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The trebly hundred triumphs ! Orosius gives three hundred and twenty for the number of triumphs. He is followed by Panvinius; and Panvinius by Mr. Gibbon and the modern writers.
· Stanza LXXXIII, Oh thou, whose chariot rolled on Fortune's wheel, etc. Certainly were it not for these two traits in the life of Sylla , alluded to in this stanza , we should regard him as a monster unredeemed by any admirable quality. The atonement of his voluntary resignation of empire may perhaps be accepted by us, as it seems to have satisfied the Romans , who if they had not respected must have destroyed him. There could be no mean no division of opinion they must have all thought , like Eucrates, that what had appeared. ambition was a love of glory, and that what had been mistaken for pride was a real grandeur of soul, *
Stanza LXXXVI. And laid him with the earth’s preceding clay, On the third of September Cromwell gained the victory of Dunbar a year afterwards he obtained « his crowning mercy » of Worcester; and a few years after, on the same day, which he had ever esteemed the most fortunate for him, died,
The austerest form of naked majesty. The projected division of the Spada Pompey has already been recorded by the historian of the Decline and Fall of the Roinan
*Seigneur , vous changez toutes mes idées de la façon dont je vous vois agir. Je croyois que vous aviez de l'ambition , mais aucun amour pour la gloire : Je voyois bien que votre ame éoțit haute ; mais je ne soupçonnois pas qu'elle fût grande. w
Dialogue de Sylla et d'Eucrate.
Empire. Mr. Gibbon found it in the memorials of Flaminius Vacca , * and it may be added to his mention of it that Pope Julius III. gave the contending owners five hundred crowns for the statue ; and presented it to Cardinal Capo di Ferro, who had prevented the judgment of Solomon froin being executed upon the image. In a more civilized age this statue was exposed to an actual operation : for the French who acted the Brutus of Voltaire in the Coliseum, resolved that their Cæsar should fall at the base of that Pompey, which was supposed to have been sprinkled with the blood of the original dictator. The nine foot hero was therefore removed to the Arena of the amphitheatre, and to faciliate its transport suffered the temporary amputation of its right arm. The republican tragedians had to plead that the arm was a restoration : but their accusers do not believe that the integrity of the statue would have protected it. The love of finding every coincidence has discovered the true Cæsarean ichor in a stain near the right knee ; but colder criticism has rejected not only the blood but the portrait, and assigned the globe of power rather to the first of the emperors than to the last of the republican masters of Rome. Winkelmann ** is loth to allow an heroic statue of a Roman citizen, but the Grimani Agrippa , a cotemporary almost, is heroic; naked Roman figures were only very rare , not absolutely forbidden. The face accords much better with the « hominem integrum et castum et gravem, » † than with any of the busts of Augustus, and is too stern for him who was beau · tiful , says Suetonius, at all periods of his life. The pretended likeness to Alexander the Great cannot be discerned, but the traits resemble the medal of Pompey. S The objectionable globe may not have been an ill applied flattery to him who found Asia Minor the boundary , and left it the centre of the Roman empire. It seems that Winkelmann has made a mistake in thinking that no proof of the identity of this statue, with that which received the bloody
* Memorie, num. lvii , pag 9. ap.. Montfaucon Dairuin Italicum. ** Storia delle arti, etc. lib. ix. cap. i. pag. 321, 322, tom, ii. + Cicer. epist. ad Atticum , xi. 6.
Published by Causens in his Museum Romanum.
sacrifice , can be derived from the spot where it was discovered. * Flaminius Vacca says sotto una cantina , and this Cantina is known to have been in the Vicolo de' Leutari near the Cancellaria, a position corresponding exactly to that of the Janus before the basilica of Pompey's theatre, to which Augustus transferred the statue after the curia was either burnt, or taken down. ** Part of the Pompeian shade , of the portico , existed in the beginning of the XVth century, and the atrium was still called Satrum. So says Blondus. S At all events so imposing is the stern majesty of the statue, and so memorable is the story, that the play of the imagination leaves no room for the exercice of the judgment , and the fiction, if a fiction it is , operates on the spectator with an effect not less powerful than truth.
Stanza LXXXVIII. And thou, the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome! Ancient Rome, like modern Sienna , abounded most probably with images of the foster-mother of her founder ; but there were two she-wolves of whom history makes particular mention. One of these, of brass in ancient work , was seen by Dionysius.'. at the temple of Romulus , under the Palatine, and is universally believed to be that mentioned by the Latiu historian, as having been made from the money collected by a fine on usurers, and as standing under the Raminal fig-tree. () The other was that which Cicero of has
() Storia delle arti, etc. ibid.
* Sueton. in vit. August. cap. 31, and in vit. C. J. Cæsar , cap. 88. Appian says it was burnt down. See a note of Piliscus to Suetonius , pag. 224. + « Tu modo Pompeia lenta spatiare sub umbra. »
Ovid. ar. aman. S Roma instaurata, lib, ii. fo. 31. .. Kéaxea Tohpata madarãs éypacias. Antiq. Rom. lib. i.
*«Ad ficum Ruminalem simulacra infantium conditorum urbis sub uberibus lupæ posuerunt. » Liv. Hist. lib. x. cap. lxix. This was in the year U. C. 455, or 45).
† «Tum statua Natlæ, tum simulacra Deorum, Romulusque et celebrated both in prose and verse , and which the historian Dion also records as having suffered the same accident as is alluded to by the orator. * The question agitated by the antiquaries is , whether the wolf now in the conservators' palace is that of Livy and Dionysius, or that of Cicero, or whether. The earlier writers
Remus cum altrice bellua vi fulminis icti conciderunt. » De Divinat. ii. 20. «Tactus est ille etiam qui hanc urbem condidit Romulus, quem inauratum in Capitolio parvum atque lactantem, uberibus lupinis inhiantem fuisse meministis. » In Catilin. iii. 8.
« Hic silvestris erat Romani nominis altrix
De Consulalu. lib. ii. ( lib. i de Divinat. cap. ii.) * * 'Εν γαρ το καπητωλίω ανδριάντες τε πολλοί υπό κεραυνών συvexwveú@nouv, xai drapata ända ti, kad dios évà xlovos odpur μένον, εικών τε τις λυκαίνης συν τε το σώμα και συν τω βωμύλω ideunévn écry. Dion. Hist. lib. xxxvii. pag. 37. edit. Rob. Steph. 1548. He goes on to mention that the letters of the columns on which the laws were written were liquified and become dipeud poé. All that the Romans did was to erect a large statue to Jupiter, looking towards the east : no mention is afterwards made of the wolf. This happened in A. U. C. 689. The Abale Fea, in noticing this passage of Dion, ( Storia delle arti, etc. tom i. pag. 202. note x.), says, Non ostante, aggiunge Dione, che fosse ben femata, (the wolf), by which it is clear the Abate translated the XylandroLeuclavian version, which puts quawvis stabilita for the original id pupeérn, a word that does not mean ben-fermata, but only raised, as may be distinctly seen from another passage of the same Dion : 'Hours on peel oở ó A'xpiaras xed tók aðyoualor erlaube idpúcar. Hist. lib. lyi. Dion says that Agrippa « wished to raise a statue of Augustus in the Pantheon, »
differ as much as the moderns : Lucius Faunus * says, that it is the one alluded to by both, which is impossible, and also by Virgil, which may be. Fulvius Ursinus † calls it the wolf of Dionysius, and Marlianus talks of it as the one mentioned by Cicero. To him Rycquius tremblingly assents. * Nardini is inclined to suppose it may be one of the many wolves preserved in ancient Rome; but of the two rather bends to the Ciceronian statue. † Montfaucon mentions it as a point without doubt. Of the latter writers the decisive Winkelmann () proclaims it as having been found at the church of saint Theodore where, or near where, was the temple of Romulus , and consequently makes it the wolf of Dionysius. His authority is Lucius
*«In eadem porticu onea lupa , cujus uberibus Romulus ac Remus lactantes inhiant, conspicitur; de hac Cicero et Virgilius semper intellexere. Livius hoc signum ab AEbilibus ex pecuniis quibus mulctati essent fæneratores, positum innuít. Antea in Comitiis ad Ficam Ruminalem, quo loco pueri fuerant expositi locatum pro certo est. » Luc. Fauni. de Anliq. Urb. Rom. lib. ii. cap. vii. ap. Sallengre, tom. i. p. 217. In his XVIIth chapter he repeats that the statues were there, but not that they were found there.
† Ap. Nardini. Roma Vetus. lib. v. cap. iv
S Marliani. Urb. Rom. topograph. lib. ii. cap. ix. He mentions another wolf and twins in the Vatican. lib. v. cap. xxi.
* «Non desunt qui hanc ipsam esse putent , quam adpinximus, quæ è comitio in Basilicam Lateranam, cum nonnullis aliis antiquitatum reliquiis, atque hinc in Capitolium postea relata sit, quam vis Marlianus antiquam Capitoliam esse maluit a Tullio descriptam , cai ut in re nimis dubia, trepidè adsentimur. » Just. Rycquii de Capit. Roman. Comm. cap. xxiv. pag. 250. edit Lugd. Bat. 1696. + Nardini Roma vetus. lib. v. cap. iv.
«Lupa hodieque in capitolinis prostat ædibus, cum vestigio fulminis quo ictam narrat Cicero.». Diarium. Italic. tom. i. p. 194.
O Storia delle arti, etc. lib. iii. cap. iii. S ii. note 10. Winkelmann has made a stange blunder in the note, by saying the Ciceronian wolf was not it the Capitol, and that Dion was wrong in saying so.