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subjects of his father, who had preceded him; however, as he thought fit to shut up everything in his own purse,46 and was unwilling to pay their wages to his soldiers, he lost the greater part of his army in several conflicts with the Irish, and being at last reduced to want [of troops], after appointing justices and distributing his knights in various places for the defence of the country, he returned to England.

In the month of December, in this year, pope Lucius departed this life; and was succeeded in the papacy by pope Urban the Third; who immediately thereupon, in order that notice thereof might be universally given, wrote to the prelates of the Holy Church to the following effect:

The Letter of pope Urban on his Election.

"Urban, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his venerable brethren the archbishops and bishops, and to his dearly beloved sons the abbats, priors, and other prelates of churches, to whom these letters shall come, health and the Apostolic benediction. The exalted counsels of heaven, retaining in their dispensations a constant supervision thereof, have founded the Holy Church of Rome, to the governance whereof, insufficient as we are, we have been chosen, upon a rock which is based upon the solidity of the faith; bestowing upon her that foundation in the strength of the Apostolic confession, that so neither the outbreaks of the storm, nor the winds of the tempest can prevail against her. Wherefore it is that the universal Mother Church, ever retaining wit hher the Saviour, even unto the end of the world, has so, as expressed in the Song of Solomon," " embraced him whom she loved," that, by reason of no change of events or of times, can she be separated from the singleness of her faith, or the fixedness of her affection. For although, by reason of the repeated changes of her pastors as they depart, she has frequently fallen into various perils, or in consequence of the attacks of the wickedness of this world has endured persecutions and labours innumerable, still, never has the Divine favour forsaken her, any further than that she might perfect her strength in some temptation, and thence obtain the joyous fulfilment of her hope, on receiving thereby a strengthening of her faith. The Lord thus dealing towards her, within these few days as a mark of His goodness, although no slight grief and sorrow affected her for the death of the pious

M* He more than once alludes to the avarice of John. 57 Probably in allusion to ch. via, 10.

father Lucius, Divine Providence has preserved her in the unity of the spirit and in the bond of peace, so that after the sorrow of the evening joy came in the morning, and she, like a most beauteous dove, rejoicing amid her sighs, retained her beauty without a ruffle even or a spot upon her whiteness. Now, after the decease of the father of pious memory, our predecessor, Lucius, our lord the pope, when his most venerable body had been honorably entombed, there was held by the brethren a conference as to the election of a successor, at which there was such unity among all, and such concord of each with the other, that He may be supposed to have wrought upon them, in whose hands are the hearts of all men, and through whom the diversity of minds is reconciled. But, while in the church of God, there were many venerable and prudent men, of whom it is our belief that their votes might have more prudently and more worthily have made choice, inefficient as we are, they turned their eyes upon us; and it was done accordingly as it pleased the Lord, in that they made choice of us as their father and shepherd, who have neither strength nor merits to suffice to the elevation of a dignity so great. However, although we were fully conscious to ourselves of our own infirmities, so as to believe that we might, not without good reason, have offered resistance to their proposals; still, to the end that through delay in the transaction or pertinacity in making resistance, no danger might ensue to the Church, although unwillingly, we consented to undertake the labour of the burden entrusted to us; hoping that our steps would be guided by Him who bestowed on Saint Peter, when sailing on the waves, faith even to that degree that he went down into the sea, and went forth to meet Him in the midst thereof, that doubting he might not perish. Now therefore, being placed in such a position and office, as to require to be aided therein by the suffrages of all the faithful, to you do we resort, as especial sons of the Roman Church, with full confidence and security, and, prefacing with the salutation of the Apostolic benediction, we do by these familiar letters admonish you, and do earnestly request and exhort you in the Lord, that, attending the death of our before-named father and lord Lucius, with the devout suffrages of your prayers, you will especially pay to ourselves that fidelity and duty which is owed to us, in virtue of your respect for Saint Peter and Saint Paul the Apostles and the Apostolic See, by all of you in common, that by so doing, you may be enabled both to obtain your reward of God, and always be enabled to find more abundant grace in my eyes, and prove yourselves deserving before the whole Church. Given at Verona, on the second day before the ides of January."

In the same year, Henry, king of England, sent envoys to pope Urban, and obtained many things of him, which pope Lucius had stoutly refused; one of which was that such one of his sons as he should think fit should be crowned king of Ireland. This was acceded to by our lord the pope, who confirmed the same by his bull, and, as a proof of his assent and confirmation thereof, sent him a crown made of peacock's feathers, embroidered with gold. In this year, shortly before the feast of Saint Peter ad Vincula, the before-named Patriarch, having returned to Jerusalem, and brought with him no aid for the defence of that land, great fear came upon the inhabitants of the land of Jerusalem. Consequently, a certain brother of the Temple, an Englishman by birth, whose name was Robert de Saint Alban, having forsaken the Christian faith, went to Saladin, king of Babylon, and promised him that he would deliver up to him the city of Jerusalem; and, on his giving him security for the same, Saladin gave him his niece in marriage, and a considerable body of troops, and put him in command of his army, making him general thereof. Upon this, he immediately went forth with his army to the plains of Saint George, and there divided it into three detachments, two of which he sent into the parts adjacent to lay them waste; on which they ravaged the whole country, from Montreal to Neapolis, while Jericho, and the city of Sebaste, with some other cities, were destroyed.

But the before-named Robert, with the third part of his army, marched against the city of Jerusalem; on which the few inhabitants who were in the city, trusting in the Lord, went forth by the postern gates, and, carrying before them the wood of the Cross of our Lord as a standard, by the might of the Lord smote the army in which was the before-named Robert; on which, taking to flight, he turned his back on the smiters, while the men of Jerusalem followed him and his army, and slew many of them with the edge of the sword: Robert, however, though with considerable difficulty, made his escape.

After this, on Saladin purposing a fresh attack upon the land of Jerusalem, the Templars and Hospitallers and other chief men of that land, gave him sixty thousand besants for a truce until the octave of the ensuing Easter. In the meantime, William de Marchis, earl of Joppa, having died, "William the Leper, the king of Jerusalem, abdicated the throne of the kingdom, and, naming the boy Baldwin, son of the before-named William and Sibylla, who was his sister, his heir, caused him to be crowned king in the Holy City of Jerusalem; shortly after which he died, on which the boy Baldwin reigned in his stead for nearly two years, and his mother Sibylla married Guido de Lusignan, and by him had two daughters.

In the year of grace 1186, being the thirty-second year of the reign of king Henry, son of the empress Matilda, the said king was at Damfront, in Normandy, on the day of the Nativity of our Lord; after which festival a conference was held between him and Philip, king of France, at Gisors, where he made oath that he would give Alice, the sister of the king of France, in marriage to his son Richard, earl of Poitou. The king of France also promised to the before-named Richard, together with his said sister, Gisors, and all that his father Louis had promised, together with his daughter Margaret, to Henry, the son, the king of England; and he further made oath that he would never after that advance any claim against them in respect thereof.

After having held this conference, the king of England crossed over to England, and gave to Hugh, prior of the house of Wicham, which is of the Carthusian order, and in the bishopric of Bath, the bishopric of Lincoln ; whom Baldwin, the archbishop of Canterbury, shortly after consecrated. After this, the king proceeded with a large army to Carlisle, intending to go still further to wage war against Roland, the son of Ucthred, son of Fergus, for the injuries and spoliations which he had been guilty of towards Dunecan, the son of Gilbert, son of Fergus; but the said Roland came thither to the king and made peace with him. The king also, while there, caused Paulinus of Leeds to be elected to the bishopric of Carlisle; which, however, the said Paulinus declined. On this, in order that Paulinus might be willing to accept of that bishopric, the king offered him to enrich it with revenues to the amount of three hundred marks yearly, arising from the church of Bamborough, the church of Scarborough, the chapelry of Tickhill, and two of the king's manors near Carlisle.

In the same year, Philip, king of the Franks, gave to Bela, king of Hungary, his sister Margaret in marriage, who had been the wife of Henry, the son of the king of England. In the same year, Geoffrey, earl of Brittany, son of Henry, king of England, died at Paris from bruises which he had received from the hoofs of horses at a tournament, and was buried in the cathedral church of that city. In this year also some of the Irish cut off the head of Hugh de Lacy in Ireland. In the same year, our lord the king of England gave Ermengard, his kinswoman, daughter of Richard, viscount de Beaumont, in marriage to William, king of Scotland; and caused them to be married in his chapel at Woodstock by Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, where he held in their honor great nuptial festivities at his palace for a period of four days. Our lord the king also there presented the king of Scotland with the castle of Edinburgh; which the said king immediately gave to the before-named Ermengard his wife as a marriage portion, and by way of increasing the same he gave her one hundred pounds of yearly revenue, and forty knights' fees.

In the same year, while the king of England was staying at Carlisle, Robert Buteville, dean of the church of York, departed this life, and was succeeded in the deanery by Hubert Fitz-Walter, clerk to Ranulph de Glanville, at tiie king's presentation. In the same year, our lord the king of England gave to William de Northale the bishopric of Worcester, and to John, subdean of Salisbury, the bishopric of Exeter; who were accordingly consecrated by Baldwin, the archbishop of Canterbury.

In the same year, after pope Urban, upon the complaint ot John, the bishop of Dunkeld, had heard the dispute that existed between him and Hugh, the bishop of Saint Andrew's, he wrote to the king of Scotland to the following effect: —

The Letter of pope Urban to William, king of Scotland.

"Urban, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to William, the illustrious king of the Scots, health and the Apostolic benediction. Inasmuch as, by the duties enjoined upon us by God in virtue of our office, we are bound to give our earnest attention to all the churches, both those near to us, as also those at a great distance, and, if we know of any unreasonable attempts made by them or by their ministers, to recall them to a more suitable line of conduct, the princes of

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