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tories beyond sea, and shortly after crossed over and landed in England, at Winchelsea, on Saturday, the third day before the calends of February. In the meantime, Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, who had come to England before the king, consecrated Hugh de Nunant bishop of Coventry.

Immediately upon his landing in England, our lord the king held a great council of bishops, abbats, earls, and barons, and many others, both clergy and laity, at Gaintington, where, in the hearing of the people, he caused all the above-mentioned ordinances to be proclaimed, which he had enacted on the subject of assuming the cross. After they had been proclaimed, Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, and Gilbert, bishop of Rochester, his deputy, delivered wonderful sermons on the same day before the king and his chief men, on the subject of the Word of the Lord and the mysteries of salvation gained by the cross.

After this, our lord the king sent his servants, the clerks and laymen, throughout all the counties of England, to collect the tithes according to his order made as above-mentioned in his territories beyond sea. But in each of the cities throughout England he caused all the richest men to be selected, namely, in London two hundred, in York one hundred, and in other cities according to their quantity and numbers, and made them all appear before him on days and places named; on which he received from them the tenths of their property, according to an estimate made by trustworthy men who were acquainted with their incomes and possessions; and if he found any inclined to be contumacious, he immediately caused them to be imprisoned and kept in irons until they had paid the last farthing. He did the same with the Jews in his territories, and received from them an immense sum of money.

After this, he sent Hugh, bishop of Durham, and others of the clergy and laity, to William, king of the Scots, to collect the tithes in his kingdom; on hearing which the king of Scotland met them between Werk and Brigham, in Lothian, and would not allow them to enter his kingdom to collect the tithes, but offered to give to his liege lord the king of England five thousand marks of silver instead of the above-named tithes, and on condition that he might have his castles back again; but to this the king of England would not agree.

Philip, king of the Franks, also caused the tenths of the incomes and property of his subjects to be collected throughout all his territories. In the same year, Richard, earl of Poitou,

Raymond, count of Saint Gilles, Aimar, count of Angoulême, Geoffrey de Rancon, Geoffrey de Lezivant, l and nearly all the more powerful men in Poitou, engaged in war, all against the before-named Richard, and he against all; he, however, was victorious. Among other persons whom he took prisoners in the territory of the count of Saint Gilles, he captured Peter Seillun, by whose advice the before-named count of Saint Gilles had taken some traders of the territory of the earl of Poitou, and had done many injuries to him and his lands. Accordingly, earl Richard placed this Peter in close confinement and in most rigorous custody. The count of Saint Gilles being able on no terms to ransom him, he set spies throughout his cities and castles, to arrest any persons they could find belonging to the household of the king of England, or of earl Richard his son; and it so happened that, a few days after, as Robert Boer and his brother Ralph, two knights of the household and retinue of our lord the king, were passing through the territories of the count of Saint Gilles, from Saint Jago,82 which they had been visiting on a pilgrimage, the men of the count of Saint Gilles laid hands on them, and carried them in chains to the count; on which, the count said to them, “Unless Richard, the earl of Poitou, delivers up to me my servant Peter, and sets him at liberty, you shall not escape



hands." On hearing this, earl Richard made answer, that he would neither make entreaties or give money for their ransom, inasmuch as the respect due to their character as pilgrims, ought to suffice for their liberation.

Upon this, the king of France ordered them to be set at liberty, not for his love or respect for the king of England, or for his son Richard, but out of respect and esteem for Saint James the Apostle. However, earl Richard entered the territories of the count of Saint Gilles with a great army, laid it waste with fire and sword, and besieged and took his castles in the neighbourhood of Toulouse. Upon this, the king of the Franks, hearing the lamentations of the people of Toulouse, sent his envoys to England to the king of England, to enquire if the mischief which was being done by . his son Richard was being done by his direction, and to demand reparation for the same. To this the king of England made answer, that his son Richard had done none of these things by

81 Roger of Wendover calls him “ de Liziniac.”
82 Saint Jago of Compostella, in Spain.

his wish or advice, and that the said Richard bad sent word to him, by John, archbishop of Dublin, that be had done nothing in respect thereof, but by the advice of the king of France.

In tho same year, the Patriarch of the city of Antioch wrote to the king of England to the following effect : The Letter of the Patriarch of Antioch to Henry, king of

England. “By the grace of the Holy God, and of the Apostolic See, the Patriarch of Antioch, to Henry, by the same grace, the most illustrious king of the English, his beloved lord and friend

— may he govern in Him, through whom kings govern. With tears and with sighs by these presents we announce to your excellency, the dire and inexpressible grief which we feel for the unexpected and terrible disaster that has lately befallen us, or, indeed, all Christendom we may rather say. Let all the world listen, with yourself, to this our grief, that it may know whence proceed our tears and our lamentations, or what is their end. On the fourth day of the month of July, in the year of the Word made incarnate one thousand one hundred and eightyseven, Saladin, having gathered together a multitude of our foreign foes, engaged with those of the Christians who were in the land of Jerusalem, and, having routed their forces, triumphed over them to his heart's content; the vivifying Cross being exposed to the ridicule of the Turks; the king being taken prisoner, and the Master of the Temple, as also prince Raymond, being slain by this accursed Saladin with his own hands; while bishops, Templars, and Hospitallers, in all a multitude of nearly twelve hundred, and thirty thousand foot were slaughtered in the defence of the Holy Cross, besides a con. siderable number who were afterwards slain, or made prisoners in the cities which he took. After this, being quite satiated with the blood of the Christians, he took Tiberias and fortified it; and then, he had laid siege to the noble city of Acre, to Caiphas, Cæsarea, Joppa, Nazareth, Sebaste, Neapolis, Lydda, Ramatha, Assur, Hebron, Bethlehem, and, last of all, the Holy City of Jerusalem, and the Sepulchre of our Lord, vowing that he would cut it into pieces and throw its fragments into the deep. As for the rest, fearful anxiety possesses us every day and every hour, amid our doubts whether these various places may not be subjugated to his dominion, and their inhabitants slain or made captive, especially as it is well

known that they are deprived of provisions, horses, munitions of war, and defenders. By reason of this mighty anger and indignation of God poured forth upon us from above, with tears we eat our bread, and are alarmed with dreadful apprehensions, lest the Sepulchre of our Lord may be delivered to strange nations, and lest we few, who still remain in this Christian land, may, if succours are tardy in their arrival, and our enemies press on, have to bow our necks to the swords of the smiters. Now as, in prudence, counsel, and riches, you surpass the other kings of the West, your aid we have always looked for; and we therefore pray that you will hasten to bring your powerful succour to the Holy Land. If you delay so to do, then the Sepulchre of the Lord, with the noble city of Antioch, and the territory adjacent thereto, will exist as an everlasting reproach to foreign nations. Be mindful of your glories and of your name, that so, God, who has raised you to a throne, may through you be exalted; and if you are ready to give your assistance to so worthy an object, either coming yourself to us, or sending to us the wished-for succours, then to you, after God, will be imputed the liberation of the Holy Land. We ourselves, with all possible contrition, and smiting our guilty breast, cry unto God that He will give to you both the will and the ability of thus acting to the praise and glory of His name; wherefore, at this, the last gasp of life, in your clemency lend your aid to the Holy Land and to ourselves. Otherwise, we who, subjected to various perils, have been afflicted with a lingering illness, shall have nothing to expect but immediate death for ourselves, and that after the blood of the Christians has been poured forth, the Sepulchre of our Lord, with the noble city of Antioch, and the country thereto adjacent, will, to the eternal disgrace of foreign nations, be captured. We do further entreat, that you will receive our recommendations of our dearly beloved brethren, the bishops of Gabalus and Valenia, whom on this matter we have despatched to you. Farewell." The Letter of Henry, king of England, to the Patriarchs of Je

rusalem and Antioch, and Raymond, prince of Antioch. To the venerable fathers in Christ, and his friends, A. and E., the Patriarchs of Antioch and Jerusalem, and to Raymond, prince of Antioch, and to all the Christian people of the Church in the East, Henry, by the same grace, king of England, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, health and consolation in Christ. Inasmuch as, our sins so requiring it,

the Lord has in our times visited our iniquities with the rod of His vengeance, and has, by the Divine judgment, permitted the land which was redeemed with His own blood to be polluted by the hands of the unbelievers; it is therefore becoming, that we, and all who belong to the Christian religion, and are professors of that name, should attend with pious zeal to the desolate state of the said land, and make it our endeavour with all our might to impart thereto our aid and counsel. Wherefore, as A., by the grace of God, the venerable bishop of Valenia, has, with a profusion of tears and deep sighs, disclosed unto us the griefs and calamities with which the Eastern Church is afflicted, the greater the danger we behold impending, the more strenuous and immediate is the assistance which we are prompted by compassion to give. Having, therefore, faith and confidence in Him, who never forsakes those who put their trust in Him, act manfully, and let your hearts be strengthened in the Lord; for we believe that now is the prophecy of Isaiah fulfilled; “Jerusalem, lift up thine eyes round about and see; all they gather themselves together, they come to thee ; Then thou shalt see, and flow together, and thine heart shall fear, and be enlarged; because the abundance of the sea shall be converted unto thee, the forces of the Gentiles shall come unto thee."83 For now, the Lord, who looks down upon the sons of men, that He may see if man is of good understanding or seeks God, has so aroused the feelings of the Christians, which were before asleep, to His own service, that every one who is of the Lord's side, has now girded his sword to his thigh, and each one reckons himself as blessed and faithful, who leaves his father and his mother and all things besides, that he may be able to avenge the injuries done to Christ, and to the Holy Land. Wherefore, be ye firm, and you shall speedily see the assistance of the Lord which is now prepar

you. For sooner than you could believe, such vast multitudes of the faithful will by land and sea come to your rescue, as ' Eye hath not seen nor ear heard, nor hath it entered into the heart of man to conceive ;' and whom the Lord has prepared for the deliverance of your land. Among other princes as well, I and my son, rejecting the pomps of this world, and setting at nought all its pleasures, and all things that belong to this world being laid aside, will shortly, by the assistance of the Lord, visit you in our own persons. Farewell.” In the same year, Philip, king of France, levying a large

63 Is. Ix 4, 5.

ing for

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