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able worthily to enjoy the dignities of the episcopal office; and more especially, you are to labour to induce them, as far as in you lies, to make choice, without any scruple or difficulty, of the before-named bishop John, a man of good character, and for his virtues acceptable to us and our brethren, for the governance and prelacy of that church. And if all of you shall not be able to take part in the performance hereof, then any two of you may carry out the same. Given at Pisa, on the seventeenth day before the calends of February, in the sixth year of the indiction.”
The Letter of the same pope to William, king of the Scots.
“ Clement, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to William, the illustrious king of the Scots, health and the Apostolic benediction. We are of opinion that it must shock the eyes of the majesty of God in no small degree if we leave without due correction those excesses of prelates which, with à safe conscience, we may not, through carelessness, neglect. Wherefore, inasmuch as pope Urban, of blessed memory, our predecessor, commanded Hugh, formerly styled bishop of Saint Andrew's, under pain of excommunication, to appear in his presence on a certain day, to make answer in the Apostolic court respecting the dispute which existed between him and our venerable brother bishop John; but he, being conscious of his own deeds, and not without reason dreading the result of the investigation, through contumacy, neglected to come, for this and for many other things, which, according to frequent reports, have caused scandal to the Church of God, with the advice and consent of our brethren, we have adjudged him, on the authority of the Apostolic See, to be for ever removed from the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, and suspended from the episcopal office until such time as the Apostolic See shall think fit to determine otherwise respecting him, absolving those subject to him from the fealty which they have been bound to pay him. For although, so far as with God's assistance we may, we firmly purpose to consult your honor and your interest ; and, in the case of the before-named Hugh, the Roman court, not without the censure of many, has hitherto paid deference to your royal highness, still, inasmuch as the reports about him have, on undoubted authority, reached our ears, we have been unable, under any pretext, by closing our eyes thereto, any longer to forbear noticing his errors; for which reason we do
not think that anything has been done in his respect as to which your royal feelings ought on any account to be incensed. Therefore we ask your duteousness with prayers and affectionate entreaties, that you will receive, on our recommendation, the above-named bishop John, (whom we and our brethren love with sincerity of heart for his virtues,) with the bowels of brotherly love, as you respect the Apostolic See and ourselves; and that laying aside the offence which, if any, in your indignation you have conceived against him, you will treat him in all respects with your royal clemency and kindness. And further, it is our belief that from his diligence and probity much benefit will accrue, by the aid of God, to yourself and your kingdom ; and it will always be a subject of gratification to us, if our prayers shall with the royal ears have the desired effect. Given at Pisa, on the seventeenth day before the calends of February, in the sixth year of the indiction."
The Letter of the same pope to Henry, king of England. “Clement, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to Henry, the illustrious king of the English, health and the Apostolic benediction. When your royal excellency, authority, and power has received prayers preferred by the Apostolic See, to which it is expedient effect should be given both for preserving the churches in their present state, and for ensuring the salvation of many, it is the duty of your royal highness diligently to listen thereto; and the more strenuously and zealously to use all ena deavours to give effect to the same, the more certain it is that duteous attention thereto, and the diligent execution thereof, equally concerns your kingly glory and your salvation. Hence it is that we have thought fit that our Apostolic letters and prayers should be addressed to your serene highness in behalf of our venerable brother John, bishop of Saint Andrew's, with full confidence, therein entreating and advising, and for the remission of the sins of all, enjoining, your exalted royal highness with all the affection we possibly can, that, in consideration of your veneration for Saint Peter and ourselves, as also in consideration of the persecutions which there is no doubt he has endured, you will earnestly advise William, the illustrious king of the Scots, our most dearly-beloved son in Christ, and induce him, and if necessary compel him with that royal authority in which you are his superior, and which has been conceded by him to your royal highness, to cease, by setting
aside every pretext for the same, all the rancour of his indignation which, through the malice of certain whisperers, he has entertained against the said bishop, thus shewing due regard for his own royal dignity and the healthful works of piety; and, for the future to allow him quietly and without challenge to hold the diocese of Saint Andrew's, which, by the common counsel and consent of his brethren, the Supreme Pontiff has confirmed unto him for ever; and this the more especially, as he is ready to prove himself obedient and faithful in all respects to his royal majesty so far as shall be consistent with reason. Given at Pisa, on the seventeenth day before the calends of February, in the sixth year of the indiction. The Letter of pope Clement in behalf of John, bishop of Saint
Andrew's. “ Clement, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to all the clergy of the see of Saint Andrew's, health and the Apostolic benediction. Although in doubtful matters some persons may be able to show their subtlety or artfulness, still, when all scruples and grounds for doubt are removed, and by manifest signs the tracks of truth are disclosed, all devious paths ought to be entirely forgotten, and the traces of the right path to be both sought for and observed ; lest, which God forbid, acting otherwise, and persisting in their own contumacy, after the scourges of this world, and its condign punishments, they may be inwardly destroyed by the everlasting punishments of eternal death. Wishing, therefore, in our paternal anxiety to provide for your salvation, your interests, and your quietude, we do, by these Apostolic writings, command and order, and in virtue of your obedience, enjoin the whole of you, within fifteen days after the receipt hereof, humbly and duteously to receive as your father and pastor our venerable brother John, your bishop, who has been canonically elected to the pontifical office, and, all pretexts whatsoever laid aside, not to hesitate henceforth to pay due reverence and obedience to his wholesome advice and commands; being hereby informed that if, after Hugh, the man who was formerly styled the bishop, was removed from the dignity of your bishopric by the Church of Rome, or after his decease, 85 the above-named John, your bishop, still surviving, you shall have by chance made choice of any other bishop, we do, by the Apostolic authority, pronounce that elec85 In case that may have happened before the letter reaches the clergy.
tion to be null and void. But if, which may God forbid, you have presumed, by the persuasion of the enemy of mankind, to be guilty of any conspiracy against the said bishop John, then both yourselves, as also the whole see, we are determined to subject to sentence of interdict until such time as, acknowledging your transgressions, you shall have returned to obedience to the commands of the said bishop John. Given at Pisa, on the seventeenth day before the calends of February, in the sixth year of the indiction.”
Another Letter of the same pope on the same subject. “Clement, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his venerable brethren, Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, Matthew, bishop of Aberdeen, and Richard, bishop of Moray, and his dearly-beloved sons Ernulph, abbat of Melrose, Hugh, abbat of Newbottle, and the abbats of Holyrood, Stirling, and Scone, health and the Apostolic benediction. Although it is our belief that, even without our advice, it is incumbent upon you to give your serious and diligent attention, in conformity with the duties of your office, to those things which concern a good life and conduce to the salvation of souls, still, we have thought fit, by these Apostolic letters, to exhort your diligence to manifest greater anxiety in these respects; to the end that the more fervently you devote yourselves to those works so worthy of all praise, the more healthful it may be for you in these respects to apply yourself with all diligence to comply with the exhortations of the Apostolic See. And whereas it is clear that some prelates of churches must, together with those who have been offended, submit to the heat of persecution, and be weak with those who are weak, in obedience tothe rule laid down by the Apostle 86-how great the persecutions which the church of Saint Andrew's has lately sustained, how great the calamities and oppressions it has endured ! how much, also, has it been disturbed and shaken of late under the shadow of the indignation of his royal highness ! and, above all, how many and how great the dangers which our brother John, the bishop of Saint Andrew's, has endured! how many the perils to which he has been exposed, and what have been his labours in preserving the liberties of the church entrusted to his care, and confirmed to him by ourselves and our two predecessors ! butinasmuch as all this is well known to you, it seems needless to reiterate the same to your hearing.
86 Alluding to the words in 1 Cor. ix. 21, 22.
But inasmuch as it is universally agreed upon as being most expedient, it befits us to give all due attention both to the king's salvation, to the reformation of the state of the before-named church, and to the preservation of peace for the bishop himself, we deem it proper that we should employ your circumspection to aid us therein; therefore we do, by these Apostolic writings, command and enjoin your discretion, that, on receiving these our letters, meeting together, as befits prudent and discreet men, you will repair to the presence of our most dearly-beloved son in Christ, William, the illustrious king of Scotland, and diligently advise, and urgently press him to put an end to the rancour of his indignation against the before-named bishop, and herein not to despise the Church of Rome, which has now for a long time deferred to the wishes of his serene highness, but without delay wholesomely to obey and humbly to assent to the advice of it and of yourselves, in such manner as befits his royal glory and his salvation, and to allow the beforenamed bishop to hold in peace the above-mentioned diocese of Saint Andrew's; inasmuch as he is bound by the duties of the kingly dignity not to disperse the churches with their shepherds, but rather to cherish them; not to despise them, but to love them; not to persecute them, but to defend them. But if, which God forbid, he shall, to the peril of his own salvation, think proper to resist this Apostolic advice, then, by the Apostolic authority, you are to inform him, that, within twenty days, without any obstacle arising from appeal, sentence of interdict will be pronounced by you against the kingdom of his highness, and against his own person, as also all the abettors of bis majesty. Those also who have remained obedient to Hugh, and have given him encouragement in his obstinacy, after the Apostolic See had removed him for ever from the diocese of Saint Andrew's, and had pronounced sentence of excommunication against him, you are to smite with a like sentence, and, publicly pronouncing them to be excommunicated, are to cause them to be strictly avoided by others, until they shall have returned to obedience to the Church, and sought the benefit of absolution from the said bishop : and further, you are, in conformity with the usage of the Church, to make purification and sanctification of the altars and chalices, with which the said Hugh has, since he has been placed under sentence of excommunication, celebrated Dirine service. You are also in like manner to repair to the church of Saint Andrew's, and, convoking the