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fear God, in order to implore your aid; wherefore we, whom the calamities of that land afflict with intense sorrow, after the example of our fathers and predecessors, being anxious for the preservation thereof, do by this healthful warning exhort the Christian kings and princes of the world to the defence of those places in which the feet of the Lord have stood; and for that purpose, we do proclaim to all sinners, who, in the cause of Christ, shall undertake the labour of aiding Jerusalem, and shall with faithful duteousness make it their care to fight against the Saracens, that remission and forgiveness of sins, which the fathers, our predecessors, Urban and Eugenius, the Roman Pontiffs, gave by their enactments. We do therefore advise and strictly enjoin the whole of you, to receive with kindly feelings the brethren who have been sent for this purpose, and after learning through them the state of the countries of the east, and the necessities thereof, to labour by frequent and anxious exhortations to induce the princes, earls, and others of the faithful in Christ in your respective dioceses, to repair with all haste to these lands, for the delivery of which their fathers and ancestors have shed their own blood, and to fight with might and valour against the enemies of the cross of Christ. The letters which for this purpose we send, addressed to all generally, you will cause to be publicly read in all churches and will explain the tenor thereof, and will announce the remission of sins which we grant to those who shall engage in a work so pious and so necessary, and so advise all persons to do that which we suggest. And may, through your anxiety and your exhortations, that land speedily be sensible of the aid and succour of the faithful, and may you yourselves in return for it, gain from Almighty God an everlasting reward. Given at Tusculanum,16 on the sixteenth day of January."

On hearing of this, Philip, king of France, and Henry, king of England, greatly lamenting the adversities and the desolation of the land of Jerusalem, promised that they would, with the aid of the Lord, give speedy succour thereto; upon which, the interview was brought to a close.

In the meantime, William, king of Scotland, by the command of our lord the king of England, came into Normandy, and by his counsel and advice the said king of Scotland gave liberty to return to Matthew, bishop of Aberdeen, and John, bishop of Saint Andrew's, whom he had banished from Scotu The modern Frascati.

land. An agreement was entered into between them, in presence of the king of England, to the following effect:— That Matthew, bishop of Aberdeen, should freely and without any opposition, under the safe conduct of the king of Scotland, return to his own see, and if anything should have been taken from him, the same should be restored; and John, who had been consecrated bishop of Saint Andrew's, in order to regain the favour of his lord the king of Scotland, agreed that he would give up to him the said bishopric, if he should be allowed to choose whatever bishopric he might please in the kingdom of Scotland, and if in addition thereto, the king of Scotland should give him his chancellorship and all the revenues which he had held before his consecration, together with forty marks of yearly revenue from the church of Saint Andrew's. Upon this the king of Scotland sent his envoys to pope Alexander, to request that for the sake of peace, he would allow this change of episcopal sees to take place; this, however, our lord, the pope, would not allow.

After these transactions, the king of England gave to John Fitz-Luke, his clerk, the bishopric of Exeter, and to Ralph de Warnville, who was his chancellor and treasurer of the church of York, the bishopric of Lisieux, which Arnulph, bishop of Lisieux, had vacated in consequence of the dislike which the king had taken to him; for when he found that he could at no price obtain the royal favour, he preferred resigning the bishopric, to enduring the king's hatred any longer. Accordingly, after getting in Ms gold and silver from every quarter, of which he was said to have a large quantity, and having received from the king of England a large sum of money for vacating his . bishopric, he went to Paris, and remained at the church of Saint Victor there until the day of his death. After this, while the king of England was making a stay at Barbeflet,17 with the intention of passing over to England, a dispute arose between Philip, king of France, and Philip, earl of Flanders, concerning the count of Claremont, whom the earl of Flanders greatly disliked. The king of England, therefore, at the request of the king of France, attended a conference between them at Gisors, and made peace between the king of France and the earl of Flanders. After this, the king of England came to Cherbourg, and, passing over to England, landed at Portsmouth, on the seventh day before the calends of August, being "Harfleur.

the Lord's day, with William, king of the Scots, who accompanied him.

Shortly after this, the king of England made the following assize as to keeping arms throughout England:

"Whoever has a single knight's fee must keep a cuirass, a helmet, a shield, and a lance, and every knight must keep as many cuirasses, helmets, shields, and lances as he has knights' fees in his demesne. Every free layman, who shall have in chattels or in rental to the amount of sixteen marks, must have a hauberk, an iron head-piece, and a lance; and all burgesses, and all companies of freemen must keep a gambeson, an iron head-piece, and a lance; and every person may make oath that before the feast of Saint Hilary he will provide such arms, and will do fealty to our lord the king, namely, Henry, the son of the empress Matilda, and will hold the said arms at his service in obedience to his command, and in fealty to his lord the king and to his realm. And no person, after he shall have provided the said arms, is to sell the same, or to make a pledge thereof, or to lend them, or in any way to part with them; nor is the lord in any way to take them from his homager, either by way of fine, gift, or pledge, or in any other way whatsoever. And if any person having the said arms shall die, his arms shall remain with his heir; and if his heir be not of such an age that he can use arms, if required, then the person who shall have the guardianship of him, shall in like manner have the guardianship of such arms, and shall find a man to use the said arms in the service of our lord the king, if needs be, until the heir shall be of such an age as to be able to bear arms, and then he is to have them. And further, whatever burgess shall have more arms than according to this assize he ought to have, he is to sell the same, or give them away, or part with them to some person who shall wield them in England in the service of our lord the king. And no one of them is to retain more arms than in conformity with this assize he ought to have. Also, no Jew is to keep in his possession a cuirass or hauberk; but he is to sell the same or give them away, or in some other manner dispose thereof, but so that they continue to be used in the service of our lord the king of England. Also, no person is to carry arms out of England except with the leave of our lord the king, and no one is to sell arms to any person for him to carry them out of England, and no merchant or other person is to carry them out of England. Also, the justices are to cause oath to be made by lawful knights, or by other free and lawful men of hundreds, visnets,18 and burghs, as may seem most expedient to them, that those who have the value in chattels to the amount above stated, shall provide, as they ought, a cuirass, helmet, lance, and shield, according to what has been mentioned above; and that for the said purpose they will name all those of their hundreds, visnets, and boroughs, who have sixteen marks' value either in chattels or yearly rental; and after that, the justices are to cause all of them to be registered, both jurors and the others, both who they are and what chattels or rental they have, and what arms each ought to provide, according to the value of the chattels or rental; and after that, in their presence and in the hearing of them all, they are to cause this assize to be read as to keeping arms, and to cause them to make oath that they will provide such arms according to the aforesaid value of the chattels or rental, and will hold the same at the service of our lord the king in conformity with the aforesaid assize, in obedience to the command of and in fealty to their lord, king Henry, son of the empress Matilda, and to his realm. And if it shall so happen that any one of those persons who ought to provide such arms shall not be in the county at the time when the justices shall be in that county, then the justices are to appoint a time for him to appear before them in another county. And if the said persons shall not come to them in any county through which they shall pass, and shall not be in those districts, then they are to name a time at Westminster, on the octave of Saint Michael, that each may then be there for the purpose of making oath, as he loves himself and all that belongs to him; and orders are to be given to him before the feast of Saint Hilary before-named, to provide arms according as he is bound to provide the same. And further, the justices are to cause proclamation to be made throughout all counties through which they shall pass, that those persons who shall not provide the said arms as herein commanded, the king will lay hands on their bodies, and will on no account take from them their lands or chattels. Also, no person is to be sworn as of the free and lawful men who has not sixteen marks or ten marks in chattels. Also, the justices are to give orders throughout all the counties through which they shall pass, that

is 'i Neighbourhoods ;" from the Norman "vesin£;" probably, small communities not unlike the " frith-borgs" of the Anglo-Saxons.

no person, as he loves himself and all that belongs to him, shall buy or sell any ship for the purpose of transport from England; and that no person shall carry timber, or cause it to be carried, out of England. The king has also ordered that no person shall be admitted to the oath of arms unless he is a free man."

In the same year, Henry, king of England, son of the empress Matilda, gave to John Cumin, his clerk, the archbishopric of Dublin, in Ireland, at Evesham, on the eighth day before the ides of September. In the same year William, archbishop of Rheims, came to England on a pilgrimage to the Martyr Saint Thomas of Canterbury. In the same year Dufonald, the son of William, the son of Dunecan, who had often laid claim to the kingdom of Scotland, entered Scotland with a large army, and laid waste the parts near the sea-coast. In this year also, John, bishop of Saint Andrew's, pronounced sentence of excommunication against Richard de Morville, the constable, and Richard de Prebenda, and others of the household of the king of Scotland, who had caused a breach of the peace between himself and the king. In addition to this, Roger, archbishop of York, the legate in Scotland, and Hugh, bishop of Durham, by the authority of our lord the pope, commanded the prior of Saint Andrew's and the ecclesiastical personages throughout the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, to go to John, their bishop, and pay him the respect of their duteous submission, declaring that if they refused, they would pronounce upon them, as being contumacious and rebellious, sentence of suspension. On this, some of the ecclesiastics of the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, through fear of suspension, came to the before-named bishop John; on which William, the king of Scotland, expelled them from his kingdom, with their sons and kinsmen, and even those who, hanging at their mother's breasts, were yet crying in the cradle. Roger, archbishop of York, and Hugh, bishop of Durham, seeing the shocking proscription of these persons, acted in obedience to the mandate of our lord the pope; for Roger, archbishop of York, excommunicated William, king of Scotland, and both he and Hugh, bishop of Durham, pronounced sentence of interdict on all the territories of the king of Scotland, ordering the bishops, abbats, priors, and other ecclesiastical persons strictly and inviolably to observe the said sentence of interdict, and carefully to avoid the king himself as au excommunicated person.

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