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to him, by Walter the archbishop of Rouen, for that part of the archbishopric which lies in France, namely, in the French Vexin. However, the archbishop of Rouen, seeing that this was grievous and disgraceful to himself, appealed to our lord the pope, as to the interests of his church, and departed, fearing lest his lord, the king of England, would compel him to do this, to gain the favour of the king of France.

O ambition, how ever blind! O presumption most disgraceful! O, how much does he lose of his right, who grasps at what is not his right! For Philip, king of France in attacking an earthly kingdom, assaults a heavenly one; hankering after things worldly he rushes upon things Divine; doomed to wickedness, prompt to run into peril, ready for criminality, he considers not the cause of innocence, repudiates all justice, confounds right and wrong; vice is his companion, equity is his hate, iniquity is ever his friend; he lives by slaughter, he fortifies himself by bloodshed, he reigns amid cruelty, with him everything is determined by death, nothing is settled by love.” “If Jove should hurl his thunders as oft as men should sin, in a short time he would be disarmed."48

However, in process of time, the king of France repented that he had made such an agreement with the king of England, and, collecting a large army, laid siege to Aumarle ; on which, the king of England ordered seizure to be made in every place in his dominions, on either side of the sea, of all the goods and possessions of the_abbats of Marmoutier, Cluny, Saint Denis, and la Charitè. For the said abbats were surețies to the king of England, that the king of France would observe the above-named treaty; and if he should not do so, they were to pay to the king of Engiand fifteen thousand marks.

In the same year, Robert, earl of Leicester, after giving to Philip, king of France, two thousand marks of silver, and quitting claim to him of his castle of Pascy, was liberated from captivity. In the same year, the king of England sent Philip, the bishop elect of Durham, and the abbat of Caen to England, for the purpose of making enquiry as to the levies of the justices and the sheriffs, and their servants; but while the said abbat of Caen, on the Lord's day, being the day of the Passion of our Lord, was dining with Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, and 48 A quotation from Ovid :

“Si quoties peccant homines sua fulmina mittat,
Jupiter, exiguo tempore inermis erit."

chief justiciary of all England, he was taken ill at table, and died on the fifth day after, at London. In the meantime, Philip, king of France, took the castle of Aumarle by assault, and destroyed it, on which, the king of England gave him three thousand marks of silver, as a ransom for the knights and their followers, who had been taken at Aumarle. After this, the king of France took Novancourt by assault, while John, earl of Mortaigne, brother of Richard, king of England, took the castle of Jumieges.

In the same year, a disturbance arose between the citizens of London. For, more frequently than usual, in consequence of the king's captivity and other accidents, aids to no small amount were imposed upon them, and the rich men, sparing their own purses, wanted the poor to pay everything. On a certain lawyer, William Fitz-Osbert by name, or Longbeard, becoming sensible of this, being inflamed by zeal for justice and equity, he became the champion of the poor, it being his wish that every person, both rich as well as poor, should give according to his property and means, for all the necessities of the state; and going across the sea to the king, he demanded his protection for himself and the people. Hubert Fitz-Walter, archbishop of Canterbnry and the king's justiciary, being greatly vexed at this, issued orders that wherever any of the common people should be found outside the city, they should be arrested as enemies to the king and his realm. Accordingly, it so happened, that at Mid-Lent some of the merchants of the number of the common people of London were arrested at the fair at Stamford, by command of the king's justiciary.

The said justiciary then gave orders that the above named William Longbeard should be brought before him, whether he would or no; but when one of the citizens, Geoffrey by name, came to take him, the said Longbeard slew him; and on others attempting to seize him, he took to flight with some of his party, and they shut themselves in a church, the name of which is the church of Saint Mary at Arches, and, on their refusing to come forth, an attack was made upon them. When even then they would not surrender, by command of the archbishop of Canterbury, the king's justiciary, fire was applied, in order that, being forced by the smoke and vapour, they might come forth. At length, when the said William came forth, one of them, drawing a knife, plunged it into his entrails, and he was led to the Tower of London, where he was condemned to



be hanged. Accordingly, he was tied to the horse's tail, and dragged through the lanes and streets of the city to the gibbet, where he was hanged, together with eight of his confederates. The other citizens of London who had joined him, threw themselves upon the king's mercy, and gave hostages as security that they would keep the peace towards the king and his realm.

The monks, however of the Holy Trinity at Canterbury, on hearing that their church at London, called Saint Mary at Arches, 50 had been thus subjected to violence by order of their archbishop (who, although he was a servant of the king, ought still to have kept the rights of the Church inviolate), were indignant thereat, and their heart was grieved at him, and they were unable to hold communication with him on any matter in a peaceable manner.

In the same year, Richard, king of England, gave to his nephew, Otho, the earldom of Poitou. In the same year, also, when the countess of Brittany had come, by command of king Richard, into Normandy, for the purpose of holding a conference with him, Ranulph, earl of Chester, her husband, went to meet her at Pont D'Urse, and took her and shut her in his castle at Saint James de Beverun. When her son Arthur found himself unable to procure her release, be became an adherent of the king of France, and ravaged the territories of the king, his uncle, with conflagrations, on which the king of England, collecting a large army, entered Brittany in a hostile manner, and laid it waste.

In the meantime, Geoffrey, archbishop of York, having at length arrived at the Apostolic See, made a long stay there, and, in transacting all matters relative to himself, he found the pope very hard to be moved, and vexed with him beyond

In process of time, however, a hearing was given to him, and his adversaries then present; and when the matters previously mentioned, and many other things, were alleged against him, all of which the archbishop steadfastly asserted to be false, his adversaries, being asked whether they were ready to prove their allegations, made answer, after time for deliberation had been asked and conceded to them, that they were not willing to undertake the burden of proving the same.

The archbishop, however, sufficiently proved that he was not guilty of the matters charged against him; and consequently our lord the pope, by the advice of his whole court, 19 At Tyburn.

50 Bow Church, in Cheapside.


restoring him to his office and benefices, gave it as his command to all the prelates and other clergy appointed throughout the diocese of York, that they should pay him due respect and obedience in all things as archbishop; stating also in his rescript how the archbishop had shown that he was not guilty of the matters charged against him, and that all that had been spread abroad by his adversaries about him, was false and fictitious.

On notice, however, of his restoration coming to the king of England, who had already despoiled the archbishop of his temporalities, and, as was said, was aiming, together with his adversaries, at his deposition, he was greatly disturbed, and commanded two of his adversaries to take upon themselves the care of spiritual matters, and not allow the archbishop, or his officers, to have any share in the management thereof. The king, also, at his own will, gave and distributed among his clerks the prebends of the church of York, and the other benefices that were vacant. Accordingly, the archbishop of York being on his return, and staying in France, did not dare to enter the king's territories, on seeing that he could not find grace in the sight of the king, so as to congratulate himself on being in possession of either temporalities or spiritualities, but turned back, and set out on his return to the Roman court.

In the meantime, our lord the king of England, at the request of Arthur, duke of Brittany, and of other influential men, gave leave to Peter de Dinant to take proceedings against Adam de Tournouere, as to the archdeaconry of the West Riding, which the king had given to the said Adam. At length, an agreement was come to between them, on the following terms: Master Simon of Apulia, dean of the church of York, and the chapter of that church, by the concession and consent of the said Adam, were to receive Peter de Dinant as archdeacon of the West Riding, and instal him both in the chapter and the choir; and the said Peter gave the office of deputy, and the management of the said archdeaconry, to the said Adam de Tournouere, subject to an annual payment of sixty marks, providing that the said Adam should hold the said archdeaconry, and every part thereof, all the days of his life, and should make him thence an annual payment of sixty marks; and if Peter should survive Adam, then he was to receive the archdeaconry of the West Riding, without any contradiction or diminution. It was also agreed between them, that when they should both

be in York at the same time, one of them should occupy the stall in the choir, as archdeacon, on the one day, and the other the same on the next day, and that they should thus take their turns every other day, so long as they should be staying at the same time at York; and, that this agreement, made between them, might be ratified, and remain inviolate, the chapter of York confirmed the same with their seal. But before knowledge of this agreement had reached the archbishop of York, he sent his letters patent into England, to the following effect:

Geoffrey, by the grace of God, archbishop of York, and primate of England, to the deans, priests, and all the clergy throughout the archdeaconry appointed, health and the paternal benediction. Be it known to all of you, that we, in consideration of the love we bear to him, have given to Peter de Dinant, our clerk, the archdeaconry of the West Riding, into which, as we have been most credibly informed by many persons, Adam de Tournouere has, by whose authority we know not, intruded himself, and has usurped the name of archdeacon, although the disposal of archdeaconries, dignities, and churches, in our archbishopric, belongs to ourselves alone, on whom the same has, by the Divine mercy, been bestowed. The said Adam has also, by the instigation of the devil, since restitution made to us by our lord the pope, exerted himself in the administration of spiritual matters, against ourselves and our officers. Wherefore we, rendering void, and by our authority, utterly nullifying whatsoever the said Adam has done in institutions, in excommunications, in suspensions, and in other things which he has done, under the name of archdeacon, do now excommunicate the said Adam, enjoining you, and by virtue of your obedience commanding you, not to answer him in any orders given by him, but to consider him as excommunicated. We do also notify unto you, that we do ratify and confirm the sentence pronounced upon Paulinus de Eburford and others, who, contrary to the obedience which they owe to ourselves and others, have obstructed our officers, Master Ralph de Kime, and Master Honorius. Farewell.”

In the same year, in the month of July, Philip, bishop elect of Durham, was ordained priest, by Henry, bishop of Llandaff, in the church of Saint Cuthbert, at Durham, on the seventeenth day before the calends of July, being Saturday in the week of Pentecost.

In the same year, William, king of the Scots, having collected

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