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the side of the Revenge; one other re- count it a bondage to fix a belief; affectcovered the road of Saint Michaels, and ing free-will in thinking, as well as in sunk also there; a fourth ran herself with acting. And though the sects of philosthe shore to save her men. Sir Richard ophers of that kind be gone, yet there died, as it is said, the second or third day remain certain discoursing wits which aboard the General, and was by them are of the same veins, though there be greatly bewailed. What became of his not so much blood in them as was in (10 body, whether it was buried in the sea [390 those of the ancients. But it is not only or on the land, we know not: the com- the difficulty and labor which men take fort that remaineth to his friends is, that in finding out of truth, nor again that he hath ended his life honorably in respect when it is found it imposeth upon men's of the reputation won to his nation and thoughts, that doth bring lies in favor; country, and of the same to his posterity, but a natural though corrupt love of the and that, being dead, he hath not out- lie itself. One of the later school of the lived his own honor, .

Grecians examineth the matter, and is at A few days after the fight was ended, a stand to think what should be in it, and the English prisoners dispersed into that men should love lies, where (20 the Spanish and Indian ships, there (400 neither they make for pleasure, as with arose so great a storm from the west and poets, nor for advantage, as with the northwest that all the fleet was dispersed, merchant, but for the lie's sake. But I as well the Indian fleet which were then cannot tell: this same truth is a naked and come unto them, as the rest of the Armada open day-light, that doth not show the which attended their arrival. Of which, masks and mummeries and triumphs of fourteen sail, together with the Revenge the world, half so stately and daintily as (and in her two hundred Spaniards), were candle-lights. Truth may perhaps come

cast away upon the isle of St. Michaels. to the price of a pearl, that showeth best · So it pleased them to honor the burial of by day; but it will not rise to the price (30

that renowned ship the Revenge, not (410 of a diamond or carbuncle, that showeth suffering her to perish alone, for the great best in varied lights. A mixture of a lie honor she achieved in her lifetime. . . doth ever add pleasure. Doth any man

To conclude, it hath ever to this day doubt, that if there were taken out of pleased God to prosper and defend her men's minds vain opinions, flattering Majesty, to break the purposes of ma- hopes, false valuations, imaginations as licious enemies, of forsworn traitors, and one would, and the like, but it would of unjust practises and invasions. She leave the minds of a number of men poor hath ever been honored of the worthiest shrunken things, full of melancholy and kings, served by faithful subjects, and shall | indisposition, and unpleasing to them- (40 by the favor of God resist, repel, and [420 selves? One of the Fathers, in great confound all whatsoever attempts against severity, called poesy vinum dæmonum, her sacred person or kingdom. In the mean- because it filleth the imagination, and yet time, let the Spaniard and traitor vaunt of it is but with the shadow of a lie. But it their success; and we, her true and obedient is not the lie that passeth through the vassals, guided by the shining light of her mind, but the lie that sinketh in and virtues, shall always love her, serve her, settleth in it, that doth the hurt, such as and obey her to the end of our lives. we spake of before. But howsoever these

things are thus in men's depraved judg

ments and affections, yet truth, which 150 FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626) only doth judge itself, teacheth that the From THE ESSAYS

inquiry of truth, which is the love-making

or wooing of it, the knowledge of truth, ESSAY I.-OF TRUTH

which is the presence of it, and the belief What is trulh? said jesting Pilate, and of truth, which is the enjoying of it, is would not stay for an answer. Certainly the sovereign good of human nature. The there be that delight in giddiness, and first creature of God, in the works of the


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days, was the light of the sense; the last Essay V.-OF ADVERSITY was the light of reason; and his sabbath work, ever since, is the illumination of (60 It was an high speech of Seneca (after his Spirit. First he breathed light upon the manner of the Stoics): That the good the face of the matter or chaos; then he things which belong to prosperity are to be breathed light into the face of man; and wished; but the good things that belong to still he breatheth and inspireth light into adversity are to be admired. Bona rerum the face of his chosen. The poet that secundarum optabilia, adversarum mirabeautified the sect that was otherwise bilia. Certainly if miracles be the cominferior to the rest, saith yet excellently mand over nature, they appear most in well: It is a pleasure to stand upon the adversity. It is yet a higher speech of shore, and to see ships tossed upon the sea: a his than the other (much too high for (10 pleasure to stand in the window of a [70 a heathen): It is true greatness to have in castle, and to see a battle and the adventures one the frailty of a man, and the security thereof below: but no pleasure is comparable of a God. Vere magnum, habere fragilitato the standing upon the vantage ground tem hominis, securitatem Dei. This would of Truth (a hill not to be commanded, and have done better in poesy, where tranwhere the air is always clear and serene), scendences are more allowed. And the and to see the errors, and wanderings, and poets indeed have been busy with it; for mists, and tempests, in the vale below: so it is in effect the thing which is figured in always that this prospect be with pity, that strange fiction of the ancient poets, and not with swelling or pride. Certainly, which seemeth not to be without mys- (20 it is heaven upon earth, to have a man's (80 tery; nay, and to have some approach to mind move in charity, rest in providence, the state of a Christian: that Hercules, and turn upon the poles of truth.

when he went to unbind Prometheus (by To pass from theological and philosoph- whom human nature is represented), ical truth, to the truth of civil business: sailed the length of the great ocean in an it will be acknowledged, even by those earthen pot or pitcher: lively describing that practise it not, that clear and round Christian resolution, that saileth in the dealing is the honor of man's nature; and frail bark of the flesh through the waves that mixture of falsehood is like alloy in of the world. But to speak in a mean. coin of gold and silver; which may make The virtue of prosperity is temperance; (30 the metal work the better, but it em- (90 the virtue of adversity is fortitude, which baseth it. For these winding and crooked in morals is the more heroical virtue. courses are the goings of the serpent; Prosperity is the blessing of the Old Teswhich goeth basely upon the belly, and tament; adversity is the blessing of the not upon the feet. There is no vice that New, which carrieth the greater benedicdoth so cover a man with shame as to be tion, and the clearer revelation of God's found false and perfidious. And therefore favor. Yet even in the Old Testament, Montaigne saith prettily, when he in- if you listen to David's harp, you shall quired the reason, why the word of the hear as many hearse-like airs as carols; lie should be such a disgrace and such and the pencil of the Holy Ghost hath (40 an odious charge? Saith he, If it be (100 labored more in describing the afflictions well weighed, to say that a man lieth, is as of Job than the felicities of Salomon. much to say as that he is brave towards God Prosperity is not without many fears and and a coward towards men. For a lie faces distastes; and adversity is not without God, and shrinks from man. Surely the comforts and hopes. We see in needlewickedness of falsehood and breach of works and embroideries, it is more pleasfaith cannot possibly be so highly ex- ing to have a lively work upon a sad and pressed, as in that it shall be the last peal solemn ground, than to have a dark and to call the judgments of God upon the melancholy work upon a lightsome ground: generations of men; it being foretold, judge therefore of the pleasure of the 150 that when Christ cometh, he shall not (110 heart by the pleasure of the eye. Cerfind faith upon the earth.

tainly virtue is like precious odors, most

fragrant when they are incensed or crushed: maketh the vulgar soldier more base. for prosperity doth best discover vice; but Certainly wife and children are a kind of adversity doth best discover virtue. discipline of humanity; and single men,

though they be many times more 150

charitable, because their means are less Essay VII. OF MARRIAGE AND exhaust, yet, on the other side, they are SINGLE LIFE

more cruel and hard-hearted (good to

make severe inquisitors), because their He that hath wife and children hath tenderness is not so oft called upon. Grave given hostages to fortune; for they are natures, led by custom, and therefore impediments to great enterprises, either constant, are commonly loving husbands; of virtue or mischief. Certainly the best as was said of Ulysses, Vetulam suam works, and of greatest merit for the pub- prætulit immortalitati. Chaste women lic, have proceeded from the unmarried are often proud and froward, as pre- (60 or childless men, which both in affection suming upon the merit of their chastity. and means have married and endowed It is one of the best bonds both of chastity the public. Yet it were great reason that and obedience in the wife, if she think those that have children should have (10 | her husband wise; which she will never greatest care of future times; unto which do if she find him jealous. Wives are they know they must transmit their dear- young men's mistresses; companions for est pledges. Some there are, who though middle age; and old men's nurses. So they lead a single life, yet their thoughts as a man may have a quarrel to marry do end with themselves, and account when he will. But yet he was reputed one future times impertinences. Nay, there of the wise men, that made answer to 170 are some other that account wife and the question, when a man should marry?children but as bills of charges. Nay A young man not yet, an elder man not at more, there are some foolish rich covetous all. It is often seen that bad husbands men that take a pride in having no [20 have very good wives; whether it be that children, because they may be thought so it raiseth the price of their husband's much the richer. For perhaps they have kindness when it comes; or that the heard some talk, Such an one is a great wives take a pride in their patience. But rich man, and another except to it, Yea, this never fails, if the bad husbands were but he hath a great charge of children; as of their own choosing, against their if it were an abatement to his riches. But friends' consent; for then they will be (80 the most ordinary cause of a single life sure to make good their own folly. is liberty; especially in certain self-pleasing and humorous minds, which are so sensible of every restraint, as they will go (30 ESSAY XI.-OF GREAT PLACE near to think their girdles and garters to be bonds and shackles. Unmarried men Men in great places are thrice servants: are best friends, best masters, best serv- servants of the sovereign or state; servants; but not always best subjects; for ants of fame; and servants of business. they are light to run away; and almost all So as they have no freedom, neither in fugitives are of that condition. A single their persons, nor in their actions, nor in life doth well with churchmen, for charity their times. It is a strange desire, to seek will hardly water the ground where it power and to lose liberty; or to seek power must first fill a pool. It is indifferent for over others and to lose power over a man's judges and magistrates, for if they be [40 self. The rising unto place is laborious, facile and corrupt, you shall have a serv- and by pains men come to greater (10 ant five times worse than a wife. For pains; and it is sometimes base, and by soldiers, I find the generals commonly in indignities men come to dignities. The their hortatives put men in mind of their standing is slippery; and the regress is wives and children; and I think the de- either a downfall

, or at least an eclipse, spising of marriage amongst the Turks which is a melancholy thing. Cum non sis qui fueris, non esse cur velis vivere. Nay, therefore, without bravery or scandal of 170 retire men cannot when they would; former times and persons; but yet set it neither will they when it were reason; down to thyself as well to create good but are impatient of privateness, even in precedents as to follow them. Reduce age and sickness, which require the (20 things to the first institution, and observe shadow: like old townsmen, that will be wherein and how they have degenerate; still sitting at their street door, though but yet ask counsel of both times; of the thereby they offer age to scorn. Cer- ancient time, what is best; and of the tainly, great persons had need to borrow latter time, what is fittest. Seek to make other men's opinions, to think themselves thy course regular, that men may know happy; for if they judge by their own beforehand what they may expect; but [80 feeling, they cannot find it: but if they be not too positive and peremptory; and think with themselves what other men express thyself well when thou digressest think of them, and that other men would from thy rule. Preserve the right of thy fain be as they are, then they are (30 place, but stir not questions of jurisdichappy as it were by report, when perhaps tion: and rather assume thy right in they find the contrary within. For they silence and de facto, than voice it with are the first that find their own griefs, claims and challenges. Preserve likethough they be the last that find their wise the rights of inferior places; and own faults. Certainly, men in great for- think it more honor to direct in chief than tunes are strangers to themselves, and to be busy in all. Embrace and invite 190 while they are in the puzzle of business helps and advices touching the execution they have no time to tend their health, of thy place; and do not drive away either of body or mind. Illi mors gravis such as bring thee information as meddlers, incubat, qui notus nimis omnibus, ignotus (40 but accept of them in good part. The moritur sibi. In place there is licence to vices of authority are chiefly four: delays, do good and evil; whereof the latter is corruption, roughness, and facility. For curse: for in evil the best condition is not delays: give easy access; keep times apto will, the second not to can. But power pointed; go through with that which is to do good is the true and lawful end of in hand; and interlace not business but of aspiring For good thoughts (though necessity. For corruption: do not only (100 God accept them) yet towards men are bind thine own hands or thy servants' little better than good dreams, except hands from taking, but bind the hands of they be put in act; and that cannot be with suitors also from offering. For integrity out power and place, as the vantage (50 used doth the one; but integrity professed, and commanding ground. Merit and and with a manifest detestation of bribery, good works is the end of man's motion; doth the other.

doth the other. And avoid not only the and conscience of the same is the accom- fault, but the suspicion. Whosoever is plishment of man's rest. For if a man found variable, and changeth manifestly can be partaker of God's theatre, he shall without manifest cause, giveth suspicion likewise be partaker of God's rest. Et of corruption. Therefore always when (110 conversus Deus, ut aspiceret opera quæ thou changest thine opinion or course, fecerunt manus suæ, vidit quod omnia essent profess it plainly and declare it, together bona nimis; and then the Sabbath. In the with the reasons that move thee to change; discharge of thy place, set before thee (60 and do not think to steal it. A servant the best examples; for imitation is a globe or a favorite, if he be inward, and no of precepts. And after a time set before other apparent cause of esteem, is comthee thine own example; and examine monly thought but a by-way to close thyself strictly, whether thou didst not corruption.

corruption. For roughness, it is a needbest at first. Neglect not also the ex- less cause of discontent: severity breedeth amples of those that have carried them- fear, but roughness breedeth hate. (120 selves ill in the same place; not to set Even reproofs from authority ought to be off thyself by taxing their memory, but grave, and not taunting. As for facility, to direct thyself whąt to avoid. Reform, it is worse than bribery. For bribes come

but now and then; but if importunity tolerable in a sovereign prince; because or idle respects lead a man, he shall never themselves are not only themselves, but be without. As Salomon saith: To respect their good and evil is at the peril of the persons is not good; for such a man will public fortune. But it is a desperate evil transgress for a piece of bread. It is most in a servant to a prince, or a citizen in a true that was anciently spoken, A place republic. For whatsoever affairs pass (20 showeth the man: and it showeth some to (130 such a man's hands, he crooketh them to the better, and some to the worse. Om- his own ends; which must needs be often nium consensu capax imperii, nisi im- eccentric to the ends of his master or state. perasset, saith Tacitus of Galba; but of Therefore let princes, or states, choose Vespasian he saith, Solus imperantium such servants as have not this mark; Vespasianus mutatus in melius: though except they mean their service should be the one was meant of sufficiency, the made but the accessory. That which other of manners and affection. It is an maketh the effect more pernicious is that assured sign of a worthy and generous all proportion is lost. It were disprospirit, whom honor amends. For honor is, portion enough for the servant's good (30 or should be, the place of virtue; and (140 to be preferred before the master's; but as in nature things move violently to their yet it is a greater extreme, when a little place, and calmly in their place; so virtue good of the servant shall carry things in ambition is violent, in authority settled against a great good of the master's. And and calm. All rising to great place is by yet that is the case of bad officers, treasa winding stair; and if there be factions, urers, ambassadors, generals, and other it is good to side a man's self whilst he is false and corrupt servants; which set a in the rising, and to balance himself bias upon their bowl, of their own petty when he is placed. Use the memory of ends and envies, to the overthrow of their thy predecessor fairly and tenderly; for master's great and important affairs. [40 if thou dost not, it is a debt will sure (150 And for the most part, the good such servbe paid when thou art gone. If thou have ants receive is after the model of their colleagues, respect them, and rather call own fortune; but the hurt they sell for them when they look not for it, than ex- that good is after the model of their clude them when they have reason to master's fortune. And certainly it is the look to be called. Be not too sensible or nature of extreme self-lovers, as they will too remembering of thy place in con- set an house on fire, and it were but to versation and private answers to suitors; roast their eggs; and yet these men many but let it rather be said, When he sits in times hold credit with their masters, beplace he is another man.

cause their study is but to please them (50

and profit themselves; and for either reEssay XXIII. OF WISDOM FOR A spect they will abandon the good of their MAN'S SELF

Wisdom for a man's self is, in

many An ant is a wise creature for itself, but branches thereof, a depraved thing. It it is a shrewd thing in an orchard or gar- is the wisdom of rats, that will be sure to den. And certainly men that are great leave a house somewhat before it fall. It lovers of themselves waste the public. is the wisdom of the fox, that thrusts out Divide with reason between self-love and the badger, who digged and made room society; and be so true to thyself as thou for him. It is the wisdom of croco- (60 be not false to others, specially to thy diles, that shed tears when they would king and country. It is a poor centre of devour. But that which is specially to à man's actions, himself. It is right be noted is, that those which (as Cicero earth. For that only stands fast upon (10 says of Pompey) are sui amantes sine his own centre; whereas all things that rivali, are many times unfortunate. And have affinity with the heavens move upon whereas they have all their time sacrificed the centre of another, which they benefit. to themselves, they become in the end The referring of all to a man's self is more themselves sacrifices to the inconstancy

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