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or the lecture room will assist us greatly, numbers, these institutions, with miserbut we must be true to ourselves, we must able deformities on the side of morals, be parties in the work. A university is, with a hollow profession of Christianity, according to the usual designation, [920 and a heathen code of ethics,- I say, at an alma mater, knowing her children one least they can boast of a succession of by one, not a foundry, or a mint, or a heroes and statesmen, of literary men treadmill.

and philosophers, of men conspicuous for I protest to you, gentlemen, that if I great natural virtues, for habits of busihad to choose between a so-called uni- ness, for knowledge of life, for practical versity, which dispensed with residence judgment, for cultivated tastes, for (980 and tutorial superintendence, and gave accomplishments, who have made Engits degrees to any person who passed an land what it is,-able to subdue the earth, examination in a wide range of subjects, able to domineer over Catholics. and a university which had no pro- 1930 How is this to be explained? I supfessors or examinations at all, but merely pose as follows: When a multitude of brought a number of young men together young men, keen, open-hearted, sympafor three or four years, and then sent thetic, and observant, as young men are, them away as the University of Oxford come together and freely mix with each is said to have done some sixty years other, they are sure to learn one from since, if I were asked which of these two another, even if there be no one to (990 methods was the better discipline of the teach them; the conversation of all is a intellect, -mind, I do not say which is series of lectures to each, and they gain morally the better, for it is plain that for themselves new ideas and views, fresh compulsory study must be a good [940 matter of thought, and distinct principles and idleness an intolerable mischief, for judging and acting, day by day. An but if I must determine which of the two infant has to learn the meaning of the courses was the more successful in train- information which its senses convey to ing, molding, enlarging the mind, which it, and this seems to be its employment. sent out men the more fitted for their It fancies all that the eye presents to it secular duties, which produced better to be close to it, till it actually learns (1000 public men, men of the world, men whose the contrary, and thus by practice does names would descend to posterity, I have it ascertain the relations and uses of those no hesitation in giving the preference to first elements of knowledge which are that university which did nothing, 1950 necessary for its animal existence. A A over that which exacted of its members parallel teaching is necessary for our social an acquaintance with every science under being, and it is secured by a large school the sun. And, paradox as this may seem, or a college; and this effect may be fairly still if results be the test of systems, the called in its own department an enlargeinfluence of the public schools and col- ment of mind. It is seeing the world on a leges of England, in the course of the last small field with little trouble; for the (1010 century, at least will bear out one side pupils or students come from very difof the contrast as I have drawn it. What ferent places, and with widely different would come, on the other hand, of the notions, and there is much to generalize, ideal systems of education which (960 much to adjust, much to eliminate; there have fascinated the imagination of this are inter-relations to be defined, and conage, could they ever take effect, and ventional rules to be established, in the whether they would not produce a genera- process by which the whole assemblage tion frivolous, narrow-minded, and re- is molded together, and gains one tone sourceless, intellectually considered, is a and one character. fair subject for debate; but so far is cer- Let it be clearly understood, I re- (1020 tain, that the universities and scholastic peat it, that I am not taking into account establishments, to which I refer, and moral or religious considerations; I am which did little more than bring together but saying that that youthful community first boys and then youths in large (970 | will constitute a whole, it will embody a specific idea, it will represent a doctrine, the votary of knowledge, throw him back it will administer a code of conduct, and upon the searchings and the efforts (1080 it will furnish principles of thougḥt and of his own mind; he will gain by being action. It will give birth to a living spared an entrance into your babel. Few teaching, which in course of time will indeed there are who can dispense with take the shape of a self-perpetuating (1030 the stimulus and support of instructors, or tradition, or a genius loci, as it is some- will do anything at all, if left to themtimes called; which haunts the home selves. And fewer still (though such where it has been born, and which im- great minds are to be found, who will bues and forms more or less, and one by not, from such unassisted attempts, conone, every individual who is successively tract a self-reliance and a self-esteem, brought under its shadow. Thus it is which are not only moral evils, but (1090 that, independent of direct instruction on serious hindrances to the attainment of the part of superiors, there is a sort of truth. And next to none, perhaps, or self-education in the academic institu- none, who will not be reminded from time tions of protestant England; a char- (1040 to time of the disadvantage under which acteristic tone of thought, a recognized they lie, by their imperfect grounding, standard of judgment is found in them, by the breaks, deficiencies, and irregulariwhich as developed in the individual who ties of their knowledge, by the eccenis submitted to it, becomes a twofold tricity of opinion and the confusion of source of strength to him, both from the principle which they exhibit. They will distinct stamp it impresses on his mind, be too often ignorant of what every (1100 and from the bond of union which it one knows and takes for granted, of that creates between him and others, -effects multitude of small truths which fall upon which are shared by the authorities of the mind like dust, impalpable and ever the place, for they themselves have (1050 | accumulating; they may be unable to been educated in it, and at all times are converse, they may argue perversely, they exposed to the influence of its ethical at- may pride themselves on their worst mosphere. Here then is a real teaching, paradoxes or their grossest truisms, they whatever be its standards and principles, may be full of their own mode of viewing true or false; and it at least tends towards things, unwilling to be put out of their cultivation of the intellect; it at least way, slow to enter into the minds (nuo recognizes that knowledge is something of others;—but, with these and whatmore than a sort of passive reception of ever other liabilities upon their heads, scraps and details; it is a something, and they are likely to have more thought, it does a something, which never will (1060 more mind, more philosophy, more true issue from the most strenuous efforts of a enlargement, than those earnest but illset of teachers, with no mutual sympathies used persons, who are forced to load their and no intercommunion, of a set of ex- minds with a score of subjects against aminers with no opinions which they an examination, who have too much on dare profess, and with no common prin- their hands to indulge themselves in ciples, who are teaching or questioning a thinking or investigation, who devour (1120 set of youths who do not know them, and premise and conclusion together with indo not know each other, on a large num- discriminate greediness, who hold whole ber of subjects, different in kind, and sciences on faith, and commit demonconnected by no wide philosophy, (1070 strations to memory, and who too often, three times a week, or three times a year, as might be expected, when their period or once in three years, in chill lecture of education is passed, throw up all they rooms or on a pompous anniversary. have learned in disgust, having gained

Nay, self-education in any shape, in nothing really by their anxious labors, the most restricted sense, is preferable to except perhaps the habit of application. a system of teaching which, professing Yet such is the better specimen of (1130 so much, really does so little for the the fruit of that ambitious system which mind. Shut your college gates against has of late years been making way among

us; for its result on ordinary minds, and fraud, the vile hypocrisy, the conscienceon the common run of students, is less killing tyranny of Rome! We have not satisfactory still; they leave their place far to seek for an evidence of it! There's of education simply dissipated and re- Father Newman, to wit: one living specilaxed by the multiplicity of subjects which men is worth a hundred dead ones. He, they have never really mastered, and a priest, writing of priests, tells us that so shallow as not even to know their lying is never any harm.” shallowness. How much better, I (1140 I interpose: “You are taking a most (10 say, is it for the active and thoughtful in- extraordinary liberty with my name. If tellect, where such is to be found, to I have said this, tell me when and eschew the college and the university where.” altogether, than to submit to a drudgery Mr. Kingsley replies: “You said it, so ignoble, a mockery so contumelious! Reverend Sir, in a sermon which you How much more profitable for the in- preached, when a Protestant, as Vicar of dependent mind, after the mere rudi- St. Mary's, and published in 1844; and I ments of education, to range through could read you a very salutary lecture on a library at random, taking down books the effects which that sermon had at the as they meet him, and pursuing the (1150 time on my own opinion of you." 20 trains of thought which his mother wit I make answer: “Oh .... Not, it suggests! How much healthier to wander seems, as a priest speaking of priests; but into the fields, and there with the exiled let us have the passage.” prince to find “tongues in the trees, books Mr. Kingsley relaxes: “Do you know, in the running brooks”! How much more I like your tone. From your tone, I rejoice, genuine an education is that of the poor greatly rejoice, to be able to believe that boy in the poem-a poem, whether in con- you did not mean what


said.” ception or in execution, one of the most I rejoin: "Mean it! I maintain I never touching in our language-who, not in the said it, whether as a Protestant or as a wide world, but ranging day by day (1160 Catholic."

130 around his widowed mother's home, "a Mr. Kingsley replies: "I waive that dexterous gleaner" in a narrow field, and point." with only such slender outfit

I object: "Is it possible? What? waive “As the village school and books a few

the main question! I either said it or I Supplied,"

didn't. You have made a monstrous

charge against me: direct, distinct, pubcontrived from the beach, and the quay, lic. You are bound to prove it as directly, and the fisher's boat, and the inn's fire

as distinctly, as publicly; or to own you side, and the tradesman's shop, and the can't!” shepherd's walk, and the smuggler's hut, Well,” says Mr. Kingsley, “if you (40 and the mossy moor, and the scream- (1170 are quite sure you did not say it, I'll take ing gulls, and the restless waves, to fashion your word for it; I really will. " for himself a philosophy and a poetry My word! I am dumb. Somehow I of his own!

thought that it was my word that hapBut in a large subject, I am exceeding pened to be on trial. The word of a my necessary limits. Gentlemen, I must Professor of lying, that he does not conclude abruptly; and postpone any lie! summing up of my argument, should that But Mr. Kinglsey reassures me: “We be necessary, to another day.

are both gentlemen," he says: “I have

done as much as one English gentle- 150 From the APOLOGIA PRO VITA SUA

man can expect from another."

I begin to see: he thought me a genKINGSLEY AND NEWMAN

tleman at the very time that he said I

taught lying on system. After all, it is Mr. Kingsley begins then by exclaim- not I, but Mr. Kingsley who did not mean ing,—“O the chicanery, the wholesale what he said. .

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Within whose secret growth the Dove She gazed and listened and then said, Is sometimes felt to be,

Less sad of speech than mild, 134 While every leaf that His plumes touch“All this is when he comes.” She ceased. Saith His Name audibly.

The light thrilled towards her, filled

With angels in strong level flight. "And I myself will teach to him,

Her eyes prayed, and she smiled. I myself, lying so, The songs I sing here; which his voice (I saw her smile.) But soon their path Shall pause in, hushed and slow,

Was vague in distant spheres: 140 And find some knowledge at each pause, 95

And then she cast her arms along Or some new thing to know.'

The golden barriers,

And laid her face between her hands, (Alas! We two, we two, thou say'st!

And wept. (I heard her tears.)
Yea, one wast thou with me
That once of old. But shall God lift
To endless unity

The soul whose likeness with thy soul
Was but its love for thee?)

“Why did you melt your waxen man,

Sister Helen? “We two,” she said, “will seek the groves

To-day is the third since you began.

“The time was long, yet the time ran, Where the lady Mary is,

Little brother.” With her five handmaidens, whose names Are five sweet symphonies,

(O Mother, Mary Mother,

106 Cecily, Gertrude, Magdalen,

Three days to-day, between Hell and Heaven!) Margaret and Rosalys.

"But if you have done your work aright,

Sister Helen, “Circlewise sit they, with bound locks

You'll let me play, for you said I might.” And foreheads garlanded;

Be very still in your play to-night, II Into the fine cloth white like flame

Little brother." Weaving the golden thread,

(O mother, Mary Mother, To fashion the birth-robes for them

Third night, to-night, between Hell and Who are just born, being dead.




“He shall fear, haply, and be dumb: 115

Then will I lay my cheek
To his, and tell about our love,

Not once abashed or weak:
And the dear Mother will approve

My pride, and let me speak.

"You said it must melt ere vesper-bell, 15

Sister Helen; If now it be molten, all is well.” “Even so,-nay, peace! you cannot tell,

Little brother."

(O Mother, Mary Mother, 20 Oh what is this, between Hell and Heaven?)


“Herself shall bring us, hand in hand,

To him round whom all souls
Kneel, the clear-ranged unnumbered heads

Bowed with their aureoles:
And angels meeting us shall sing 125

To their citherns and citoles.

“Oh the waxen knave was plump to-day,

Sister Helen; How like dead folk he has dropped away!" "Nay now, of the dead what can you say,

Little brother?” 26

(O Mother, Mary Mother, What of the dead, between Hell and Heaven?)

“There will I ask of Christ the Lord

Thus much for him and me:Only to live as once on earth With Love,--only to be,

130 As then awhile, for ever now

Together, I and he.”

“See, see, the sunken pile of wood,

Sister Helen, 30 Shines through the thinned wax red as


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