic ego, etc. Thus I should wish to 211. Our light in ashes. “According to
be laid at rest when I am become bones. the custom of the Jews, who place a 20. Considerable. Worthy of considera
lighted wax-candle in a pot of ashes by tion.
the corpse.” (Browne's note.) 24. To retain a stronger propension unto 212. Brother of death. Sleep. them. I. e., such souls clung more 224. To weep into stones. A reference to strongly to the bodies.
the fable of Niobe. 36. Archimedes. The famous Syracusan 131. 257. Mummy is become merchandise. mathematician and physicist of the third A medicinal preparation made, or supcentury B. C.
posed to be made, from mummies, was 37. The life of Moses his man. The life highly regarded in the old medicine. of man as described by Moses, in the so
258. Mizraim. The Biblical name for called Prayer of Moses, the ninetieth
Egypt; Browne seems to use it as symbolic Psalm.
of Egypt's great men. 42. One little finger. “ According to 268. Nimrod. The Hebrew equivalent the ancient arithmetic of the hand, of the Greek Orion. wherein the little finger of the right hand 269. The dog-star. Sirius. contracted, signified an hundred." 274. Perspectives. Telescopes. (Browne's note).
298. Scape. Oversight. 54. Alcmena's nights. Jupiter, in love 309. Sardanapalus. Last king of Aswith Alcmena, mother of Hercules, made syria, who, when his besieged city of one night as long as three.
Nineveh was about to be captured, gath65. What name Achilles assumed. Thetis, ered together his household and treasure mother of Achilles, to prevent him from and burned all, with himself, in his palace. going on the expedition against Troy, 316. Gordianus. An emperor of Rome in had him disguised as a girl; Ulysses pene
the third century. Man of God. Moses, trated the stratagem.
buried by the hand of God; cf. Deu69. Ossuaries. Receptacles for bones.
teronomy, xxxiv: 6. 77. Provincial guardians, or tutelary ob
321. Enoch. “And Enoch was not, for servators. Guardian spirits of the lo
God took him.” Genesis, v: 24. Elias. cality.
Elijah was taken up to heaven in a chariot 83. Pyramidally extant. Known by a of fire; 2 Kings, ii: 1-12. tombstone.
327. Decretory. Established by decree. 93. Atropos. The one of the three Fates 346. Alaricus. King of the Visigoths, who cuts the thread of life.
who captured and sacked Rome in 410; 99. Meridian. The noon, or middle point, he was buried, with vast treasure, in the of the world's existence.
bed of a river. 106. Prophecy of Elias. “That the world 348. Sylla. Roman general and dictator may last but six thousand years.”
(138-78 B. C.) (Browne's note.)
132 357. That poetical taunt of Isaiah. See 107. Charles the Fifth ... Hector. Isaiah, xiv: 16-17. “Hector's fame lasting above two lives of 367. St. Innocent's churchyard. In Paris. Methusaleh, before that famous prince 371. Moles of Adrianus. Hadrian's (i. e.. Charles) was extant.” (Browne's Mole, or tomb, now known as the Castle note.)
of St. Angelo.
THE GOOD SCHOOLMASTER 147. Gruter. Jan Gruter (1560-1627), | 133. III. Cockering. Coddling. a continental scholar; author of Inscrip 113. Peculiar. A parish exempted from tiones Antiquæ (1603).
the jurisdiction of the bishop within 157. Cardan. Italian philosopher of the whose diocese it lies; here applied to : sixteenth century.
condition of exemption from the usual 160. Hippocrates. Greek physician (460
regulations. 377 B. C.).
132. De insolenti carnificina. Of the ex164. Entelechia. A word coined by Aris
cessive torture. Conscindebatur ... totle to denote the actual being of a thing singulos. He was lashed with whips seven in distinction to its capacity for being.
or eight times a day. 167. Canaanitish woman. See Genesis, 136. Tusser. Thomas Tusser, an English xlvi: 10.
poetaster of the sixteenth century. 178. Adrian. Hadrian, Emperor of Rome.
143. Udall. Nicholas Udall, headmaster 182. Thersites. A foul-mouthed coward
of Eton 1534-1541; best known as author in the Iliad, where Agamemnon is leader of the first regular English comedy, of the Greek host.
Ralph Roister Doister.
141. 433. Sir Thomas Overbury. Overbury
(1581-1613) is famous in literary history for his Characters, one of which, “ The Fair and Happy Milkmaid,” concludes with the sentence here quoted.
145. Orbilius. The schoolmaster of
of poverty. 134. 196. Ascham. An English scholar and
writer of the sixteenth century; tutor
THE LIFE OF QUEEN ELIZABETH 32. Compurgator. A person who swore to his belief in the innocence of one on trial. 69. A fit of the mother. A pun on the old
meaning of mother-hysteria. 136. 121. Ascham. See note on The Good
anly bashfulness of mine. 136. 188. Latter Lammas. This rendering of
Græcas Calendas is explained by the fact
THE COMPLETE ANGLER 137. 1. Piscator. The Complete Angler is
written in the form of dialogue; the chief
geographical science. 138. 125. Albertus. Albertus Magnus (1206?
1 280), a scholastic philosopher.
Latin Historia Vitæ et Mortis, 1623. 139. 221. The Royal Society. The Royal So
ciety of London for Improving Natural Knowledge was incorporated 15 July, 1662. See Huxley's essay “On the Necessity of Improving Natural Knowledge,” p. 720.
275. Make a catch. Sing a “round.” 140 337. Kit Marlow. Christopher Marlowe.
Marlowe's song and Raleigh's answer
L'ALLEGRO 146. 2. Cerberus. A three-headed dog, guard
ian of the gateway of Hades.
29. Hebe. The goddess of youth. 146. 45. Then to come in spite of sorrow. The
passage has been much disputed about.
embodied. 147. 145. Orpheus. According to the Greek
myths, Orpheus was the most wonderful of all human musicians. Pluto consented to let Eurydice return with her husband to the earth, but Orpheus, by looking back to be sure she was following, broke the terms of his agreement with Pluto, and Eurydice remained in Hades. Hence the phrase,“ half-regained.”
IL PENSEROSO 10. Morpheus. The god of sleep. 18. Prince Memnon's sister. "Memnon was a handsome king of the Ethiopians, according to Homer. Milton here assumes
that his sister must have been equally
59. Cynthia. Goddess of the moon. 148. 87. The Bear. The constellation Ursa
Major, which, in northern latitudes, never
by Thracian women, and his head cast
into the river Hebrus. 149. 65. Shepherd's trade. The art of poetry.
68. Amaryllis . . . Neæra. Conventional
79. Glistering foil. Glittering tinsel; gold
Lycidas. A pastoral name, taken from classical poetry. A learned friend. Edward King, a fellow student with Milton at Christ's College, Cambridge. 1. Yet once more. Milton is taking up the writing of poetry after a lapse of a few years since the time Comus was
written. 149. 15. Sisters of the sacred well. The
Muses; the Pierian spring, on Mount
ON SHAKESPEARE 162. This (so-called) sonnet was written for
the second (1632) folio edition of Shakespeare's works.
TO THE LORD GENERAL CROMWELL 7, 8. Darwen stream, Dunbar field. Scenes of two of Cromwell's victories over the Scots. 9. Worcester's laureate wreath. Cromwell won the decisive victory over Charles II and his Scottish allies at Worcester, 3 September, 1651.
ON THE LATE MASSACRE IN PIEDMONT The Vaudois, or Waldenses, a Protestant people living in the northwestern part of Italy, were subjected in 1655 to a bloody persecution because they refused to ac
cept Catholicism. 163. 12. The triple tyrant. The Pope, who
wears a triple crown.
168. 288. The Tuscan artist. Galileo, whom
Milton met while travelling in Italy.
which the Jews resided before the exodus. 169. 341. Warping. Usually explained as
Aying with a bending motion, twisting
ON HIS DECEASED WIFE This was Milton's second wife, Catherine Woodcock, who died in childbirth in 1658. 2. Like Alcestis. Alcestis, the heroine of Sophocles's drama, offered her life for her husband, but was rescued by Hercules.
PARADISE LOST: BOOK I 164. 6. Heavenly Muse. Milton is inventing
a Muse of Hebr.w poetry, and appealing
here symbolizing Greek poetry. 156. 74. As from the center thrice to the ut
most pole. The distance between Heaven and Hell was three times the radius of the world. The diagram opposite represents approximately Milton's conception of the
universe. 156. 129. Seraphim. Plural form; the sera
phim were supposed to be the highest in
the whale. 167. 232. Pelorus. A Sicilian promontory
near Mt. Ætna.
After the creation of the World