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sectarian prejudices and feelings, let him be equally at home among christians of every name. A man of discrimination, education, and humility ; let him employ the whole various compass of meang, submitted to his selection in the Book, whence he derives his commission, to obviate the prejudices, obtain the confidence, conciliate the affections, instruct the ignorance, correct the error, amend the morals, and save the souls, of all. Such a man might indeed, meet with trials and discouragements; might realize a success at first, by no means commensurate with his wishes and his labors. But he would sow seed which must grow. He would receive some aid. A few would, to the utmost, strengthen his hands and encourage his heart. Even our teachers if humble and pious, as several are, would gladly sit at his feet and receive instruction: if conceited and self-willed, they would, of all others, most require it.

I, therefore, beg respectfully, but most pressingly to recommend, as in my opinion, the only means of rendering this Colony, what it is intended to be made, the truly christian and civilized asylum of an outcast race of men, the immediate engagement of at least one laborious Christian Minister, of the most ardent piety, and untiring zeal.

If it be doubted for a moment, whether such an appointment be cousistent with the simple and declared object of the Colonization Society; the only question to be determined is, whether it be not absolutely necessary, as a means of accomplishing that object ?—Is the simple and unique object of the Society accomplished by only landing emigrants on the African cuast, without regarding their future situation?-Should the freight of her transports hereafter be beached in lat, twenty-five degrees North, where all must famish and die on the sands of the desert, what less would await the Society, than the execrations of the world? And, can a Christian Institution feel less reluctance in abandoning a whole coinmunity-acommunity, which promises to become inmensely populous, and extensive—a community derived from the bosom of a christian nation, to a moral desert, equally desolate—to a moral famine, equally certain ?

I have trespassed, my dear sir, farther than I fear I should, in the length of these remarks—but I have done it under a feeling of most sacred obligation to report what I sincerely believe to be the most urgent of all the actual necessi. ties of the colony, where they ought to be known, and whence, if from any quarter, those necessities are to be supplied.-- None of us who are now active in this work, can act or labor long. And to do seasonably and effectually what little Divine Providence permits us to attempt, is no doubt, the way to accomplish the most in the end. It is in these views that this paper is submitted, and I cannot more appropriately bring it to a close, than by humbly supplicating the Almighty-in his infinite wisdom and goodness, to supply the means of accomplishing a work so agreeable to the great ends of his moral government; which his word assures us, is to build up an universal empire of boliness, of which the foundations are to be laid in the hearts of all mankind. Respectfully and truly, dear sir, your cbedient servant,

J. ASHMUX.

No. 4.

The following Notes on Trade appear to have been written in 18:22; the first paper about the time of Mr. Ashmun's departure or, the second soon after his arrival in, Africa.

The objects of my visit to the African coast, are,

1. To obtain and transmit home, such information relative to the country, and our settlement, as shall be perfectly accurate, minute, full, and in all points satisfactory to the American Colonization Society, and to the public.

II. To make the Agents fully acquainted with the views of the Managers at home, on every subject connected with the interests of the colony.

III. To assist by my advice, and otherwise, in planning, and executing measures of utility to the settlement.

IV. To open and superintend a regular, honorable and permanent trade in the productions of the country, between Cape Montserado, and the vicinity, and the United States.

This trade must be made,
First, advantageous to the interests of the Society.
Second, Advantageous to the natives.
Third, Advantageous to the American Merchant, and
Fourth, Advantageous to myself.

1. The interests of the Society, will be essentially promoted by establishing a regular intercourse between the United States and Montserado. If four voyages annually, were to be made, without any obligation on the part of the mer. chant, to advance otherwise the interests of the Society, the latter would, nevertheless, derive from the opening of the communication, the following im. mediate advantages.

First, It would never again be obliged to charter vessels to carry out colonists, and stores.

Second, it would always be able, seasonably, to communicate with the colony.

Third, Vessels proceeding to Montseradofor objects of trade, could afford to transport emigrants, and stores, at half the expense, attending the charter of ships for the purpose.

But if, besides opening a profitable trade to the American Merchant, the So. ciety can bring him under a pecuniary obligation, the advantages resulting to their interests from a commercial intercourse, would be enhanced in proportion to the extent of the obligation.

The question then is, how can the Society make the most of this trade ?

Ans. Not by turning merchants themselves. Such an appendage would prove most unpopular at home, and would probably absorb in the expenses of its own support, all the profits. But,

Pirst, By prohibiting all foreign ships from trading to the settlement, absolutely.

Secondly, By laying a duty, amounting to a prohibition, on all exports, and imports, not in vessels in the interest of the Society.

Thirdly, By restricting the license of trading to Montserado to a single house in America.

Fourthly, By permitting this house to have an agent, resident in Africa--but subject to the general regulations of the Society, and liable to be recalled, whenever they judge that he has violated his instructions.

Vessels licensed to trade with these immunities and privileges, ought to care ry out the Society's passengers for a sum not exceeding 10 dollars an individual, perhaps for still less—they finding their own provisions.

2. Such a trade would prove advantageous to the natives. First, It would divert them from the slave trade.

Secondly, It would supply their wants. They must, without the substitution of a regular trade in the fabrics of civilized countries, in lieu of that, which the suppression of the slave trade has broken off, suffer great inconvenience.

Phirdly, By conducting this trade on principles of strict justice, their habits, and some of their principles, will come to be meliorated.

Fourthly, It would compel them to the exercise of honorable industry, in procuring, and transporting the articles of trade to the coast.

Fifthly, It would induce them to visit, and by degrees to imitate the industry and manners of living, among our settlers.

3. Trade to this country will be profitable to the American Merchant, if he can be assured of a full cargo always in readiness for shipment at the Cape, on the arrival of his ship, and sufficiently so, if he can make on his outward shipment, one hundred per cent. and on his return cargo two hundred.

4. The agency will be advantageous to myself, provided I can receive a divi. dend of thirty-three and a third per cent. on the gross amount of the sales of the cargo in America.

The following is a concise exposition of the reasons, which led to the mission of J. Ashmun, to the Coast of Africa, and of the views according to which the committee expect it to be conducted :

The exertions hitherto made for colonizing Africa, have been directed to objects which may be regarded as preliminary to the main design. The practicability of the undertaking was to be demonstrated by acquiring lands, and securing a sufficient number of American Emigrants, in the peaceful possession of them; by attesting experimentally, the productiveness of the soil to support, and the salubrity of the climate to admit of the general health of the colonists; by ascertaining the willingness of the black people of the United States to remove thither, and finally to settle, by actual trial, the much disputed ques. tion, whether the happiness of the African race, would be essentially increas.

ed by the change, and the United States, reap an important advantage from encouraging and promoting their general emigration.

These are the preliminary objects to be accomplished by the Society, before the principal ends of their institution can be completely gained. They have been partially accomplished, but not fully. Much indeed, remains to be done before the experiment, as the business must yet be regarded, will be considered as fully and successfully completed. The number of settlers must be greatly augmented; considerable progress made in the cultivation of the soil; churches, shops, school-houses and a large number of comfortable and permanent dwellings for the people, erected; a regular intercourse between the United States, and the colony, must be kept open; and a general and eager desire to emigrate, must be made to manifest itself, in the black people of the United States. When the exertions of the Society shall have received this degree of success, the facilities for carrying on their ulterior designs will be abundantly multiplied, and, until that desirable period, they will be obliged to labor under great embarrassments from a deficiency of means.

Public sentiment in all the northern States, has, by a variety of untoward events, unhappily determined itself against the whole plan of African colonization. Thousands are to be met with in every part of the Union, equally unfriendly to the cause. The obvious consequences of this hostility are, 1st, A determined refusal on the part of a numerous, and influential part of the communily to aid the work, either by their contributions or their encouragement; and 2dly, the refusal of Congress, and the State Legislatures, to afford any pecuniary aid, or directly espouse the cause, by any public act whatever. Legislation in the United States, is but the expression of the public and popular sentiment. Effect in the latter, a change in favor of colonization, and you secure at once the patronage of Congress, and the State Legislatures.

Now, what do the objections offered by the opposers of colonization, amount to? They may be all resolved into these two: Ist, Its impracticability. 2nd, The vanity of hoping to improve by such means, the condition of the American free people of color.

But, if the experiment now carrying on by the Society, ever reaches the point of success so fondly anticipated, and to which their labors are so assiduously directed, both these objects will be radically obviated, and what will be the direct consequence? Opposition must cease. The popular sentiment, where it now opposes, must be reversed. The zeal of its friends must be inflamed. The influence of the northern States, the most efficient in the Union, will be secured to the cause. The amount of individual contributions inust be increased on a fifty fold ratio. Congress will patronise the design. The States, certainly all the slave-holding States, will vote subsidies—the latter, with a liberality, proportioned to the burdens under which they labor, from the excess of black population.

In the interim, ample funds are required by the Society, to prosecute the work they bave in hand ; gradually augmenting the sphere of their operačions

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in order to reach that consummation, which is to produce the expected revolution in the popular mind.

These funds must be derived from individual munificence. Government will very soon have so far fulfilled the purposes of the African agency, as to satisfy itself with a very limited annual appropriation for the purpose of keeping up that slight establishment on the coast, which alone was contemplated by the Act under which it was foundeil. It is indeed doubtful, whether the President will feel himself authorized to pay the expense of transporting more than one or two hundred additional settlers. The heavy expense of freighting ships for the purpose, will then fall upon the Society-an expense which they have ne. ver yet been obliged to sustain, and which has been anticipated with more se. rious apprehensions, than any other attending, or likely to attend the prosecution of their work.

After the present year, it is desirable that four large ships should annually arrive in the colony with settlers from the United States. The charter and ex. pense of these ships, alone would cost 24,000 dollars.

A conditional agreement has been entered into with a commercial house in Baltimore, by which two or more ships of the first order, are to be fitted out, to run constantly between the United States and the coast; provided a sufficient inducement can be presented in the trade of that part of Africa, over which the Society may be expected to have some control.

It is believed that, in consequence of the cessation of the slave trade, at Cape Montserado, the mouth of the river will naturally become a depot for mary valuable productions of the country, and may be made the mart of an honora. ble trade with the natives, which in a short time will admit of extension to a degree rendering it an object of very considerable importance. The native tribes bordering on the banks of that river, for hundreds of miles in the interior, must shortly be able, with encouragement, to procure, and furnish at its mouth, an abundance of Camwood, and other dye woods, bees-wax, Palm-oil, and a smaller quantity of hides, elephants' teeth, and gold-dust. They have been from time immemorial, accustomed to the use of European and Indian fabrics, obtained in barter for slaves. Of this means of supplying their wants they are now, it is hoped, forever, and effectually deprived. Their industry must be aroused, and directed to other pursuits. They will be, very soon, both able and willing to furnish many articles of value in the American market, and over the whole of this trade, the Society ought to exercise the most entire control, and if possible, turn it to the advantage of the natives, and of their own designs.

It is believed that a treaty of commerce may be established by the Society, with some of these tribes, immediately—and with all, eventually.

Let it be to this effect, The Society agree to furnish the natives, at the mouth of the river, with every article which they shall require, and to the amount for which they can furnish camwood, &c. to pay, and at a fair price. No frauds shall be practised on either hand. The trade is to be carried on wholly, through an Agent

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