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66. 318. Morpheus. God of sleep.

328. Blacke Plutoes griesly dame. Pro-
serpine, wife of Pluto, king of the lower
332. Gorgon. Demogorgon, one of the
greatest of the infernal powers, whose
name it was dangerous to utter.
333. Cocytus, Styx. Rivers of Hades.
348. Tethys. The ocean.
349. Cynthia. The moon.
352. Double gates. According to clas-
sical legend, true dreams, sent to men
from the house of Sleep, issued forth
through a door of horn; false dreams,
through a door of ivory. Cf. I. 393.
Spenser substitutes silver for horn.
361f. Note in this stanza the skilful sug-

gestion of sense by sound. 56. 376. Dryer braine. Brain too dry or

feverish. It was supposed that lack of moisture in the brain was the cause of fitful, dream-broken sleep.

Stanza XLV. Archimago fashions one of his sprites into the likeness of Una, and by the aid of the false dream deceives the Red Cross Knight into believing Una false to him. In Canto II the Knight deserts Una and flees from Archimago's cabin. Meeting on his way a Saracen knight Sansfoy, with a beautiful lady, he kills the knight and takes the lady Duessa (Falsehood, though she is at present going under the name of Fidessa-Faith), as his companion. Una meanwhile has set forth in search of her knight, and has lost her way in a wood.

with Sarazin blood bedyde' suggests
imitation of the war of the Saracens in
France, as narrated in the Orlando
62. Thy second tenor. “Melody of lower
pitch." (Dodge.)
63. Man of God his ... armes. Man-

of-God's arms. 69. 74. So couched neare. Placed so close

167. Hagard hauke. A wild hawk.
168. Above his hable might. Beyond the
limit of his strength.
172. He so disseized, etc. He, the dragon,
being thus relieved of his great burden.
186. His neighbour element. The earth.
187. The blustring brethren. Sometimes
explained as the winds; possibly refers to
both winds and sea, combining against
the land.
189. Each other to avenge. Take ven-
geance on each other.

230. Him. The Knight. 62. 235. That great champion. Hercules, the

occasion of whose death was the shirt
poisoned by blood of the centaur Nessus.
267. Silo. The pool of Siloam.
269. Cephise (Cephissus) ... Hebrus.
Greek rivers.
278. Above his wonted pitch. Higher

than usual. 63. 300. As eagle, fresh out of the ocean

wave. “Every ten years the eagle mounts
to the circle of fire and thence plunges
into the ocean, from which it emerges
with fresh plumage.” (Dodge.)
303. Eyas hauke. Newly fledged hawk.
337. Ne living wight, etc. Nor would

any living person have promised him life. 64. 356. Engorged. This is the reading in edi

tions of Spenser, but it makes no good
sense; engorged means glutled with. May
Spenser have intended engored-wounded.
hence, aroused, infuriated (?) as in Faerie
Queene, II. viii. 42:
“As salvage bull, whom two fierce mas-

tives bayt,
When rancour doth with rage him once

engore.” 381. The warlike pledge. The shield. 66. 414. The crime of our first father's fell.

The occasion of the crime, etc.
459. Her. Object of salutes.
465. He. The dragon. Himself. The

PROTHALAMION 66. The poem was written in honor of the

approaching double marriage of the
Ladies Elizabeth and Katherine Somer-
set, daughters of the Earl of Worcester,
in 1596. It commemorates a visit made
by the ladies, in barges on the river, to
Essex House, residence of the Earl of
6-9. Discontent ... empty shaddowes.
A reference to Spenser's vain effort for

CANTO XI 67. In the interval between the third and

eleventh cantos Una and the Red Cross Knight, who had been parted from each other by Archimago, and forced to undergo many hardships, are reunited by Arthur, who rescues the Knight from the castle of the giant Orgoglio. After this deliverance Una leads the Knight to the house of Holiness, where he is purged of his sin, learns his lineage, and his name, George:

" Thou. ... Shalt be a saint, and thine own nation's

frend And patrone: thou Saint George shalt

called be, Saint George of mery England, the signe

of victoree.” (I. x. 66). Then follows the struggle between George and the dragon (the devil), occupying the entire eleventh canto, which is here re

printed without omission. 58. 43. Faire ympe of Phæbus, etc. Clio,

muse of History, daughter of Phæbus
and Mnemosyne (Memory).
56. Till I of warres, etc.“ Spenser was
apparently planning for his later books
or for his second part, some celebration
of the war with Philip II. 'Bryton fieldes

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82. Compare the second of Lyly's songs, p. 77. 69. This is a translation of one of Petrarch's sonnets.


Dirge sung over the body of the supposedly SHAKESPEARE: XCVIII

dead Imogen, disguised as a boy, Fidele. 74. 4. Heavy Saturn. In astrology the planet

Saturn is supposed to exert a melancholy influence, since the god Saturn was


83. Bullen (Lyrics from Elizabethan Song

Books) remarks that for romantic beauty ELIZABETHAN SONG WRITERS

this can hardly be matched outside the

sonnets of Shakespeare. LYLY: SPRING'S WELCOME 77. 2. Ravished nightingale. A reference to

CHERRY-RIPE the story of Philomela; see note on Arnold's Philomela, p. 687.

84. “ Cherry-ripe" was the cry of street 5. Prick-song. “Harmony written or

venders of cherries. pricked down in opposition to plainsong.” (Chappell's Popular Music of

DRAYTON: AGINCOURT the Olden Time.) 7. At heaven's gates she claps her wings.

186. The full title runs To the Cambro-Britons Cf. Shakespeare's “ Hark, hark! the lark and their Harp His Ballad of Agincourt. at heaven's gate sings,” p. 82.

Cambro-Britons-Welsh, who fought val

iantly in the battle. Henry V, invading GREENE: SWEET ARE THE THOUGHTS

France to make good his claim to the

French throne, in 1415 won the battle of 78. 9. The mean. The middle part in three

Agincourt from a French army four part music. The philosophic ideal of

times as numerous as his own. “the golden mean,” moderation, is also

41. Poitiers, Cressy. Like Agincourt, suggested.

battles of the Hundred Years' War,

fought in 1356 and 1346 respectively, and RALEIGH: HIS PILGRIMAGE

like Agincourt, English victories against 79. Supposed to have been written while great odds.

Raleigh was confined in the Tower on a 45. Grandsire. John of Gaunt, son of charge of treason. “It would be difficult Edward III. to find a poem more truly representative 86. 82. Bilbows. Swords; the name comes of the age of Elizabeth, with its poetical from Bilboa, a Spanish town famous for fervor, its beauty and vividness of expres

the swords it made. sion, its juggling with words, and its 113. St. Crispin's day, October 25.

CARE-CHARMING SLEEP 91. Cf. Daniel's sonnet, p. 72.

5. Sweet. So read the early editions; it should perhaps be light.

SONG TO BACCHUS 1. Lyæus. A name for Bacchus.

WEBSTER: A DIRGE I never saw anything like this funeral dirge except the ditty which reminds Ferdinand of his drowned father in The Tempest (cf. p. 83). As that is of the water, watery; so this is of the earth, earthy. Both have that intenseness of feeling, which seems to resolve itself into the element which it contemplates." (Charles Lamb.)


LOVED MASTER, WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE 87. Prefaced to the First Folio edition of

Shakespeare's works, 1623
20. Chaucer, Spenser, Beaumont. All
buried in Westminster Abbey. Beau-
mont,—Sir Francis Beaumont, the drama-
tist, who died a few weeks before Shake-
29, 30. Lyly, Kyd, Marlowe. Immediate
predecessors of Shakespeare in the Eng-
lish drama.
32. Seek for names. Search critically
for the names of dramatists with whom
to compare Shakespeare; only the greatest
names will do.
33, 34. Æschylus, Euripides, Sophocles.
Greek writers of tragedy, of the fifth cen-
tury B. C.
35. Pacuvius, Accius. Latin writers of
tragedy of the second century, B. C.
Him of Cordoya. Seneca, the Stoic
philosopher and, supposedly, tragic writer.
36. Buskin. The cothurnus, or thick-
soled boot, worn by actors in classical
tragedy to secure the dignity lent by
greater stature; hence, the word stands for
tragedy itself.
37. Socks. Likewise representative of
comedy, since the thin-soled soccus was

worn in comedy, 88. 51. Tart Aristophanes. Most famous of

Greek satirical dramatists; he wrote in the
fifth century B. C.
52. Terence, Plautus. The best writers of
Latin comedy, of the second century B. C.
71. Swan of Avon. Shakespeare was
born at Stratford-on-Avon.
77, 78. Rage or influence. A reference to
the astrological belief that each planet
exerted either a good or an evil power over
the lives of men.

It was the custom of the choir boys of the
Chapel Royal, of whom this small boy
was one, frequently to entertain the
Queen and court by acting before them;
such children's companies were serious
competitors of the adult companies; cf.
Hamlet, II. ii.

HARK, NOW EVERYTHING IS STILL From The Duchess of Malfi, where it is sung, with great dramatic effect, just before the heroine of the play is strangled. 17. Full tide. There may be a reference here to the popular belief that sick people usually died at the turning of the tide. So Falstaff “parted ... even at the turning of the tide,Henry V, II. iii.


PEMBROKE 3. Sidney's sister. It was to this lady, Mary Sidney, later Countess of Pembroke, that Sir Philip Sidney dedicated his Arcadia. Pembroke's mother. The third Earl of Pembroke, a minor poet, to whom, with his brother, the first folio of Shakespeare was dedicated, was the Countess's son. This epitaph, delicate and chastely beautiful, has been erroneously ascribed to Ben Jonson. There is a second and inferior stanza, which may not be by the same hand.

DONNE: SWEETEST LOVE, I DO NOT GO 89. This, one of the sweetest and most musical

of Donne's poems, was probably addressed
to his wife on the occasion of his leaving
her for a trip to France.

90. 5. The relative is omitted.

9. Acre. I. e., God's acre; grave yard.
13. Of birth. Noble birth.


THE DEATH OF CÆSAR 92. 69. The first Brutus. Lucius Junius

Brutus, who led the revolt expelling the
Tarquins from Rome.
72. Marcus Cato. Cato Uticensis, the
staunch republican who committed sui-
cide at Utica on hearing of Pompey's de

feat by Cæsar at Pharsalia. 93. 132. Element. Sky.

166. Preventing. Anticipating., 95. 436. Forms. Benches. 96. 499. Journey. Day..

FLETCHER: SWEETEST MELANCHOLY Milton is supposed to have obtained from this lyric suggestions for Il Penseroso.


QUEEN ELIZABETH 97. The text is based on Bond's edition, vol.

II., pp. 206 ff.; spelling and punctuation have been modernized.

97. 1. This queen. Mary, elder sister of

Elizabeth. 13. Praxitiles. A fondness for citing classical illustrations is one of Lyly's distinguishing characteristics. 67. As she hath lived forty years. “Actually, 47. ... The following words allude to the projected Anjou match, which in the autumn of 1579 she was known to favor; and reflect the general anxiety for an heir to the crown." (Bond, II. 534.) 78. Tickle. Uncertain. 79. Twist. Small thread or piece of silk. 88. Like the bird Ibis. Reference to the so-called “ unnatural natural history,” most of which goes back to Pliny, is characteristic of Lyly and his Euphuistic

98. 117. Escapes. Mistakes.

133. Twice directed her progress unto
the Universities. “She spent four days at
Cambridge in Aug. 1564, and five or six
at Oxford in Aug. 1566. ... At both she
attended the disputations in the schools
and made speeches in Greek and Latin."
(Bond, II. 534.)

157. Admiration. Wonder. 99. 202. The curses of the Pope. “ Pius V.'s

bull of excommunication and deposition,
issued Feb. 25, 1570, was found nailed on
the Bishop of London's door, May 15."
(Bond, II. 535.)
251. Bound the crocodile to the palm
tree. “A way of saying 'made Egypt a
field for his victories.'(Bond, II. 535.)

The text is based on Arber's Reprint;

spelling and punctuation are modernized. 103. 3. This late encounter. The battle be

tween the Revenge and the Spanish fleet
began 10 September, 1591. The pam-
phlet describing it appeared the same
29. The year 1688. The year when the
great Armada was destroyed.
41. The last of August. Old style; 10 Sep-
tember, new style.
57. Recover. Obtain.
58. All pestered and rummaging. The
ships were encumbered with badly stowed
88. Weigh their anchors. Hoist their
anchors on board. Slip the cables means
to cut loose from the mooring.
94. Recovered the wind. Got to wind-
ward of the Spanish fleet; an advantageous
position for either fighting or running
97. Cut his mainsail and cast about.
Spread his mainsail and “come about" ;
i. e., turn in an opposite direction.
100. On his weather bow. Ahead of him,
and to windward.
110. Sprang their luff, etc. Allowed. the
Revenge to get to windward of them.
This action on the part of some Spanish
vessels put the Revenge in the middle of
the hostile fleet.
113. Answered. Justified.
122. High carged. Towering.
125. Laid the Revenge aboard. Took
position alongside the Revenge, the two
ships touching each other.
127. Luffing up. Turning towards the
134. Out of her chase. The guns in the
bows of a ship would be the first used in
a pursuit; the noun chase here means the



THE DEFENCE OF POESY 100. 9. Mirror of Magistrates. A collection of

tales published first in 1559, and with
Sackville's famous Induction, in 1563.
34. Gorboduc. A play by Sackville and
Norton, acted 1561, the first English
blank verse tragedy. It was modelled on

the Latin tragedies of Seneca. 101. 109. Pacolet's horse. An enchanted

steed in the romance of Valentine and Orson.
115. Ab ovo. From the egg; i. e., from the
119. Polydorus. In Euripides' tragedy
208. Pounded. Impounded, put in a
pound, like a stray animal.
337. Libertino patre natus. Son of an
338. Herculea proles. Descendant of
339. Si quid, etc. If my verse can do
343. Dull-making, etc. People living
near the cataracts of the Nile were said
by Cicero to be deafened by the sound.
344. Planet-like music. The “music of
the spheres."
349. Mome. Blockhead.

106. 177. Admiral of the Hulks. Flagship

of the transports.
185. Ship of Lime. So the original text;
possibly a misprint for “ Ship of the
line," a warship of the first class.
191. A-dressing. Having his wounds
211. Composition. Terms of agreement.

245. But. Nothing but.
106. 356. Approved. Experienced.

372. Fly-boats. Small, swiftly sailing

ships. 107. 384. Road. Roadstead; harbor.



OF TRUTH 107. 1. See John, xviii: 38.

3. There be that. There are those who. 17. One of the later school, etc. Probably a reference to the “ New Academy."


107. 42. Vinum dæmonum. Devils' wine. 113. 68. Ver perpetuum. Perpetual spring. 57. Creature. Creation.

76. Fast flowers of their smells. Yield108. 65. The poet, etc. Lucretius and the ing little perfume. Epicureans.


| 114. 41. Conference. Conversation.
29. To speak in a mean. To speak pro 51. Abeunt studia in mores. Studies
saically, without using figurative lan-

turn into habits. guage; contrasted with the transcendences 52. No stond or impediment. No defect. of poetry, above.

65. Cymini sectores. Hair splitters; 109. 53. Incensed. Diffused as incense, by (lit., splitters of a cummin seed.) burning.


WITHER: SHALL I, WASTING IN DESPAIR 44. Hortatives. Exhortations.

. | 116. 14. Pelican. Taken as a type of devoted 58. Vetulam suam, etc. He preferred his

self-sacrifice, because of the fable that aged wife to immortality.

the pelican fed her young with her own 68. Have a quarrel. Have a reason, blood. ground. OF GREAT PLACE

CAREW: ASK ME NO MORE 15. A melancholy thing. This sentence II. Dividing. The meaning is but little is an apt commentary on Bacon's own

stronger than musical. “Division” was fall from great place. Cum non sis, etc.

a musical term practically equivalent to Since you are not what you were, there

a variation on a theme; “ to run division" is no reason why you should desire to live. was to perform such variations. 39. Illi mors gravis, etc. Death lies heavy on the man who dies known to almost

LOVELACE: TO LUCASTA all, but unknown to himself.

116. The poet fought on the Cavalier side in . 53. Conscience of the same. Conscious

the Civil War. ness of the same. 56. Et conversus Deus, etc. When God

TO ALTHEA had looked, to see the works which his own hands had made, he saw that all

As a consequence of his devotion to the

Royalist cause Lovelace was twice imwere good beyond measure. 86. De facto. As a matter of fact.

prisoned. 111 131. Omnium consensu, etc. In the

10. With no allaying Thames. Undiluted opinion of all, fit to rule, -if only he had

with water. not ruled. 134. Solus imperantium, etc. Of all rulers

HERRICK: ARGUMENT OF HIS BOOK Vespasian alone changed for the better.

117. The poem serves as a sort of foreword to

The Hesperides, as Herrick called his OF WISDOM FOR A MAN'S SELF

book, telling the sorts of things about 2. Shrewd. Mischievous.

which Herrick wrote.

3. Hock-carts. The hock-cart was the 9. Right earth. Simply earth.

last cart in from the field at harvest time. 37. Set a bias upon their bowl. It is

Wassails. Drinking-bouts. Wakes. Vilpossible to roll a bowling ball so that it

lage festivities. will curve while travelling. 64. Sui amantes, etc. Lovers of them

CORINNA'S GOING A-MAYING selves without any rival.

2. God unshorn. The sun adorned in his OF YOUTH AND AGE


4. Fresh-quilted. “Referable to the 112. 16. Juventutem egit, etc. His youth was

bright and variegated colors of sunrise." full of errors, even of madness.

(Schelling, Seventeenth Century Lyrics.) 85. Idem manebat, etc. He remained

14. May. The term was loosely applied the same, but did not appear the same, to all sorts of May blossoms, particularly i. e., was not so pleasing.

those of the hawthorn. 90. Ultima primis cedebant. His last

118. 30 ff. For a good account of the May. years were inferior to his first.

day customs see Brand's Popular As

tiquities. OF GARDENS

51. Green-gown. Tumble on the grass. 113. 22. If they be stoved. If they be artificially warmed.

AN ODE FOR BEN JONSON 23. Warm set. Set out where it will keep 119. 5, 6. Sun, Dog, Triple Tun. Famous warm.

London taverns of Jonson's day.

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