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were then but fools, and the dupes of learn, but refer what we learn to what imposture.
we know already. It is not the mere addiOn the other hand, religion has its | tion to our knowledge that is the illuminaown enlargement, and an enlargement tion; but the locomotion, the movement not of tumult, but of peace. It is often onwards, of that mental center, to which remarked of uneducated persons, who both what we know, and what we (440 have hitherto thought little of the unseen are learning, the accumulating mass of world, that, on their turning to God, our acquirements, gravitates. And therelooking into themselves, regulating their | fore a truly great intellect, and recognized hearts, reforming their conduct, and (390 to be such by the common opinion of meditating on death and judgment, mankind, such as the intellect of Aristotle, heaven and hell, they seem to become, in or of St. Thomas, or of Newton, or of point of intellect, different beings from Goethe (I purposely take instances within what they were. Before, they took things and without the Catholic pale, when I as they came, and thought no more of would speak of the intellect as such), is one thing than another. But now every one which takes a connected view of (450 event has a meaning; they have their own old and new, past and present, far and estimate of whatever happens to them; near, and which has an insight into the inthey are mindful of times and seasons, fluence of all these one on another; withand compare the present with the 1400 out which there is no whole, and no cenpast; and the world, no longer dull, monot- ter. It possesses the knowledge, not only onous, unprofitable, and hopeless, is a of things, but also of their mutual and various and complicated drama, with true relations; knowledge, not merely conparts and an object, and an awful moral. sidered as acquirement, but as philosophy.
Now from these instances, to which Accordingly, when this analytical, dismany more might be added, it is plain, tributive, harmonizing process is (460 first, that the communication of knowl- away, the mind experiences no enlargeedge certainly is either a condition or ment, and is not reckoned as enlightened the means of that sense of enlargement, or comprehensive, whatever it may add or enlightenment, of which at this (410 to its knowledge. For instance, a great day we hear so much in certain quarters: memory, as I have already said, does not this cannot be denied; but next, it is make a philosopher, any more than a dicequally plain, that such communication tionary can be called a grammar. There is not the whole of the process. The are men who embrace in their minds a enlargement consists, not merely in the vast multitude of ideas, but with little passive reception into the mind of a num sensibility about their real relations 1470 ber of ideas hitherto unknown to it, but towards each other. These may be anin the mind's energetic and simultaneous tiquarians, annalists, naturalists; they action upon and towards and among may be learned in the law; they may be those new ideas, which are rushing (420 versed in statistics; they are most useful in upon it. It is the action of a forma in their own place; I should shrink from tive power, reducing to order and mean speaking disrespectfully of them; still, ing the matter of our acquirements; it is there is nothing in such attainments to a making the objects of our knowledge guarantee the absence of narrowness of subjectively our own, or, to use a familiar mind. If they are nothing more than word, it is a digestion of what we receive, well-read men, or men of informa- (480 into the substance of our previous state of tion, they have not what specially dethought; and without this no enlargement serves the name of culture of mind, or is said to follow. There is no enlarge fulfils the type of liberal education. ment, unless there be a comparison (430 In like manner, we sometimes fall in of ideas one with another, as they come | with persons who have seen much of the before the mind, and a systematizing of world, and of the men who, in their day, them. We feel our minds to be growing have played a conspicuous part in it, and expanding then, when we not only but who generalize nothing, and have no
observation, in the true sense of the him; for in fact he has no standard of word. They abound in information (490 judgment at all, and no landmarks to in detail, curious and entertaining, about guide him to a conclusion. Such is mere men and things; and, having lived under acquisition, and, I repeat, no one would the influence of no very clear or settled dream of calling it philosophy. principles, religious or political, they | Instances such as these confirm, by speak of every one and every thing, only the contrast, the conclusion I have alas so many phenomena, which are com- | ready drawn from those which pre- 1550 plete in themselves, and lead to nothing, ceded them. That only is true enlargenot discussing them, or teaching any ment of mind which is the power of viewtruth, or instructing the hearer, but | ing many things at once as one whole, of simply talking. No one would say (500 referring them severally to their true that these persons, well informed as they place in the universal system, of underare, had attained to any great culture of standing their respective values, and intellect or to philosophy.
determining their mutual dependence. The case is the same still more strikingly | Thus is that form of universal knowledge, where the persons in question are be- of which I have on a former occasion yond dispute men of inferior powers spoken, set up in the individual in- 1560 and deficient education. Perhaps they tellect, and constitutes its perfection. have been much in foreign countries, and Possessed of this real illumination, the they receive, in a passive, otiose, un- mind never views any part of the exfruitful way, the various facts which (510 tended subject-matter of knowledge withare forced upon them there. Seafaring i out recollecting that it is but a part, or men, for example, range from one end of without the associations which spring the earth to the other; but the multi- from this recollection. It makes everyplicity of external objects, which they thing in some sort lead to everything have encountered, forms no symmetrical else; it would communicate the image and consistent picture upon their imag-, of the whole to every separate por- 1570 ination; they see the tapestry of human | tion, till that whole becomes in imlife, as it were on the wrong side, and it agination like a spirit, everywhere pertells no story. They sleep, and they rise vading and penetrating its component up, and they find themselves, now in (520 parts, and giving them one definite meanEurope, now in Asia; they see visions of ing. Just as our bodily organs, when great cities and wild regions; they are in mentioned, recall their function in the the marts of commerce, or amid the body, as the word “creation” suggests islands of the South; they gaze on Pom the Creator, and “subjects” a sovereign, pey's Pillar, or on the Andes; and noth- so, in the mind of the philosopher, as ing which meets them carries them for- are abstractedly conceiving of him, 1580 ward or backward, to any idea beyond the elements of the physical and moral itself. Nothing has a drift or relation; world, sciences, arts, pursuits, ranks, nothing has a history or a promise. offices, events, opinions, individualities, Everything stands by itself, and (530 are all viewed as one, with correlative comes and goes in its turn, like the shift- functions, and as gradually by successive ing scenes of a show, which leave the combinations converging, one and all, to spectator where he was. Perhaps you the true center. are near such a man on a particular oc- 1 To have even a portion of this illumicasion, and expect him to be shocked or native reason and true philosophy is the perplexed at something which occurs; highest state to which nature can 1590 but one thing is much the same to him aspire, in the way of intellect; it puts the as another, or, if he is perplexed, it is as mind above the influences of chance and not knowing what to say, whether it is necessity, above anxiety, suspense, unright to admire, or to ridicule, or to 1540 settlement, and superstition, which is the disapprove, while conscious that some lot of the many. Men whose minds are expression of opinion is expected from possessed with some one object, take exaggerated views of its importance, are trary, we are concerned not with mere feverish in the pursuit of it, make it the nature, but with training and teaching. measure of things which are utterly That perfection of the intellect, which (650 foreign to it, and are startled and (600 is the result of education, and its beau despond if it happens to fail them. They ideal, to be imparted to individuals, in are ever in alarm or in transport. Those their respective measures, is the clear, on the other hand who have no object calm, accurate vision and comprehension or principle whatever to hold by, lose of all things, as far as the finite mind can their way every step they take. They ! embrace them, each in its place, and with are thrown out, and do not know what to s its own characteristics upon it. It is think or say, at every fresh juncture; almost prophetic from its knowledge of they have no view of persons, or occur history; it is almost heart-searching from rences, or facts, which come suddenly its knowledge of human nature; it 660 upon them, and they hang upon (610 | has almost supernatural charity from its the opinion of others for want of internal | freedom from littleness and prejudice; resources. But the intellect, which has | it has almost the repose of faith, because been disciplined to the perfection of its nothing can startle it; it has almost the powers, which knows, and thinks while beauty and harmony of heavenly conit knows, which has learned to leaven templation, so intimate is it with the the dense mass of facts and events with | eternal order of things and the music of the elastic force of reason, such an intel- || the spheres. lect cannot be partial, cannot be exclusive, And now, if I may take for granted that cannot be impetuous, cannot be at a loss, the true and adequate end of in- 1670 cannot but be patient, collected, (620 tellectual training and of a university is and majestically calm, because it discerns not learning or acquirement, but rather the end in every beginning, the origin | is thought or reason exercised upon knowlin every end, the law in every interrup edge, or what may be called philosophy, tion, the limit in each delay; because it I shall be in a position to explain the ever knows where it stands, and how its various mistakes which at the present path lies from one point to another. day beset the subject of university educaIt is the met páywvos of the Peripatetic,
tion. and has the nil admirari of the I say then, if we would improve the Stoic,
intellect, first of all, we must ascend; 16180 “Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere (630
we cannot gain real knowledge on a level;
we must generalize, we must reduce to causas, Atque metus omnes, et inexorabile fatum
method, we must have a grasp of prin
ciples, and group and shape our acquisiSubjecit pedibus, strepitumque Acher
tions by means of them. It matters not ontis avari.”
whether our field of operation be wide or There are men who, when in difficulties, | limited; in every case, to command it, is originate at the moment vast ideas or i to mount above it. Who has not felt dazzling projects; who, under the in- the irritation of mind and impatience fluence of excitement, are able to cast a created by a deep, rich country, 1600 light, almost as if from inspiration, on a visited for the first time, with winding subject or course of action which comes lanes, and high hedges, and green steeps, before them; who have a sudden presence and tangled woods, and everything of mind equal to any emergency, ris- [640 | smiling indeed, but in a maze? The same ing with the occasion, and an undaunted feeling comes upon us in a strange city, magnanimous bearing, and an energy and where we have no map of its streets. keenness which is but made intense by Hence you hear of practised travelers, opposition. This is genius, this is hero when they first come into a place, mountism; it is the exhibition of a natural gift, ing some high hill or church tower, by which no culture can teach, at which way of reconnoitering its neighbor- 1700 no institution can aim: here, on the con- | hood. In like manner, you must be above
your knowledge, not under it, or it will physical necessity. No one, who has had E: oppress you; and the more you have of it, experience of men of studious habits, but
the greater will be the load. The learning must recognize the existence of a parallel of a Salmasius or a Burman, unless you phenomenon in the case of those who are its master, will be your tyrant. Im have over-stimulated the memory. In perat aut servit; if you can wield it with such persons reason acts almost as (760 a strong arm, it is a great weapon; other feebly and as impotently as in the madwise,
man; once fairly started on any subject “Vis consili expers (710 whatever, they have no power of selfMole ruit sua.”
control; they passively endure the suc
cession of impulses which are evolved You will be overwhelmed, like Tarpeia, out of the original exciting cause; they by the heavy wealth which you have ex are passed on from one idea to another acted from tributary generations.
and go steadily forward, plodding along Instances abound; there are authors one line of thought in spite of the amplest - who are as pointless as they are inex concessions of the hearer, or wander- 1770
haustible in their literary resources. They ing from it in endless digression in spite measure knowledge by bulk, as it lies of his remonstrances. Now, if, as is very in the rude block, without symmetry, certain, no one would envy the madman without design. How many com- [720 the glow and originality of his concepmentators are there on the classics, how tions, why must we extol the cultivation many on Holy Scripture, from whom of that intellect, which is the prey, not we rise up, wondering at the learning indeed of barren fancies but of barren which has passed before us, and wonder facts, of random intrusions from withing why it passed! How many writers out, though not of morbid imaginations are there of Ecclesiastical history, such from within? And in thus speaking, (780 as Mosheim or Du Pin, who, breaking I am not denying that a strong and ready up their subject into details, destroy its memory is in itself a real treasure; I am life, and defraud us of the whole by their not disparaging a well-stored mind, anxiety about the parts! The ser- 1730 though it be nothing besides, provided mons, again, of the English divines in it be sober, any more than I would despise the seventeenth century, how often are | a bookseller's shop:—it is of great value they mere repertories of miscellaneous to others, even when not so to the owner. and officious learning! Of course Cath Nor am I banishing, far from it, the posolics also may read without thinking; and sessors of deep and multifarious learning in their case, equally as with Protestants, from my ideal University; they adorn 1790 it holds good, that such knowledge is un it in the eyes of men; I do but say that worthy of the name, knowledge which they constitute no type of the results at they have not thought through, and | which it aims; that it is no great gain to thought out. Such readers are only [740 the intellect to have enlarged the memory possessed by their knowledge, not pos- at the expense of faculties which are insessed of it; nay, in matter of fact they disputably higher. are often even carried away by it, with Nor indeed am I supposing that there out any volition of their own. Recollect, is any great danger, at least in this day, the memory can tyrannize, as well as of over-education; the danger is on the the imagination. Derangement, I be other side. I will tell you, gentle- [800 lieve, has been considered as a loss of men, what has been the practical error control over the sequence of ideas. The of the last twenty years,-not to load the mind, once set in motion, is henceforth memory of the student with a mass of undeprived of the power of initiation, (750 | digested knowledge, but to force upon him and becomes the victim of a train of so much that he has rejected all. It has associations, one thought suggesting an- | been the error of distracting and enfeebother, in the way of cause and effect, as ling the mind by an unmeaning profusion if by a mechanical process, or some of subjects; of implying that a smattering
their nemory is
in a dozen branches of study is not shal- occupation of the thoughts and the lowness, which it really is, but en- (810 leisure of young persons, and may be largement, which it is not; of considering | made the means of keeping them from an acquaintance with the learned names | bad employments and bad companions. of things and persons and the possession Moreover, as to that superficial acquaintof clever duodecimos, and attendance on ance with chemistry, and geology, and eloquent lecturers, and membership with astronomy, and political economy, and scientific institutions, and the sight of modern history, and biography, and (870 the experiments of a platform and the other branches of knowledge, which periodspecimens of a museum, that all this was ical literature and occasional lectures not dissipation of mind, but progress. and scientific institutions diffuse through All things now are to be learned at (820 the community, I think it a graceful once, not first one thing, then another; accomplishment, and a suitable, nay, in not one well, but many badly. Learning this day a necessary accomplishment, in is to be without exertion, without atten- | the case of educated men. Nor, lastly, tion, without toil; without grounding, am I disparaging or discouraging the without advance, without finishing. There thorough acquisition of any one of these is to be nothing individual in it; and this, studies, or denying that, as far as it (880 forsooth, is the wonder of the age. What goes, such thorough acquisition is a real the steam engine does with matter, the education of the mind. All I say is, call printing press is to do with the mind; it things by their right names, and do not is to act mechanically, and the popula- (830 confuse together ideas which are essention is to be passively, almost uncon tially different. A thorough knowledge sciously enlightened, by the mere mul of one science and a superficial acquainttiplication and dissemination of volumes. ance with many, are not the same thing; Whether it be the school boy, or the school a smattering of a hundred things or a girl, or the youth at college, or the me- memory for detail, is not a philosophical chanic in the town, or the politician in the or comprehensive view. Recrea- (890 senate, all have been the victims in one tions are not education; accomplishments way or other of this most preposterous are not education. Do not say, the people and pernicious of delusions. Wise men must be educated, when, after all, you have lifted up their voices in vain; (840 only mean, amused, refreshed, soothed, and at length, lest their own institutions put into good spirits and good humor, should be outshone and should disappear or kept from vicious excesses. I do not in the folly of the hour, they have been say that such amusements, such occupaobliged, as far as they could with a good tions of mind, are not a great gain; but conscience, to humor a spirit which they they are not education. You may as could not withstand, and make tem- | well call drawing and fencing educa- 1000 porizing concessions at which they could tion as a general knowledge of botany of not but inwardly smile.
conchology. Stuffing birds or playing It must not be supposed that, because stringed instruments is an elegant pasI so speak, therefore I have some [850 time, and a resource to the idle, but it is sort of fear of the education of the people: not education; it does not form or cultion the contrary, the more education they vate the intellect. Education is a high have, the better, so that it is really edu word; it is the preparation for knowledge, cation. Nor am I an enemy to the cheap and it is the imparting of knowledge in publication of scientific and literary works, proportion to that preparation. We which is now in vogue: on the contrary, | require intellectual eyes to know (g10 I consider it a great advantage, conven- withal, as bodily eyes for sight. We need ience, and gain; that is, to those to whom both objects and organs intellectual; we education has given a capacity for using cannot gain them without setting about them. Further, I consider such [860 it; we cannot gain them in our sleep, or innocent recreations as science and litera- | by haphazard. The best telescope does ture are able to furnish will be a very fit , not dispense with eyes; the printing press