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leave was given them to sell a gallon of white wine for eightpence, and a gallon of red wine for sixpence; and so the land was filled with drink and drinkers.

In the same year, when William, king of the Scots, was purposing to invade England with an army, he went to the shrine of Saint Margaret, the former queen of the Scots, at Dunfermline, and passed the night there; on which, being warned by a Divine admonition not to invade England with an army, he allowed his army to return to their homes.

In the same year was decided that most ancient dispute between the churches of Tours and Dol, as to the metropolitan rights which the church of Dol claimed against the church of Tours, in the following manner : Our lord the Celestinus, of blessed memory, had determined that, with the Lord's assistance, in his time an end should be put to this most ancient and most lamentable dispute, which had been carried on between the churches of Tours and Dol. Accordingly, for this purpose he had appointed to each party a peremptory day, on which, being sufficiently provided with all their reasons which they might consider that they should be in want of at the trial, all appeals, delays, and excuses laid aside, they were to appear in the Apostolic presence. But, inasmuch as it was not granted from above that the above-mentioned question should be settled by him (for he was removed from the world before the appointed time had arrived), our lord the pope Innocent, formerly Lothaire, cardinal deacon of Saints Sergius and Bachus, on succeeding the said lord Celestinus, adopting the commencement that had been made by his predecessor relative to the above-mentioned question by the citation of the parties, and wishing by a discussion on the matter, with the help of the Lord, entirely to put an end thereto, for the same reason, gave orders that the parties should repair to the Roman Church, in order that the said matter might be brought to an end by him, if, perchance, Divine Providence should spare him.

Because the archbishop of Tours at this time was labouring under very great infirmity in all his body, he did not appear in person in presence of the Supreme Pontiff; however, he took care to send discreet and prudent men in his place, namely, the chancellor of his church and three of his fellow-canons, together with some other persons. Accordingly, the bishopof Dol elect, and the before-named commissioners of the said archbishop, having

come into the presence of the Supreme Pontiff and the cardinals, his brethren, and many things having been alleged on the one side and the other, in defence of their rights, the said lord Innocent began, like a most kind father, as also did his brethren, to attempt to effect a reconciliation between them; and in order that they might have time to deliberate, he put off the further hearing of either party at intervals.

Although the commissioners from Tours were at last induced to make an offer to concede an archiepiscopal see to the church of Dol, with two suffragans only, and on condition that it should be subject to the lord archbishop of Tours as its prince, and that the archbishop of Dol should receive from his hand, or that of the church of Tours, the pall that was sent to the said church of Tours from the pope, as also consecration; still, because two of the adjacent bishoprics were refused by the envoys of the archbishop of Tours to the said bishop elect of Dol, he would on no account accept of their said offer; a refusal indeed, which redounded to his own inconvenience, as will be heard in the sequel.

Accordingly, the pope, seeing that the said dispute could not be settled on amicable terms, listened to the citations and allegations made on either side in full consistory, more freely and fully than before. After hearing and understanding them more fully, he was ready at length, with his brethren, to pronounce a definite sentence. But, once more seeking the ways of peace,

he invited them to make an arrangement. When, however, he could at length avail nothing whatever by these means, the lord Innocent, sitting in judgment, his brethren acting as his assessors, publicly pronounced sentence, in the second year of his papacy, against the church of Dol, and in favour of the church of Tours, to the effect that the church of Dol, as being the suffragan of the church of Tours, its metropolitan, should, all exemption or exception laid aside, for the future be subject thereto; that the bishop of Dol should in all things pay obedience and respect to the archbishop of Tours; that when he was elected, he should receive confirmation, and, when the proper time required it, consecration from him; and, in addition to this, he granted a general privilege to the church of Tours, illustrated with manifold arguments and reasons for the same, and sent to the archbishop of Rouen, and some other persons, his Apostolic writings relative to the said subject, all of which will appear more fully from what follows.

But when the bishop elect of Dol heard that sentence was pronounced against him, being vexed, and not without reason, and very dispirited, he came into the presence of our lord the pope, and, wishing to depose himself, resigned to our lord the pope the church of Dol. But our lord the pope, on seeing this, answered without hesitation, “ Thou art the bridegroom, and the bride requireth thee. Thou canst not do that which is against our will, without our own consent; and, in virtue of thy obedience, we enjoin thee, after summons made by the archbishop of Tours, to repair to him within the space of forty days, all excuse whatever laid aside, for the purpose of receiving from him the gift of consecration.”

In the same year, master Giraldus, 41 the bishop elect of Saint David's, raised a controversy as to the metropolitan right over the church of Saint David's, publicly asserting the right of the said church and its ancient metropolitan dignity, in presence of our lord the pope Innocent the Third, and the cardinals, namely, Octavianus, cardinal of Ostia, the cardinal of Portuenza, John, cardinal bishop of Albano, Jordan de Fossa Nova, Sephred, John de Saint Paul, John de Salerno, Gratianus, Ugolino, and Hugeson.

It ought to be known that after Saint Dubricius, the archbishop of the city of Chester, choosing the life of a recluse, had resigned the honor of his dignity to Saint David, the latter forthwith transferred the archiepiscopal dignity to Menevia, 43 and was made archbishop of that province; and, in succession to him, twenty-four persons received the pall and the full metropolitan dignity, the last of whom was Saint Samson, who, on account of the jaundice, which pestilence was committing fatal ravages amongst the people of Wales at that time, crossed over by ship to Armorican Brittany, and was appointed over the church of Dol, which then chanced to be vacant, and there made use of the pall of Saint David, which he had brought over with him.

On this pretext it was, that the church of Dol, by continually laying claim to the pall, had shown itself rebellious to the church of Tours, down to the time of the before-named


Innocent the Third, in whose second year this cause was decided, and this adventitious dignity was withdrawn from the church of Dol.

41 Giraldus Cambrensis, the famous scholar and historian.
42 Or Ugutio, called by some authors Hugh de Peter Leonis.
43 The Latin name formed from the British one of Saint David's.

As for the church of Saint David's, from the same cause, either through slothfulness or poverty, its bishops had always hitherto gone without the pall. Still, however, all the bishops of the church of Saint David's, that is to say, nineteen bishops, from the departure of Saint Samson until the time of Henry, the first king of England, enjoyed the whole of the archiepiscopal dignity, except the pall, and had seven suffragans, namely, Llandaff

, Saint Paternus in Kerdikan," (which see, because the people thereof slew their pastor, had been long since abolished, and united with the diocese of Saint David's), Bangor and Saint Asaph; while in Wales, beyond the Severn, which had been lately taken possession of by the English, there were the bishoprics of Chester, Hereford, and Worcester.

However, the before-named king Henry, having rendered Wales subject to his rule, and, consequently, wishing to render the said church of Saint David's, and the other churches in Wales, suffragans of the church of Saint David's, subject to the church of his own kingdom, namely, to the church of Canterbury, had Bernard, the clerk of his chamber, appointed in place of bishop Wilfrid, in the church of Saint David's, and then, by violent measures, had him consecrated at Canterbury; he being the first bishop of the church of Saint David's who was consecrated by the archbishop of Canterbury. After him, David and Peter were in like manner compelled by the kings of England to receive consecration from the archbishops of Canterbury, oaths having been previously extorted from them, in contravention of the canons, not at any time to raise any dispute as to their metropolitan right against the church of Canterbury

Bernard, however, on the decease of king Henry the First, did move the question, as to the metropolitan rights of his church, against Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury; on which occasion, pope Eugenius wrote to Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, to the following effect :The Letter of pope Eugenius, on the metropolitan dignity of the

church of Saint David's. Eugenius, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his venerable brother, Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, health and the Apostolic benediction. Our venerable brother, Bernard, bishop of Saint David's, coming into our pre

" Cardigan.

sence, has asserted that the church of Saint David's was formerly metropolitan, and has personally demanded restitution to be made by us of the said dignity: When, however, watching over the interests of his said application, he had made a long stay at our court, you, brother archbishop, in his presence, rising to oppose him, did, in our presence, make complaint against him, that he had withdrawn the obedience due to you as the chief metropolitan, and had shown himself disobedient and rebellious towards you, inasmuch as he had been consecrated by your predecessor, as being chief metropolitan, and had, both personally and in writing, made profession to the church of Canterbury, and had afterwards, like the other suffragans, shown obedience to you in many matters, and waited upon you. On this, he could not deny the fact of consecration, but utterly denied that he had made the profession, and had shown obedience; hearing which, you publicly produced two witnesses, who gave testimony that in their seeing and hearing, after his consecration, both in words and writing, he had made profession to the see of Canterbury. Accordingly, after hearing the reasons of both parties, and diligently weighing the same, and having carefully examined your witnesses, with the general sanction of our brethren, we received their depositions upon oath, and, justice so dictating, commanded that the said bishop should show to you, as chief metropolitan, all obedience and respect. Wherefore, inasmuch as it is our wish to preserve for each church, and for ecclesiastical personages, their own dignities and what is their respective due, have named a day for you and for him, the Feast of Saint Luke in the

year next ensuing, upon which, in the presence of all the parties, we may learn the truth as to the dignity of the church of Saint David's and its liberties; and we will then decree relative thereto, by the Lord's help, what shall be found to be conformable with justice. Given at Meaux, on the third day before the calends of July.”

Now this letter, the before-named Master Giraldus found in the register of pope Eugenius: and accordingly, on these grounds, and at the instance of the said Giraldus, who publicly asserted the rights of his church in the court of Rome, pope Innocent, by his letters, cited Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, as to the state of the church of Saint David's and the metropolitan dignity; which letters the said Giraldus also caused to be entered in the register of that pope, as a perpetual testimony of

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