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ling them to death. Above three thousand about the islanded summits of the lower killed upon the place: “I never saw such hills, untouched yet by more than dawn, a charge of foot and horse,” says one; colder and more quiet than a windless nor did I. Oliver was still near to York- sea under the moon of midnight; watch shire Hodgson where the shock succeeded; when the first sunbeam is sent upon (10 Hodgson heard him say, “They run, I the silver channels, how the foam of their profess they run!” And over St. Abb's undulating surface parts and passes away, Head and the German Ocean, just then, and down under their depths the glittering bursts the first gleam of the level Suncity and green pasture lie like Atlantis, upon us, “and I heard Nol say, in (190 between the white paths of winding rivers; the words of the Psalmist, “Let God the flakes of light falling every moment arise, let His enemies be scattered,'”– faster and broader among the starry spires, or in Rous's meter

as the wreathed surges break and vanish "Let God arise, and scattered

above them, and the confused crests and Let all his enemies be; ridges of the dark hills shorten their (20

Wait And let all those that do him hate

gray shadows upon the plain. ... Before his presence flee!”

a little longer, and you shall see those

scattered mists rallying in the ravines, Even so. The Scotch Army is shivered and floating up towards you, along the to utter ruin; rushes in tumultuous wreck, winding valleys, till they crouch in quiet hither, thither; to Belhaven, or, in [200 masses, iridescent with the morning light, their distraction, even to Dunbar; the upon the broad breasts of the higher chase goes as far as Haddington; led by hills, whose leagues of massy undulation Hacker. “The Lord general made a will melt back and back into that robe halt,” says Hodgson, “and sang the of material light, until they fade away, (30 Hundred-and-seventeenth Psalm,

lost in its lustre, to appear again above, horse could gather for the chase. Hundred- in the serene heaven, like a wild, bright, and-seventeenth Psalm, at the foot of Doon impossible dream, foundationless and inHill; there we uplift it, to the tune of accessible, their very bases vanishing in Bangor, or some still higher score, and the unsubstantial and mocking blue of roll it strong and great against the (210 the deep lake below. ... Wait yet a sky:

little longer, and you shall see those “Oh give ye praise unto the Lord,

mists gather themselves into white towAll nati-ons that be;

ers, and stand like fortresses along the Likewise ye people all, accord

promontories, massy and motionless, [40 His name to magnify!

only piled with every instant higher and

higher into the sky, and casting longer For great to-us-ward ever are

shadows athwart the rocks; and out of His loving-kindnesses;

the pale blue of the horizon you will see His truth endures for evermore:

forming and advancing a troop of narThe Lord oh do ye bless!”

row, dark, pointed vapors, which will And now, to the chase again. (220 cover the sky, inch by inch, with their

gray network, and take the light off the

landscape with an eclipse which will stop JOHN RUSKIN (1819-1900) the singing of the birds and the mo- [50

tion of the leaves, together; and then From MODERN PAINTERS you will see horizontal bars of black SUNRISE AND SUNSET IN THE ALPS

shadow forming under them, and lurid

wreaths create themselves, you know not Stand upon the peak of some isolated how, along the shoulders of the hills; you mountain at daybreak, when the night never see them form, but when you look mists first rise from off the plains, and back to a place which was clear an inwatch their white and lake-like fields, as stant ago, there is a cloud on it, hanging they float in level bays and winding gulfs by the precipices, as a hawk pauses over his prey. ... And then you will [60 domes flushing that heaven about them hear the sudden rush of the awakened and above them, piercing with purer light wind, and you will see those watch-towers through its purple lines of lifted cloud, of vapor swept away from their founda- casting a new glory on every wreath as tions, and waving curtains of opaque rain it passes by, until the whole heaven, let down to the valleys, swinging from one scarlet canopy, is interwoven with a the burdened clouds in black bending roof of waving flame, and tossing, (120 fringes, or pacing in pale columns along vault beyond vault, as with the drifted the lake level, grazing its surface into wings of many companies of angels: and foam as they go. And then, as the sun then, when you can look no more for sinks, you shall see the storm drift for 170 gladness, and when you are bowed down an instant from off the hills, leaving their with fear and love of the Maker and Doer broad sides smoking, and loaded yet of this, tell me who has best delivered with snow-white, torn, steam-like rags of this His message unto men! capricious vapor, now gone, now gathered again; while the smouldering sun, seeming

THE TWO BOYHOODS not far away, but burning like a redhot ball beside you, and as if you

could Born half-way between the mountains reach it, plunges through the rushing and the sea-that young George of Castelwind and rolling cloud with headlong franco-of the Brave Castle:-Stout fall, as if it meant to rise no more, (80George they called him, George of Georges, dyeing all the air about it with blood.

so goodly a boy he was—Giorgione. And then you shall hear the fainting Have you ever thought what a world tempest die in the hollow of the night, his eyes opened on--fair, searching eyes and you shall see a green halo kindling of youth? What a world of mighty life, on the summit of the eastern hills, brighter from those mountain roots to the shore; -brighter yet, till the large white circle -of loveliest life, when he went down, (10 of the slow moon is lifted up among the yet so young, to the marble city-and barred clouds, step by step, line by line; became himself as a fiery heart to it? star after star she quenches with her A city of marble, did I say? nay, rather kindling light, setting in their stead [90 a golden city, paved with emerald. For an army of pale, impenetrable, fleecy truly, every pinnacle and turret glanced wreaths in the heaven, to give light upon or glowed, overlaid with gold, or bossed the earth, which move together, hand in with jasper. Beneath, the unsullied sea hand, company by company, troop by drew in deep breathing, to and fro, its troop, so measured in their unity of mo- eddies of green wave.

Deep-hearted, tion, that the whole heaven seems to majestic, terrible as the sea, -the (20 roll with them, and the earth to reel men of Venice moved in sway of power under them. ... And then wait yet and war; pure as her pillars of alabaster, for one hour, until the east again becomes stood her mothers and maidens; from foot purple, and the heaving mountains, (100 to brow, all noble, walked her knights; rolling against it in darkness, like waves the low bronzed gleaming of sea-rusted of a wild sea, are drowned one by one armor shot angrily under their blood-red in the glory of its burning; watch the mantle-folds. Fearless, faithful, patient, white glaciers blaze in their winding paths impenetrable, implacable,-every word about the mountains, like mighty serpents a fate-sat her senate. In hope and with scales of fire: watch the columnar honor, lulled by flowing of wave (30 peaks of solitary snow, kindling down around their isles of sacred sand, each wards, chasm by chasm, each in itself a with his name written and the CTOSS new morning; their long avalanches cast graved at his side, lay her dead. A wondown in keen streams brighter than (110 derful piece of world. Rather, itself a the lightning, sending each his tribute of world. It lay along the face of the waters, driven snow, like altar-smoke, up to the no larger, as its captains saw it from their heaven; the rose-light of their silent masts at evening, than a bar of sunset

that could not pass away; but for its Garden, and put to service such specpower, it must have seemed to them as tacles of life as it afforded. if they were sailing in the expanse of (40 No knights to be seen there, nor, I heaven, and this a great planet, whose imagine, many beautiful ladies; their orient edge widened through ether. A costume at least disadvantageous, deworld from which all ignoble care and pending much on incumbency of hat and petty thoughts were banished, with all feather, and short waists; the majesty of the common and poor elements of life. men founded similarly on shoebuckles No foulness, nor tumult, in those tremu- and wigs;-impressive enough when [100 lous streets, that filled, or fell, beneath Reynolds will do his best for it; but not the moon; but rippled music of majestic suggestive of much ideal delight to a boy. change, or thrilling silence. No weak “Bello ovile dov' io dormii agnello”; walls could rise above them; no low- 150 of things beautiful, besides men and roofed cottage, nor straw-built shed. women, dusty sunbeams up or down the Only the strength as of rock, and the street on summer mornings; deep furfinished setting of stones most precious. rowed cabbage-leaves at the greengrocer's; And around them, far as the eye could magnificence of oranges in wheelbarrows reach, still the soft moving of stainless round the corner; and Thames' shore waters, proudly pure; as not the flower, within three minutes' race.

(110 so neither the thorn nor the thistle, could None of these things very glorious; grow in the glancing fields. Ethereal the best, however, that England, it seems, strength of Alps, dreamlike, vanishing in was then able to provide for a boy of high procession beyond the Torcellan (60 gift: who, such as they are, loves themshore; blue islands of Paduan hills, poised never, indeed, forgets them. The short in the golden west. Above, free winds waists modify to the last his visions of and fiery clouds ranging at their will;- | Greek ideal. His foregrounds had always brightness out of the north, and balm a succulent cluster or two of greengrocery from the south, and the stars of the at the corners. Enchanted oranges gleam evening and morning clear in the limitless in Covent Gardens of the Hesperides; (120 light of arched heaven and circling sea. and great ships go to pieces in order to

Such was Giorgione's school-such Ti- scatter chests of them on the waves. tian's home.

That mist of early sunbeams in the LonNear the south-west corner of Co- [70 don dawn crosses, many and many a vent Garden, a square brick pit or well time, the clearness of Italian air; and by is formed by a close-set block of houses, Thames' shore, with its stranded barges to the back windows of which it admits a and glidings of red sail, dearer to us than few rays of light. Access to the bottom Lucerne lake or Venetian lagoon,-by of it is obtained out of Maiden Lane, Thames' shore we will die. through a low archway and an iron gate; With such circumstance round (130 and if you stand long enough under the him in youth, let us note what necessary archway to accustom your eyes to the effects followed upon the boy. I assume darkness you may see on the left hand a him to have had Giorgione's sensibility narrow door, which formerly gave (80 (and more than Giorgione's, if that be quiet access to a respectable barber's possible) to color and form. I tell you shop, of which the front window, looking farther, and this fact you may receive into Maiden Lane, is still extant, filled, trustfully, that his sensibility to human in this year (1860), with a row of bottles, affection and distress was no less keen connected, in some defunct manner, with than even his sense for natural beauty, a brewer's business. A more fashionable heart-sight deep as eyesight. (140 neighborhood, it is said, eighty years Consequently, he attaches himself with ago than now-never certainly a cheerful the faithfullest child-love to everything one-wherein a boy being born on St. that bears an image of the place he was George's day, 1775, began soon after (90 born in. No matter how ugly it is,-has to take interest in the world of Covent it anything about it like Maiden Lane, or like Thames' shore? If so, it shall be and kept it. They painted the squire (200 painted for their sake. Hence, to the and the squire's lady as centres of the very close of life, Turner could endure movements of the universe, to the end ugliness which no one else, of the same of their lives. But Turner perceived the sensibility, would have borne with [150 younger squire in other aspects about his for an instant. Dead brick walls, blank lane, occurring prominently in its night square windows, old clothes, market- scenery, as a dark figure, or one of two, womanly types of humanity-anything against the moonlight. He saw also the fishy and muddy, like Billingsgate or working of city commerce, from endless Hungerford Market, had great attrac- warehouse, towering over Thames, to the tion for him; black barges, patched sails, back shop in the lane, with its stale (210 and every possible condition of fog. herrings-highly interesting these last;

You will find these tolerations and one of his father's best friends, whom he affections guiding or sustaining him to often afterwards visited affectionately at the last hour of his life; the notablest (160 Bristol, being a fishmonger and glueof all such endurances being that of dirt. boiler; which gives us a friendly turn of No Venetian ever draws anything foul; mind towards herring-fishing, whaling, but Turner devoted picture after picture Calais poissardes, and many other of to the illustration of effects of dinginess, our choicest subjects in after life; all this smoke, soot, dust, and dusty texture; being connected with that mysterious old sides of boats, weedy roadside vegeta- | forest below London Bridge on one (220 tion, dunghills, straw-yards, and all the side;—and, on the other, with these soilings and stains of every common labor. masses of human power and national

And more than this, he not only could wealth which weigh upon us, at Covent endure, but enjoyed and looked for [170 Garden here, with strange compression, litter, like Covent Garden wreck after and crush us into narrow Hand Court. the market. His pictures are often full of “That mysterious forest below London it, from side to side; their foregrounds Bridge”_better for the boy than wood of differ from all others in the natural way pine, or grove of myrtle. How he must that things have of lying about in them. have tormented the watermen, beseeching Even his richest vegetation, in ideal them to let him crouch anywhere in (230 work, is confused; and he delights in the bows, quiet as a log, so only that he shingle, débris, and heaps of fallen stones. might get floated down there among the The last words he ever spoke to me about ships, and round and round the ships, a picture were in gentle exultation (180 and with the ships, and by the ships, and about his St. Gothard: "that litter of under the ships, staring, and clambering; stones which I endeavored to represent.” —these the only quite beautiful things

The second great result of this Covent he can see in all the world, except the sky; Garden training was understanding of but these, when the sun is on their sails, and regard for the poor, whom the Vene- | filling or falling, endlessly disordered by tians, we saw, despised; whom, contrarily, sway of tide and stress of anchorage, (240 Turner loved, and more than loved-un- beautiful unspeakably; which ships also derstood. He got no romantic sight of are inhabited by glorious creaturesthem, but an infallible one, as he prowled red-faced sailors, with pipes, appearing about the end of his lane, watching (190 over the gunwales, true knights, over night effects in the wintry streets; nor their castle parapets--the most angelic sight of the poor alone, but of the poor beings in the whole compass of London in direct relations with the rich. He world. And Trafalgar happening long knew, in good and evil, what both classes before we can draw ships, we, neverthethought of, and how they dwelt with, less, coax all current stories out of the each other.

wounded sailors, do our best at pres- (250 Reynolds and Gainsborough, bred in ent to show Nelson's funeral streaming country villages, learned there the country up the Thames; and vow that Trafalgar boy's reverential theory of “the squire, shall have its tribute of memory some


day. Which, accordingly, is

of all. We have seen the principal difplished once, with all our might, for its ferences between this boy and Giorgione, death; twice, with all our might, for its as respects sight of the beautiful, 1310 victory; thrice, in pensive farewell to the understanding of poverty, of commerce, old Témeraire, and, with it, to that order and of order of battle; then follows anof things.

other cause of difference in our trainingNow this fond companying with [260 not slight,—the aspect of religion, namely, sailors must have divided his time, it in the neighborhood of Covent Garden. appears to me, pretty equally between I say the aspect; for that was all the lad Covent Garden and Wapping (allowing for could judge by. Disposed, for the most incidental excursions to Chelsea on one part, to learn chiefly by his eyes, in this side, and Greenwich on the other), which special matter he finds there is really no time he would spend pleasantly, but not other way of learning. His father had (320 magnificently, being limited in pocket- taught him “to lay one penny upon anmoney, and leading a kind of “Poor- other.” Of mother's teaching, we hear Jack” life on the river.

of none; of parish pastoral teaching, the In some respects, no life could be (270 reader may guess how much. better for a lad. But it was not calcu- I chose Giorgione rather than Veronese lated to make his ear fine to the niceties to help me in carrying out this parallel; of language, nor form his moralities on an because I do not find in Giorgione's work entirely regular standard. Picking up any of the early Venetian monarchist his first scraps of vigorous English chiefly element. He seems to me to have belonged at Deptford and in the markets, and his more to an abstract contemplative (330 first ideas of female tenderness and beauty school. I may be wrong in this; it is no among nymphs of the barge and the matter;—suppose it were so, and that he barrow,-another boy might, perhaps,

right, perhaps, came down to Venice somewhat recusant, have become what people usually term (280 or insentient, concerning the usual priestly “vulgar.” But the original make and doctrines of his day,—how would the frame of Turner's mind being not vulgar, Venetian religion, from an outer intelbut as nearly as possible a combination lectual standing-point, have looked to him? of the minds of Keats and Dante, joining He would have seen it to be a religion capricious waywardness, and intense open- indisputably powerful in human affairs; ness to every fine pleasure of sense, and often very harmfully so; sometimes (340 hot defiance of formal precedent, with a devouring widows' houses, and consumquite infinite tenderness, generosity, and ing the strongest and fairest from among desire of justice and truth-this kind the young; freezing into merciless bigotry of mind did not become vulgar, but (290 the policy of the old: also, on the other very tolerant of vulgarity, even fond of hand, animating national courage, and it in some forms; and on the outside, raising souls, otherwise sordid, into herovisibly infected by it, deeply enough; the ism: on the whole, always a real and curious result, in its combination of ele- great power; served with daily sacrifice ments, being to most people wholly in- of gold, time, and thought; putting forth comprehensible. It was as if a cable had its claims, if hypocritically, at least (350 been woven of blood-crimson silk, and in bold hypocrisy, not waiving any atom then tarred on the outside. People of them in doubt or fear; and, assuredly, handled it, and the tar came off on their in large measure, sincere, believing in hands; red gleams were seen through (300 itself, and believed: a goodly system, the black, underneath, at the places where moveover, in aspect; gorgeous, harmoniit had been strained. Was it ochre?- ous, mysterious; a thing which had either said the world-or red lead?

to be obeyed or combated, but could not Schooled thus in manners, literature, be scorned. A religion towering over and general moral principles at Chelsea all the city--many-buttressed-luminous and Wapping, we have finally to inquire in marble stateliness, as the dome (360 concerning the most important point of our Lady of Safety shines over the

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