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gage put on board, we dined at our inn “Who, born for the universe, narrowed his by ourselves. I happened to say, it

mind, would be terrible if he should not (2190 And to party gave up what was meant find a speedy opportunity of returning to I for mankind "? London, and be confined in so dull a place. JOHNSON. “Don't, Sir, accustom My revered friend walked down with yourself to use big words for little mat me to the beach, where we embraced and ters. It would not be terrible, though I parted with tenderness, and engaged to were to be detained some time here." correspond by letters. I said, “I hope, The practice of using words of dispropor Sir, you will not forget me in my absence.” tionate magnitude, is, no doubt, too fre JOHNSON. “Nay, Sir, it is more likely quent everywhere; but, I think, most you should forget me, than that I (2250 remarkable among the French, of [2200 should forget you.” As the vessel put out which, all who have travelled in France to sea, I kept my eyes upon him for a must have been struck with innumerable considerable time, while he remained instances.

rolling his majestic frame in his usual We went and looked at the church, and manner; and at last I perceived him walk having gone into it, and walked up to the back into the town, and he disappeared. altar, Johnson, whose piety was constant and fervent, sent me to my knees, saying, “Now that you are going to leave EDMUND BURKE (1729-1797) your native country, recommend yourself to the protection of your CREATOR (2210 TO THE ELECTORS OF BRISTOL, and REDEEMER.”

After we came out of the church, we ON HIS BEING DECLARED BY THE SHERIFFS, stood talking for some time together of DULY ELECTED ONE OF THE REPRESENTBishop Berkeley's ingenious sophistry to ATIVES IN PARLIAMENT FOR THAT CITY, prove the non-existence of matter, and that every thing in the universe is merely On Thursday the Third of November, 1774 ideal. I observed, that though we are satisfied his doctrine is not true, it is GENTLEMEN: I cannot avoid sympathizimpossible to refute it. I never shall for- | ing strongly with the feelings of the gentleget the alacrity with which John- (2220 man who has received the same honor son answered, striking his foot with that you have conferred on me. If he, mighty force against a large stone, till he who was bred and passed his whole life rebounded from it,-“I refute it thus." | amongst you; if he, who through the This was a stout exemplification of the easy gradations of acquaintance, friendfirst truths of Pere Bouffier, or the original ship, and esteem, has obtained the honor, principles of Reid and of Beattie; without which seems of itself, naturally and aladmitting which, we can no more argue most insensibly, to meet with those, (10 in metaphysics, than we can argue in who by the even tenor of pleasing manmathematics without axioms. To me it ners and social virtues, slide into the love is not conceivable how Berkeley can 2230 and confidence of their fellow-citizens; be answered by pure reasoning; but I know if he cannot speak but with great emotion that the nice and difficult task was to on this subject, surrounded as he is on all have been undertaken by one of the most sides with his old friends; you will have luminous minds of the present age, had not the goodness to excuse me, if my real, unpolitics “turned him from calm philosophy affected embarrassment prevents me from aside.” What an admirable display of sub- expressing my gratitude to you as I ought. tilty, united with brilliance, might his con- I was brought hither under the dis- (20 tending with Berkeley have afforded us! | advantage of being unknown, even by How must we, when we reflect on the loss sight, to any of you. No previous canvass of such an intellectual feast, regret 2240 was made for me. I was put in nominathat he should be characterised as the man, / tion after the poll was opened. I did not

appear until it was far advanced. If, | cause with diligence, and I hope with under all these accumulated disadvan effect. For, if I know anything of my- [80 tages, your good opinion has carried me self, it is not my own interest in it, but my to this happy point of success, you will full conviction, that induces me to tell pardon me, if I can only say to you col youI think there is not a shadow of doubt lectively, as I said to you individually, [30 in the case. simply, and plainly, I thank you, I am I do not imagine that you find me rash obliged to you—I am not insensible of in declaring myself, or very forward in your kindness.

troubling you. From the beginning to This is all that I am able to say for the the end of the election, I have kept inestimable favor you have conferred silence in all matters of discussion. I upon me. But I cannot be satisfied, | have never asked a question of a voter (90 without saying a little more in defence of on the other side, or supported a doubtful the right you have to confer such a favor. vote on my own. I respected the abilities The person that appeared here as counsel of my managers; I relied on the candor for the candidate who so long and so [40 of the court. I think the worthy sheriffs earnestly solicited your votes, thinks will bear me witness, that I have never proper to deny, that a very great part of once made an attempt to impose upon you have any votes to give. He fixes a their reason, to surprise their justice, or standard period of time in his own imag to ruffle their temper. I stood on the ination, not what the law defines, but hustings (except when I gave my thanks merely what the convenience of his client to those who favored me with their (100 suggests, by which he would cut off, at votes) less like a candidate, than an unone stroke, all those freedoms which are concerned spectator of a public proceedthe dearest privileges of your corporation; ing. But here the face of things is alwhich the common law authorizes; (50 tered. Here is an attempt for a general which your magistrates are compelled to massacre of suffrages; an attempt, by a grant; which come duly authenticated | promiscuous carnage of friends and foes, into this court; and are saved in the to exterminate above two thousand votes, clearest words, and with the most religious including seven hundred polled for the care and tenderness, in that very act of gentleman himself, who now complains, parliament which was made to regulate | and who would destroy the friends (110 the elections by freemen, and to prevent whom he has obtained, only because he all possible abuses in making them. cannot obtain as many of them as he

I do not intend to argue the matter wishes. here. My learned counsel has sup- [60 How he will be permitted, in another ported your cause with his usual ability; place, to stultify and disable himself, and the worthy sheriffs have acted with their to plead against his own acts, is another usual equity, and I have no doubt that question. The law will decide it. I shall the same equity which dictates the re only speak of it as it concerns the proturn, will guide the final determination. priety of public conduct in this city. I I had the honor, in conjunction with do not pretend to lay down rules of (120 many far wiser men, to contribute a very decorum for other gentlemen. They are small assistance, but, however, some best judges of the mode of proceeding that assistance, to the forming the judicature will recommend them to the favor of their which is to try such questions. It [70 fellow-citizens. But I confess I should would be unnatural in me to doubt the look rather awkward, if I had been the justice of that court, in the trial of my very first to produce the new copies of freeown cause, to which I have been so active dom, if I had persisted in producing them to give jurisdiction over every other. to the last; if I had ransacked, with the

I assure the worthy freemen, and this most unremitting industry and the most corporation, that, if the gentleman per penetrating research, the remotest (130 severes in the intentions which his present corners of the kingdom to discover them; warmth dictates to him, I will attend their | if I were then, all at once, to turn short, and declare that I had been sporting all | I owe myself, in all things, to all the this while with the right of election; and freemen of this city. My particular that I had been drawing out a poll, upon friends have a demand on me that I should no sort of rational grounds, which dis not deceive their expectations. (190 turbed the peace of my fellow-citizens for Never was cause or man supported with a month together-I really, for my part, more constancy, more activity, more should appear awkward under such cir spirit. I have been supported with a zeal cumstances.

(140 indeed and heartiness in my friends, It would be still more awkward in me, which (if their object had been at all proif I were gravely to look the sheriffs in portioned to their endeavors) could never the face, and to tell them they were not be sufficiently commended. They supto determine my cause on my own prin- i ported me upon the most liberal principles; not to make the return upon those ciples. They wished that the members votes upon which I had rested my elec for Bristol should be chosen for the 200 tion. Such would be my appearance to city, and for their country at large the court and magistrates.

not for themselves. But how should I appear to the voters So far they are not disappointed. If themselves? If I had gone round to (150 | I possess nothing else, I am sure I possess the citizens entitled to freedom, and the temper that is fit for your service. I squeezed them by the hand—“Sir, I know nothing of Bristol, but by the humbly beg your vote- I shall be eternally favors I have received, and the virtues I thankful—may I hope for the honor of have seen exerted in it. your support?—Well!-come—we shall I shall ever retain, what I now feel, the see you at the council-house.”—If I were most perfect and grateful attach- (210 then to deliver them to my managers, ment to my friends—and I have no pack them into tallies, vote them off in enmities, no resentment. I never can court, and when I heard from the bar consider fidelity to engagements, and con“Such a one only! and such a one for [160 stancy in friendships, but with the highever!--he's my man!”—“Thank you, est approbation; even when those noble good Sir-Hah! my worthy friend! thank qualities are employed against my own you kindly—that's an honest fellow pretensions. The gentleman, who is not how is your good family?”—Whilst these so fortunate as I have been in this conwords were hardly out of my mouth, if I test, enjoys, in this respect, a consolation should have wheeled round at once, and | full of honor both to himself and to (220 told them—“Get you gone, you pack of his friends. They have certainly left worthless fellows! you have no votes | nothing undone for his service. you are usurpers! you are intruders on the As for the trifling petulance which rights of real freemen! I will have (170 the rage of party stirs up in little minds, nothing to do with you! you ought never though it should show itself even in this to have been produced at this election, court, it has not made the slightest imand the sheriffs ought not to have ad pression on me. The highest flight of mitted you to poll.”

such clamorous birds is winged in an inGentlemen, I should make a strange ferior reign of the air. We hear them, figure if my conduct had been of this sort. and we look upon them, just as you, (230 I am not so old an acquaintance of yours gentlemen, when you enjoy the serene air as the worthy gentleman. Indeed I could on your lofty rocks, look down upon the not have ventured on such kind of free | gulls that skim the mud of your river, doms with you. But I am bound, and (180 when it is exhausted of its tide. I will endeavor, to have justice done to | I am sorry I cannot conclude without the rights of freemen; even though I saying a word on a topic touched upon should, at the same time, be obliged to ! by my worthy colleague. I wish that vindicate the former part of my antago | topic had been passed by at a time when nist's conduct against his own present I have so little leisure to discuss it. But inclinations.

since he has thought proper to throw (240

it out, I owe you a clear explanation of member is bound blindly and implicitly to my poor sentiments on that subject. obey, to vote, and to argue for, though

He tells you that “the topic of instruc- contrary to the clearest conviction of his tions has occasioned much altercation judgment and conscience these are and uneasiness in this city;" and he ex things utterly unknown to the laws of presses himself (if I understand him this land, and which arise from a (300 rightly) in favor of the coercive authority fundamental mistake of the whole order of such instructions.

and tenor of our constitution. Certainly, gentlemen, it ought to be the Parliament is not a congress of ambashappiness and glory of a representa- (250 sadors from different and hostile intive to live in the strictest union, the terests; which interests each must mainclosest correspondence, and the most tain, as an agent and advocate, against unreserved communication with his con other agents and advocates; but parliastituents. Their wishes ought to have ment is a deliberative assembly of one great weight with him; their opinion, nation, with one interest, that of the high respect; their business, unremitted whole; where, not local purposes, not [310 attention. It is his duty to sacrifice his | local prejudices, ought to guide, but the repose, his pleasures, his satisfactions, to general good, resulting from the general theirs; and above all, ever, and in all cases, reason of the whole. You choose a memto prefer their interest to his own. (260 ber indeed; but when you have chosen But his unbiassed opinion, his mature | him, he is not member of Bristol, but he judgment, his enlightened conscience, is a member of parliament. If the local he ought not to sacrifice to you, to any constituent should have an interest, or man, or to any set of men living. These should form an hasty opinion, evidently he does not derive from your pleasure; opposite to the real good of the rest of no, nor from the law and the constitution. the community, the member for that [320 They are a trust from Providence, for place ought to be as far as any other from the abuse of which he is deeply answer any endeavor to give it effect. I beg able. Your representative owes you, not pardon for saying so much on this subhis industry only, but his judgment; (270 |ject. I have been unwillingly drawn and he betrays, instead of serving you, | into it; but I shall ever use a respectful if he sacrifices it to your opinion.

frankness of communication with you. My worthy colleague says, his will Your faithful friend, your devoted servought to be subservient to yours. If that ant, I shall be to the end of my life; a be all, the thing is innocent. If govern flatterer you do not wish for. On this ment were a matter of will upon any side, point of instructions, however, I think (330 yours, without question, ought to be su- | it scarcely possible we ever can have any perior. But government and legislation sort of difference. Perhaps I may give are matters of reason and judgment, and |

| you too much, rather than too little, not of inclination; and what sort of 280 trouble. reason is that, in which the determination | From the first hour I was encouraged precedes the discussion; in which one set to court your favor, to this happy day of of men deliberate, and another decide; obtaining it, I have never promised you and where those who form the con anything but humble and persevering clusion are perhaps three hundred miles endeavors to do my duty. The weight distant from those who hear the argu of that duty, I confess, makes me (340 ments?

tremble; and whoever well considers what To deliver an opinion is the right of it is, of all things in the world, will fly all men; that of constituents is a weighty from what has the least likeness to a and respectable opinion, which a (290 positive and precipitate engagement. To representative ought always to rejoice to be a good member of parliament is, let me hear; and which he ought always most tell you, no easy task; especially at this seriously to consider. But authoritative time, when there is so strong a disposition instructions; mandates issued, which the to run into the perilous extremes of servile compliance or wild popularity. To unite ment had directed him to preserve uncircumspection with vigor, is abso- 1350 alienably in himself. lutely necessary; but it is extremely I charge him with having formed a (10 difficult. We are now members for a rich committee to be mere instruments and commercial city; this city, however, is tools, at the enormous expenses of but a part of a rich commercial nation, £62,000 per annum. the interests of which are various, multi I charge him with having appointed a form, and intricate. We are members person their dewan, to whom these Engfor that great nation, which, however, is lishmen were to be subservient tools; itself but part of a great empire, extended whose name, to his own knowledge, was by our virtue and our fortune to the by the general voice of India, by the farthest limits of the east and of the 1360 general recorded voice of the Company, west. All these wide-spread interests by recorded official transactions, by [20 must be considered; must be compared; everything that can make a man known, must be reconciled, if possible. We are abhorred and detested, stamped with members for a free country; and surely we infamy; and with giving him the whole all know, that the machine of a free con power which he had thus separated from stitution is no simple thing; but as intri the council-general and from the provincate and as delicate as it is valuable. cial councils. We are members in a great and ancient I charge him with taking bribes of monarchy; and we must preserve reli Gunga Govin Sing. giously the true legal rights of the (370 I charge him with not having done that sovereign, which form the key-stone that bribe service which fidelity even in 30 binds together the noble and well-con iniquity requires at the hands of the structed arch of our empire and our con worst of men. stitution. A constitution made up of I charge him with having robbed those balanced powers must ever be a critical people of whom he took the bribes. thing. As such I mean to touch that part I charge him with having fraudulently of it which comes within my reach. I alienated the fortunes of widows. know my inability, and I wish for support I charge him with having, without from every quarter. In particular I shall right, title, or purchase, taken the lands aim at the friendship, and shall culti- [380 of orphans, and given them to wicked vate the best correspondence, of the persons under him.

140 worthy colleague you have given me.

I charge him with having removed the I trouble you no further than once natural guardians of a minor Rajah, and more to thank you all; you, gentlemen, with having given that trust to a stranger, for your favors; the candidates, for their Debi Sing, whose wickedness was known temperate and polite behavior; and the to himself and all the world; and by sheriffs, for a conduct which may give a whom the Rajah, his family, and demodel for all who are in public stations. pendants, were cruelly oppressed.

I charge him with having committed

to the management of Debi Sing three From THE IMPEACHMENT OF great provinces; and thereby, with (50 WARREN HASTINGS

having wasted the country, ruined the

landed interest, cruelly harassed the THE CHARGE

peasants, burnt their houses, seized their

crops, tortured and degraded their perI, therefore, charge Mr. Hastings sons, and destroyed the honor of the whole with having destroyed, for private pur female race of that country. poses, the whole system of government In the name of the Commons of Engby the six provincial councils, which he land, I charge all this villany upon Warren had no right to destroy.

Hastings, in this last moment of my apI charge him with having delegated to plication to you.

160 others that power which the act of parlia- | My lords, what is it that we want here

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