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Fade into dimness apace,


'Twixt vice and virtue; revivest, 55 Silent;-hardly a shout

Succorest! This was thy work,
From a few boys late at their play! This was thy life upon earth.
The lights come out in the street,
In the school-room windows;—but cold, What is the course of the life
Solemn, unlighted, austere,

Of mortal men on the earth?
Through the gathering darkness, arise Most men eddy about

60 The chapel-walls, in whose bound Here and there-eat and drink, Thou, my father! art laid.

Chatter and love and hate,

Gather and squander, are raised There thou dost lie, in the gloom

Aloft, are hurled in the dust. Of the autumn evening. But ah! 15 | Striving blindly, achieving

65 That word, gloom, to my mind

Nothing; and then they dieBrings thee back, in the light

Perish;-and no one asks
Of thy radiant vigor, again;

Who or what they have been,
In the gloom of November we passed More than he asks what waves,
Days not dark at thy side;

In the moonlit solitudes mild

70 Seasons impaired not the ray

Of the midmost Ocean, have swelled, Of thy buoyant cheerfulness clear. Foamed for a moment, and gone. Such thou wast! and I stand In the autumn evening, and think And there are some, whom a thirst Of bygone autumns with thee.

25 Ardent, unquenchable, fires,

Not with the crowd to be spent, 75 Fifteen years

gone round

Not without aim to go round
Since thou arosest to tread,

In an eddy of purposeless dust,
In the summer-morning, the road Effort unmeaning and vain.
Of death, at a call unforeseen,

Ah, yes! some of us strive
Sudden. For fifteen years,

Not without action to die

80 We who till then in thy shade

Fruitless, but something to snatch Rested as under the boughs

From dull oblivion, nor all Of a mighty oak, have endured

Glut the devouring grave! Sunshine and rain as we might,

We, we have chosen our pathBare, unshaded, alone,


Path to a clear-purposed goal, Lacking the shelter of thee.

Path of advance!—but it leads

A long, steep journey, through sunk O strong soul, by what shore

Gorges, o'er mountains in snow. Tarriest thou now? For that force, Cheerful, with friends, we set forthSurely, has not been left vain!

Then, on the height, comes the storm. 90 Somewhere, surely, afar,


Thunder crashes from rock In the sounding labor-house vast

To rock, the cataracts reply; Of being, is practised that strength, Lightnings dazzle our eyes; Zealous, beneficent, firm!

Roaring torrents have breached

The track; the stream-bed descends 95 Yes, in some far-shining sphere,

In the place where the wayfarer once Conscious or not of the past,

Planted his footstep—the spray
Still thou performest the word

Boils o'er its borders! aloft
Of the Spirit in whom thou dost live- The unseen snow-beds dislodge
Prompt, unwearied, as here!

Their hanging ruin! alas,
Still thou upraisest with zeal

Havoc is made in our train!
The humble good from the ground, 50 Friends, who set forth at our side,
Sternly repressest the bad!

Falter, are lost in the storm.
Still, like a trumpet, dost rouse

We, we only are left! Those who with half-open eyes

With frowning foreheads, with lips 105 Tread the border-land dim

Sternly compressed, we strain on,





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Sadly we answer: We bring
Only ourselves! we lost
Sight of the rest in the storm.
Hardly ourselves we fought through, 120
Stripped, without friends, as we are.
Friends, companions, and train,
The avalanche swept from our side.




But thou would'st not alone
Be saved, my father! alone
Conquer and come to thy goal,
Leaving the rest in the wild.
We were weary, and we
Fearful, and we in our march
Fain to drop down and to die.
Still thou turnedst, and still
Beckonedst the trembler, and still
Gavest the weary thy hand.


If, in the paths of the world,
Stones might have wounded thy feet, 135
Toil or dejection have tried
Thy spirit, of that we saw
Nothing—to us thou wast still
Cheerful, and helpful, and firm!
Therefore to thee it was given
Many to save with thyself;
And, at the end of thy day,
O faithful shepherd! to come,
Bringing thy sheep in thy hand.

See! In the rocks of the world
Marches the host of mankind,
A feeble, wavering line.
Where are they tending?-A God
Marshalled them, gave them their goal. -
Ah, but the way is so long!
Years they have been in the wild!
Sore thirst plagues them, the rocks,
Rising all round, overawe;
Factions divide them, their host 180
Threatens to break, to dissolve.
-Ah, keep, keep them combined!
Else, of the myriads who fill
That army, not one shall arrive;
Sole they shall stray; on the rocks 185
Batter for ever in vain,
Die one by one in the waste.
Then, in such hour of need
Of your fainting, dispirited race,
Ye, like angels, appear,

Radiant with ardor divine.
Beacons of hope, ye appear!
Languor is not in your heart,
Weakness is not in your word,
Weariness not on your brow.

195 Ye alight in our van! at your voice Panic, despair, flee away. Ye move through the ranks, recall The stragglers, refresh the outworn, Praise, re-inspire the brave. Order, courage, return; Eyes rekindling, and prayers, Follow your steps as ye go. Ye fill up the gaps in our files, Strengthen the wavering line, 205 Stablish, continue our march, On, to the bound of the waste, On, to the City of God.




And through thee I believe
In the noble and great who are gone;
Pure souls honored and blest
By former ages, who else
Such, so soulless, so poor,
Is the race of men whom I see
Seemed but a dream of the heart,
Seemed but a cry of desire.
Yes! I believe that there lived
Others like thee in the past,
Not like the men of the crowd
Who all round me to-day





The sea is calm to-night,

Creep into thy narrow bed, The tide is full, the moon lies fair

Creep, and let no more be said! Upon the straits;on the French coast Vain thy onset! all stands fast. the light

Thou thyself must break at last.
Gleams and is gone; the cliffs of England
Let the long contention cease!

5 Glimmering and vast, out in the tranquil Geese are swans, and swans are geese. bay.


Let them have it how they will! Come to the window, sweet is the night- Thou art tired; best be still.

air! Only, from the long line of spray

They out-talked thee, hissed thee, tore Where the sea meets the moon-blanched thee? land,

Better men fared thus before thee; Listen! you hear the grating roar

Fired their ringing shot and passed, Of pebbles which the waves draw back, Hotly charged-and sank at last.

and fling, At their return, up the high strand, Charge once more, then, and be dumb! Begin, and cease, and then again begin, Let the victors, when they come, With tremulous cadence slow, and bring When the forts of folly fall,

15 The eternal note of sadness in.

Find thy body by the wall!



Sophocles long ago

15 Heard it on the Ægean, and it brought LITERATURE AND SCIENCE Into his mind the turbid ebb and flow Of human misery; we

Practical people talk with a smile of Find also in the sound a thought,

Plato and of his absolute ideas; and it is Hearing it by this distant northern sea. 20 impossible to deny that Plato's ideas do

often seem unpractical and impracticable, The Sea of Faith

and especially when one views them in Was once, too, at the full, and round connection with the life of a great work-aearth's shore

day world like the United States. The Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furled. necessary staple of the life of such a world But now I only hear

Plato regards with disdain; handicraft Its melancholy, long, withdrawing roar, 25 and trade and the working professions (10 Retreating, to the breath

he regards with disdain; but what beOf the night-wind, down the vast edges comes of the life of an industrial modern drear

community if you take handicraft and And naked shingles of the world.

trade and the working professions out of

it? The base mechanic arts and handiAh, love, let us be true

crafts, says Plato, bring about a natural To one another! for the world, which weakness in the principle of excellence

30 in a man, so that he cannot govern the To lie before us like a land of dreams, ignoble growths in him, but nurses them, So various, so beautiful, so new,

and cannot understand fostering any (20 Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor other. Those who exercise such arts and light,

trades, as they have their bodies, he says Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for marred, by their vulgar businesses, so pain;

they have their souls, too, bowed and And we are here as on a darkling plain 35 broken by them. And if one of these Swept with confused alarms of struggle uncomely people has a mind to seek selfand flight,

culture and philosophy, Plato compares Where ignorant armies clash by night. him to a bald little tinker, who has scraped


together money, and has got his release working part of the community, though from service, and has had a bath, and (30 not nominally slaves as in the pagan bought a new coat, and is rigged out like world, were practically not much better a bridegroom about to marry the daughter off than slaves, and not more seriously of his master who has fallen into poor regarded. And how absurd it is, people and helpless estate.

end by saying, to inflict this educaNor do the working professions fare tion upon an industrious modern comany better than trade at the hands of munity, where very few indeed are per-190 Plato. He draws for us an inimitable sons of leisure, and the mass to be conpicture of the working lawyer, and of his sidered has not leisure, but is bound, for life of bondage; he shows how this bond- its own great good, and for the great age from his youth up has stunted [40 good of the world at large, to plain labor and warped him, and made him small and to industrial pursuits, and the educaand crooked of soul, encompassing him tion in question tends necessarily to make with difficulties which he is not man men dissatisfied with these pursuits and enough to rely on justice and truth as unfitted for them! means to encounter, but has recourse, That is what is said. So far I must for help out of them, to falsehood and defend Plato, as to plead that his view (100 wrong And so, says Plato, this poor of education and studies is in the general, creature is bent and broken, and grows as it seems to me, sound enough, and up from boy to man without a particle of fitted for all sorts and conditions of men, soundness in him, although exceed- 150 whatever their pursuits may be. “An iningly smart and clever in his own es- telligent man,” says Plato, “will prize teem.

those studies which result in his soul One cannot refuse to admire the artist getting soberness, righteousness, and wiswho draws these pictures. But we say to dom, and will less value the others.” ourselves that his ideas show the influence I cannot consider that a bad description of a primitive and obsolete order of things, of the aim of education, and of the mo (110 when the warrior caste and the priestly tives which should govern us in the choice caste were alone in honor, and the humble of studies, whether we are preparing ourwork of the world was done by slaves. selves for a hereditary seat in the English We have now changed all that; the mod- [60 House of Lords or for the pork trade in ern majority consists in work, as Emerson Chicago. declares; and in work, we may add, prin- Still I admit that Plato's world was not cipally of such plain and dusty kind as ours, that his scorn of trade and handithe work of cultivators of the ground, craft is fantastic, that he had no conhandicraftsmen, men of trade and business, ception of a great industrial community men of the working professions. Above such as that of the United States, and (120 all is this true in a great industrious that such a community must and will community such as that of the United shape its education to suit its own needs. States.

If the usual education handed down to Now education, many people go on (70 it from the past does not suit it, it will to say, is still mainly governed by the ideas certainly before long drop this and try of men like Plato, who lived when the another. The usual education in the past warrior caste and the priestly or philo- has been mainly literary. The question sophical class were alone in honor, and the is whether the studies which were really useful part of the community were long supposed to be the best for all of us slaves. It is an education fitted for per- are practically the best now; whether (130 sons of leisure in such a community. others are not better. The tyranny of This education passed from Greece and the past, many think, weighs on us inRome to the feudal communities of juriously in the predominance given to Europe, where also the warrior caste (80 letters in education. The question is and the priestly caste were alone held in raised whether, to meet the needs of our honor, and where the really useful and modern life, the predominance ought not now to pass from letters to science; college at Birmingham, laying hold of and naturally the question is nowhere this phrase, expanded it by quoting some raised with more energy than here in the more words of mine, which are these: United States. The design of abasing (140 “The civilised world is to be regarded as what is called “mere literary instruction now being, for intellectual and spiritual and education,” and of exalting what is purposes, one great confederation, bound called “sound, extensive, and practical to a joint action and working to a comscientific knowledge,” is, in this intensely mon result; and whose members have modern world of the United States, even for their proper outfit a knowledge of more perhaps than in Europe, a very Greek, Roman, and Eastern antiquity, [200 popular design, and makes great and and of one another. Special local and rapid progress.

temporary advantages being put out of I am going to ask whether the present account, that modern nation will in the movement for ousting letters from their (150 intellectual and spiritual sphere make old predominance in education, and for most progress, which most thoroughly transferring the predominance in educa- carries out this programme.” tion to the natural sciences, whether this Now on my phrase, thus enlarged, brisk and flourishing movement ought to Professor Huxley remarks that when I prevail, and whether it is likely that in speak of the above-mentioned knowledge the end it really will prevail. An objec- as enabling us to know ourselves and 210 tion may be raised which I will antici- the world, I assert literature to contain the pate. My own studies have been almost materials which suffice for thus making wholly in letters, and my visits to the us know ourselves and the world. But field of the natural sciences have been (160 it is not by any means clear, says he, very slight and inadequate, although that after having learnt all which ancient those sciences have always strongly moved and modern literatures have to tell us, my curiosity. A man of letters, it will

we have laid a sufficiently broad and perhaps be said, is not competent to dis- deep foundation for that criticism of life, cuss the comparative merits of letters and that knowledge of ourselves and the world, natural science as means of education. which constitutes culture. On the (220 To this objection I reply, first of all, that contrary, Professor Huxley declares that his incompetence, if he attempts the dis he finds himself “wholly unable to admit cussion but is really incompetent for it, will that either nations or individuals will be abundantly visible; nobody will be (170 really advance, if their outfit draws taken in; he will have plenty of sharp nothing from the stores of physical observers and critics to save mankind science. An army without weapons of from that danger. But the line I am going precision, and with no particular base of to follow is, as you will soon discover, so operations, might more hopefully enter extremely simple, that perhaps it may upon a campaign on the Rhine, than be followed without failure even by a man, devoid of a knowledge of (230 one who for a more ambitious line what physical science has done in the of discussion would be quite incompe- last century, upon

criticism of tent.

life.” Some of you may possibly remember (180 This shows how needful it is for those a phrase of mine which has been the object who are to discuss any matter together, of a good deal of comment; an observation to have a common understanding as to to the effect that in our culture, the aim the sense of the terms they employ,being to know ourselves and the world, we how needful, and how difficult. What have, as the means to this end, to know the Professor Huxley says, implies just the best which has been thought and said in reproach which is so often brought (240 the world. A man of science, who is also against the study of belles lettres, as they an excellent writer and the very prince of are called: that the study is an elegant debaters, Professor Huxley, in a discourse one, but slight and ineffectual; a smatterat the opening of Sir Josiah Mason's (190 | ing of Greek and Latin and other orna

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