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the pretension of his countrymen to this noble production. *Mr. Mustoxidi has not been left without a reply; but, as yet, he has received no answer. It should seem that the horses are irrevocably Chian, and were transferred to Constantinople by Theodosius. Lapidary writing, is a favourite play of the Italians, and has conferred reputation on more than one of their literary characters. One of the best specimens of Bodoui's typography is a respectable volume of inscriptions, all written by his friend Pacciaudi. Several wero prepared for the recovered horses. It is to be hoped the best was not selected, when the following words were ranged in gold letters above the cathedral porch.
QTJATUOR . EQUORUM . SIGNA . A . VENETIS . BYZAMTIO . CAPTA . AD . TEMP . I> . MAR . A . R . S MCC1V . POSITA . QVM . HOSTIlIS . CUPIDITAS . A . MDCCIIIC . ABSTUlERAT . FRANC . I . IMP . PACIS . ORBI . DAT£ . TROPHfUM . A . M.DCCCXV . VICTOR . REDEXIT.
Nothing shall be said of the Latin, but it may be permitted to observe, that the injustice of the Venetians in transporting the horses from Constantinople was at least equal to that of the French in carrying them to Paris, and that it would have been more prudent to have avoided all allusions to either robbery. An apostolic Prince should, perhaps, have objected to affixing over the principal entrance of a metropolitan church, an inscription having a. reference to any other triumphs than those of religion. Nothing less than the pacification of the world can excuse such a solecism.
Suabian sued, and now the Austrian reigns.
An Emperor tramples where an Emperor knelt.
After many vain efforts on the part of the Italians entirely to throw off the yoke of Frederic Barbarossa, and as fruitless attempts of the Emperor to make himself absolute master throughout the whole of his Cisalpine dominions, the bloody struggles of four and twenty years were happily brought to a close in the city of
* Sui quattro cavalli della Besilica di S. Marco in Venezia. Lettera di Andrea Mustoxidi Corcirese. Padua per Bettoni e compag 1816,
Venice. The articles of a treaty had been previously agreed upon between Pope Alexander III. and Barbarossa, and the former having received a safe conduct, had already arrived at Venice from Ferrara, in company with the ambassadors of the King of Sicily and the consuls of the Lombard league. There still remained, however, many points to adjust, and for several days the peace was believed to be impracticable. At this juncture it was suddenly reported that the Emperor had arrived at Chioza, a town fifteen miles from the capital. The Venetians rose tumultuously, and insisted upon immediately conducting him to the city. The Lombards took the alarm, and departed towards Treviso. The Pope himself was apprehensive of some disaster if Frederic should suddenly advance upon him, but was re-assured by the prudence and address of Sebastian Ziani, the doge. Several embassies passed between Chioza and the capital, until, at last, the Emperor relaxing somewhat of his pretensions, « laid aside his Leosihe ferocity, and put on the mildness of the Lamb. » *
On Saturday the 23d of July, in the year 1177, six Venetian galleys transferred Frederic, in great pomp, from Chioza to the island of Lido, a mile from Venice. Early the next morning the Pope, accompanied by the Sicilian ambassadors, and by the envoys of Lombardy, whom he had recalled from the main land, together with a great concourse of people, repaired from the patriarchal palace to Saint Mark's church, and solemnly absolved the Emperor and his partisans from the excommunication pronounced against him. The Chancellor of the Empire, on the part of his master, renounced the anti-popes and their schismatic adherents. Immediately the Doge, with a great suite both of the Clergy and Laity, got on board the galleys, and waiting on Frederic, rowed him in mighty state from the Lido to the capital. The Empeior descended from the galley at the quay of the Piazzetta. The Doge, the Patriarch , his Bishops and Clergy, and the people of Venice with their crosses and their standards, marched in solemn procession before him to
* « Quibus auditis, imperator, operante eo, qui corda principum j*icut vult et quando vult humiliter inclinat, leonina feritate deposits , oviuam mansuetudinem induit. » Eomualdi Salcrnitani. Chronicon. apud. Script. Rer. Hal. Tom. VII. p. 329.
tlie cliurclx of Saint Mark. Alexander was seated before the vestibule of the basilica, attended by his bishops and cardinals, by the patriarch of Aquileja, by the archbishops and bishops of Lombardy, all of them in state, and clothed in their church robes. Frederic approached—« moved by the Holy Spirit, venerating the Almighty in the person of Alexander, laying aside his imperial dignity, and throwing off his mantle, he prostrated himself at full length at the feet of the Pope. Alexander, with tears in his eyes, raised him benignantly from the ground, kissed him, blessed him; and immediately the Germans of the train sang, with a loud voice, 'We praise thee, O Lord.' The Emperor then taking the Pope by the right hand, led him to the church, and having received his benediction, returned to the ducal palace. » * The ceremony of humiliation was repeated the next day. The Pope himself, at the request of Frederic, said mass at Saint Mark's. The Emperor again laid aside his imperial mantle . and , taking a wand in his hand , officiated as verger, driving the laity from the choir, and precediug the pontiff to the altar. Alexander, after reciting the gospel , preached to the people. The Emperor put himself close to the pulpit in the attitude of listening; and the Pontiff touched by this mark of his attention, for he knew that Frederic did not understand a word he said , commanded the patriarch of Aquileja to translate the Latin discourse into the German tongue. The creed was then chanted. Frederic made his oblation and kissed the Pope's feet, and, mass being over, led him by the hand to his white horse. He held the stirrup, and would have led the hbrse's rein to the water side, had riot the Pope accepted of the inclination for the performance, and affectionately dismissed him with his benediction. Such is the substance of the account left by the archbishop of Salerno, who was present at the ceremony, and whose story is confirmed by every subsequent narration. It would be not worth so minute a record, were it not the triumph of liberty as well as of superstition. The states of Lombardy owed to it the confirmation of their privileges; and Alox«
ander had reason to thank the Almighty, who had enabled an infirm , unarmed old man to subdue a terrible and potent sovereign. *
The reader will recollect the exclamation of the highlander, Oh for one hour of Dundee! Henry Dandolo, when elected Doge, in 1192, was eighiy-five years of age. When he commanded the Venetians at the taking of Constantinople, he was consequently ninely-seven years old. At this age he annexed the fourth and a [ half of the whole empire of Romania, -J- for so the Roman empire was called, to the title and to the territories of the Venetian Doga. The three-eighths of this empire .were preserved in the diplomas until the dukedom of Giovanni Douino, who made use of the above designation in the year I35j. **
* See the cited Romuald of Salerno. In a second sermon which Alexander preached, on the first day of August, before the Emperor, he compared Frederic to the prodigal son, and himself to the forgiving father.
f Mr. Gibbon has omitted the important ce, and has written Romani instead of Romanise. Decline and Fall, cap. lxi. note 9. But the title acquired by Dandolo runs thus in the Chronicle of his namesake,the Doge Andrew Dandolo. Ducali titulo addidit. « Quartce partis et dimidice totius imperii Romanics. » And. Dand. Chroniconj cap. iii. pars. xxxvii. ap. Script. Rer. Ital torn. xii. page 33i. And the Romanise is observed in the subsequent acts of the Doges. Indeed the continental possessions of the Greek empire in Europe were then generally known by the name of Romania, and that appellation is still seen in the maps of Turkey at applied to Thrace. - .
** See the continuation of Dandolo's Chronicle, ibid. p. 498. Mr. Gibbon appears not"to include Dolfinoj following Sahudo, who says, ail qual titolo si mi fin al Doge Giovanni Dolfino. » See Vite de' Duchi di Venezia. ap. Script. Rer. Ital. torn. xxii. 53o, 641.
Dandolo led the attack on Constantinople in person : two snips, the Paradise and the Pilgrim , were tied together , and a drawbridge or ladder let down from their higher yards to the walls. The Doge was one of the first to rush into the city. Then was- completed , said the Venetians, the prophecy of the Erythraean sybil, "A gathering together of the powerful shall be made amidst the waves of the Adriatic, under a blind leader; they shall beset the Goat—they shall profane Byzantium—they shall blacken her buildings—her spoils shall be dispersed; a new Goat shall ble at until they have measured out and run over fifty-four feet, pine inches, and a half. »*
Dandolo died on the first day of June i2o5, having reigned thirteen years , six months, and five days , and was buried in the church of St. Sophia, at Constantinople. Strangely enough it must sound , that the name of the rebel Apothecary who received the Doge's sword, and annihilated the ancient government in IJ96-7, was Dandolo.
After the loss of the battle of Pola , and the taking of Chiozs on the iCth of August, j3yg, by the united armament of the Genoese and Francesco da Carrara Signor of Padua, the Venetians Were reduced to the utmost despair. An embassy was sent to tha conquerors with a blank sheet of paper , praying them to prescribe what terms they pleased, and leave to Venice only her independence. The Prince of Padua was inclined to listen to these proposals, but the Genoese, who after the victory at Pola, had Shouted, « to Venice, to Venice, and long live St. George, » determined to annihilate their rival , and Peter Doria , their commander in chief, returned this answer to the. suppliants: « On God's faiIh , gentlemen of Venice, ye shall have no peace from the Signor
* «Fiet potentium in aquis Adriaticis congregatio, caeco prmduce , Hircum ambigent, Byzantium prophanabunt, cedificia denigrabunt; spolia dispergentur, Hircus novus balabit usque dum Liv pedes et ix polities, et semis prcemensurati discurrant. » [Chronicon, ibid. pars xxxiv.]