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keeper, and then, ascending to the top of it, shouted with a loud voice the war-cry of the Christians, “ Christ, the Son of God, aid us and his Holy sepulchre." Alarmed at the cry, the pagans fled to the mountains, leaving the castle, the city, their provisions, and their arms, on which the Christians were received into the city and the castle with gladness.

After this, the said archbishop of Mentz, by the advice and wish of the chief men of Germany, gave to Aimeric, lord of Cyprus, Acre, and Tyre, and Baruth, and the other cities which they had taken; and then gave him Milicent to wife, who had been the wife of Henry, count of Champagne, and crowned them in the city of Baruth ; on which Aimeric became the liegeman of Henry, emperor of the Romans, for the isle of Cyprus.

Of the Ecile of John, Archbishop of Dublin. In the same year, Hamo de Valence, and the other guardians of Ireland, liegemen of earl John, brother of Richard, king of England, did great injuries to John Cumin, archbishop of Dublin. Consequently, the said archbishop, preferring to go into exile, rather than endure that these enormities against him and his church should any longer go unpunished, excommunicated the said presumptuous men, and, pronouncing sentence of interdict upon his archbishopric, took his departure. He also ordered the crosses and images of the cathedral church to be laid on the ground, and to be surrounded with thorns, that thus these malefactors might be smitten with fear, and be checked in their intentions to rage against the property of the church. But while they were still persevering in their malignant purposes, a miracle happened, in our times quite unheardof.

There was, in the cathedral church of Dublin, a cross, on which the figure of Christ was carved with great exactness; this, all the Irish, as well as others, held in the greatest veneration. Now, while this crucifix was lying prostrate on the ground, and surrounded with thorns, on the sixth day of the week, it fell into an agony, and the face appeared to be suffused with an exceeding red colour, just as though it were before a heated furnace, and a violent sweat ran down from the face, and from its eyes fell drops, as though it were weeping; and at the sixth hour of the day, blood and water came forth from

63 Now Beyrout.

the right side, and the right breast. This the ministers of the church carefully collected, and sent a deputation after John Cumin, the archbishop, stating to him the happening of these cir. cumstances, under testimony of the seals of venerable men, for the purpose

of being mentioned to our lord the pope. But as for the rest of the bishops of Ireland, although they had often read the proverb, “ Your own property is at stake when your neighbour's party wall is on fire,” 64 still, shutting their eyes thereto, they passed by the losses and injuries that the above-named servants of John, earl of Mortaigne, had done to their brother bishop, and, becoming as rams having no horns, fled from before the face of the pursuer. However, John, the archbishop of Dublin, going into exile, went to Richard king of England, and John, earl of Mortaigne, his brother, but could obtain no redress or restitution of what had been taken from him.

In the same year, Henry, emperor of the Romans, having made a reconciliation with his wife, and the chief men of Sicily, fell ill, and sent Savaric, bishop of Bath, his relative and chancellor, from Burgundy, to Richard, king of England, and offered to repay him the money he had exacted from him for his ransom, either in gold and silver, or in lands. But while the said Savaric was gone on this embassy, the before-named emperor of the Romans died, at Messina, in Sicily, on the vigil of Saint Michael, being excommunicated by pope Celestinus, for his detention of Richard, king of England, and exacting from him a ransom; in consequence of which, the said pope forbade his body to be buried, although the archbishop of Messina made great entreaties in his behalf.

Accordingly, the said archbishop waited on pope Celestinus, for three reasons. In the first place, that the body of the emperor might receive burial; in the second place, that Marchowald, the chief justiciary of the emperor, might be liberated from the siege by the people of Rome, who were then besieging him in the marshes of Guarnero, not allowing him to depart; in the third place, that Frederic, son of the aforesaid emperor, might be crowned king of Sicily. To the first of these prayers, our lord the pope Celestinus made answer, that he would not allow the body of the emperor to be buried, except with the consent of the king of England, and unless the money which he had received from the king of England, should be returned.

64 “ En tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet."

To the second prayer, our lord the pope made answer, that he could not liberate the said Marchowald of his own authority, without the consent of the people of Rome. To the third prayer, our lord the


made answer, that he would consent, if it should please his brother cardinals, that Frederic, the son of the before-named emperor, should be crowned king of Sicily; which coronation accordingly took place, a thousand marks of silver having been given to our lord the pope on his own behalf, and a thousand marks of silver in behalf of the cardinals.

The empress, also, made oath, touching the Holy Evangelists, that the said Frederic was issue of the lawful marriage of the said emperor Henry and herself.

In the same year, Roger, the brother of Robert, earl of Leicester, being elected bishop of Saint Andrew's, in Scotland, received priest's orders and pontifical consecration from Matthew, bishop of Aberdeen. In the same year, Margaret, formerly queen of England and then queen of Hungary, died at Acre.

On the demise of Henry, emperor of the Romans, a great part of Tuscany, which the said emperor and his predecessors had taken from the Roman Pontiffs, was restored to our lord, Celestinus, the Supreme Pontiff, namely, Aquapendente, Saint Crispin, Monte Fiascone, Redecoces, and Saintclere, with all their appurtenances; there were also restored to him Sicily, Calabria, Apulia, and all the territories which had belonged to the king of Sicily, as being the proper patrimony of Saint Peter; over which, as above-mentioned, he made Frederic, son of Henry, the Roman emperor, king.

Shortly after this, our lord the pope, Celestinus, gradually sickened, just before the Nativity of our Lord, and having called before him all the cardinals, recommended them to take measures for the election of his successor; for he was using every possible endeavour that the lord John de Saint Paul, cardinal priest and titular of Saint Prisca the Virgin, might succeed him in the papacy, in whose wisdom, sanctity, and justice, he placed great confidence. Indeed, he so greatly loved him beyond the rest, that he had appointed him in his own place to perform every duty except the consecration of bishops, which belonged to the duties of the cardinal bishop of Ostia. The pope

also made an offer to resign the papacy, if the cardinals would consent to the election of the said John de Saint Paul. All the cardinals, however, with one voice, made answer, that they would not elect him conditionally, and alleged

that it was a thing unheard-of for the Supreme Pontiff to abdicate. Consequently, a division ensued among them ; for the lord cardinal bishop of Ostia used every possible endeavour that he might be elected pope, and, in like manner did the lord cardinal bishop of Portuenza, the lord Jordan de Fossâ Novâ, the lord Gratianus, and all the rest, struggle, each to the utmost of his power, that he might be made Supreme Pontiff.

In the same year, William, king of the Scots, following a good example, caused the subjects of his kingdom to make oath that they would keep the peace to the best of their ability, and that they would neither be thieves, nor robbers, nor outlaws, nor harbourers of them, nor would in any way abet them; and that, whenever they might hear of any such offenders, they would use the utmost of their ability in arresting and destroying them.

An Assize of Measures made by Richard, king of England.

“ It is enacted, that all measures, throughout the whole of England, shall be of the same capacity, both for corn and for pulse, as also for other things of a like nature, that is to say, one good and reasonable horseload ; 64 and this is to be the measure established, both within cities and boroughs, and without. The measure also of wine, ale, and all liquors, is to be of the same size, according to the various natures of the liquors. Weights also, and scales, and other measures of dimension, are to be of the same quantity throughout all the kingdom, according to the different nature of the commodities. Also, in the measures of corn, and of liquors, such as wine and ale, let pegg6 of iron be driven into them, that false measure may not fraudulently be given. It is also decreed, that woollen cloths, wherever they are made, are to be made of the same breadth, that is to say, two ells wide within the lists; and all are to be of the same goodness in the middle, and in the sides. The ell is to be the same throughout the whole kingdom, and of the same length, and is to be made of iron. It is also forbidden to all traders throughout the whole kingdom of England, that any trader shall hang up before his

Equi" appears to be the proper reading, and not "æqui.” 65 Probably at stated distances, to denote the smaller measures into which the larger ones were divided, something like the peg tankards of the Saxons.

64 6

shop, red or black cloths, or penthouses, or anything else, by means of which the sight of the purchaser is often deceived in choosing a good cloth. It is also forbidden, that any dye shall be sold, or that any, except black alone, shall be made anywhere in the kingdom, except in cities, or in county boroughs. It is also enacted, that in each city or borough, four or six lawful men of the said place, according to the size thereof, together with the sheriff, or together with the chief officer of the city or borough, if the same shall not be in the hands of the sheriff,66 shall be appointed to keep this assize, in the following manner; they are to see and be assured that all things are sold and bought by the same measure, and that all measures are of the same quantity, according to the different nature of the wares. And if they shall find any person who shall make confession, or be convicted of selling otherwise than by statute measure, let his body be seized, and let him be committed to prison, and let all his chattels be seized to the king's use; and such persons are not to be set at liberty, except by our lord the king, or his chief justice.

As to the guardians themselves, it was enacted, that it they should exercise the said guardianship so negligently, that they should be convicted by means of others than themselves, before the justices of our lord the king, of transgressing any one of the before-written statutes, either as to the measures of provisions, or of other wares, or the width of cloth, the guardians themselves should be amerced out of their own chattels by our lord the king.

“It was also commanded, that after the feast of the Purification of Saint Mary, no person should sell anything in any county, except by the prescribed measure, which was to be of the same quantity; and that no one should, after the fair which is held at Mid-Lent, at Stamford, sell any cloth of less width than two ells within the lists."

In the year of grace 1198, being the ninth year of the reign of Richard, king of England, the said Richard, king of England, was at Rouen, in Normandy, on the day of the Nativity of our Lord, which fell on the fifth day of the week. On the same day of the Nativity of our Lord, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, legate of the Apostolic See, and chief justiciary of all England, was at Hereford, in Wales, and there received possession of the castle of Hereford,

66 The text found in Wilkins has been used here.

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