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pafs unacknowledged; by whofe kind interpofition it was prefented to the family.

It was prefumed, fo curious a monument of ancient times deferved to be refcued from oblivion, and to be perpetuated at least in a small impreffion, upon several accounts.

In the FIRST place, as it exhibits a curious PICTURE OF ANCIENT MANNERS. Here we see the great magnificence of our old nobility, who feated in their castles, lived in a state and fplendour very much refembling and scarce inferiour to that of the Royal Court. Their Houshold was established upon the fame plan, their Officers bore the fame titles, and their Warrants ran in the fame form and ftile a. This remarkable refemblance to the Royal Establishments will strike the Reader the moment he opens this Book. As the King had his Privy Council and great Council of Parliament, to affift him in enacting ftatutes and regulations for the public weal; fo the Earl of Northumberland had his Council, compofed of his principal officers, by whofe advice and affiftance he established this Code of Oeconomic Laws. As the King had his Lords and Grooms of the bed-chamber, who waited in their respective turns; fo the Earl of Northumberland was attended by the Conftables and Bailiffs of his feveral caftles, &c. who entered into waiting in regular fucceffion. The two firft offices about his perfon, were occafionally to be filled by his own younger fons d. Nor can we doubt but all the head officers of his houf

See p. 109, &c. &c.

See p. 1. & paffim. See fect. vii.

P. 53.

• See pag. 362.

houshold were Gentlemen both by birth and office; fuch as the Comptroller, Clarke of the kitchen, Chamberlain, Treasurer, &c. &c. This appears from the fervants and horfes kept for their ufe f, and from the table where they fat being called the KNIGHT'SBOARD 8. Among other inftances of magnificence, we cannot but remark the number of PRIESTS that were kept in houfhold, not fewer than ELEVEN, at the head of whom prefided a Doctor or Batchelor of divinity, as dean of the chapelh. This redundance of clergymen must not be altogether attributed to the fuperftition of that prieft-ridden age, but to the fuperior intelligence of the men of that order, who feem to have been almost the only perfons capable of exercifing any office of skill or science; fo that the Surveyor of my lord's lands, his Secretary, and the Clarke of his foreign expences, were all Priefts; notwithstanding which, the last officer was weekly to make up his accounts on Sunday'.

It appears however from many curious inftances in this book, how deeply the devotion of that age was tinctured with fuperftition, and how much the nobles were influenced by the Clergy ". Indeed nothing more ftrongly shows the great devotion of our anceftors in the middle ages, than the number of CHAPELS in fome of the Northern Caftles. In build


• See pag. 310, 315, 318. f See pag. 37, 43, &c. pag. 87, &c. pag. 330. See alfo fect. xlv. However many of the head officers found their own horfes, or to use the language of the book, 66 were at their own horfing." & Pag. 301. See alfo pag. 310, 315, 318. Pag. 323. Ibid.

* Pag. 364.

1 Pag. 398. m Pag. 337, &c. &c.

ings of this fort, where multitudes of men were often long confined within very narrow limits, every inch of fpace one would think must be valuable, and yet in castles of very moderate fize one often finds more than one Chapel. Thus in WARKWORTH and PRUDHOW caftles in Northumberland (both of them belonging to the PERCY family) are ftill to be feen the remains of two Chapels, one in the base court among the outer buildings, the other within the keep or body of the castle. And yet both these fortreffes are by their fituation much straitned for room, which is remarkably the cafe of Prudhow castle: and as for that of Warkworth, besides its two Chapels, in the court are alfo to be feen vaults defigned for a confiderable building. This, in the old Surveys", is faid to have been intended for a COLLEGE; by which, I fuppofe, we are to understand fome monaftic foundation °.

SECONDLY, this book contains a compleat SYSTEM OF ANCIENT OECONOMICS. Here may be seen all the Provifions, Conveniencies, and Accommodations, which our nobility had procured in that half-civilized age; and even most of their Diverfions and Amufements may be collected from it. Here are the Bills of fare, the domeftic Regulations of every kind, and the methods

See the Survey taken in 1567, by Geo. Clarkson, Auditor to Tho. VIIth. Earl of Northumberland. • Foundations of this fort were not unufual in Caftles. In 1362, a perpetual Chantery was founded in Alnwick Caftle for three Priests, who were daily to celebrate mass in the Chapel of the caftle for the fouls of the deceafed Lord Percy and others of his family. See Clarkfon's MS. Survey in 1567 and Dugdale's Mon. Ang. vol. 3. p. 164. P See pag. 339, &c

methods of providing for each contingency. The minute attention paid to every the most inconfiderable article of domeftic expence, and the formal stated orders established with regard to many particulars which appear to us extremely trivial, are very remote from our modern ideas and present manners: but this minuteness is not peculiar to our Houfhold Book. The establishing a system of Domestic Oeconomy appears to have engaged the attention of our Ancestors nearly in the fame degree, as the enacting public Laws and fettling the Conftitution of the Kingdom. In the celebrated FLETA, amidst the most important heads of Government and Law, the Author introduces a plan of Houfhold Management, and gives the minutest Directions for regulating the moft petty domestic concerns. Our nobility in the more early times, lived in their caftles with a grofs and barbarous magnificence, furrounded with rude and warlike followers, without control and without fyftem. As they gradually emerged from this barbarity, they found it neceffary to establish very minute domestic regulations, in order to keep their turbulent followers in peace and order: and from living in a state of disorderly grandeur, void of all system, would naturally enough run into the oppofite extreme of re


q Vid. Lib. 2. where he defcribes very minutely every thing that pertains to the Office of almoft every kind of Houfhold Servant: viz. not only of the Senefchal, Bailiff, Marfhall, &c. but of the Cook, Ox. driver, Shepherd, Swineherd, Baker, Mower, Carter or Waggoner, (De Carrecario from Careta, Fr. Chariot, a Waggon) Cowkeeper, Dairy-man, &c. The FLETA is fuppofed to have been written in the Reign of Edward II.


ducing every thing, even the moft trifling difburfements, to stated formal rules. It may be confidered further, that a nobleman in the dark ages, when retired to his castle, had neither books, nor news-papers, nor literary correfpondence, nor vifits, nor eards, to fill up his leisure : his only amusements were field-fports, and as thefe, however eagerly pursued, could not fill up all his vacant hours, the Government of his Houfhold 'would therefore be likely enough to engage his attention, if he happened to be a prudent man; and having little elfe to do or think of, from a meer defire of employment, he would be led to defcend to the most studied minuteness in his regulations and establishments.

To a perfon unacquainted with the ancient value of Money, the Allowance in this book may perhaps appear fcanty, and hardly confiftent with the ideas entertained of the old bountiful housekeeping; as the weekly fum divided to each perfon taken one with another, amounts to little more than 2 s. per week. But this is not sufficiently estimating the value of Money at the time this book was compiled. A Thousand Pounds was the fum annually affigned for the keeping of my Lord's houfe the number of Perfons in houshold was one hundred and fixty-fix. That fum divided equally amongst them (omitting the fractions) amounted an nually to 61. os. 5 d. each perfon; and weekly to 2s. 3 d. 4. At a time when Wheat was fold at 5 s. 8 d. per Quartert, 61. os. 5d. would purchase just twenty-two quarters, three bushels and a half of Wheat;

• See pag. 224.

• See pag.45. t See pag. 4.

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