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lawful, unless the revelation should come to him from above, or he should behold a sign. For he despised the person of his adviser, not understanding that sometimes the Lord reveals to babes the things that are hidden from the wise; for the lepers announced good tidings to Samaria, and the ass of Balaam recalled its master from the unlawful way. Wherefore, the hermit, leaving the king, went his way, and hid himself from before his face. In process of time, however, although the before-named king despised the admonition of the poor hermit, still, by the inspiration of the Divine grace, he retained some part of his warning in his memory, having faith in the Lord that He who recalled the publicans and the Canaanitish woman to repentance, in His great mercy would give to him a penitent heart.

Hence it was, that on the Lord's day in Easter week, the Lord visited him with a rod of iron, not that he might bruise him, but that he might receive the scourging to his advantage. For on that day, the Lord scourged him with a severe attack of illness, so that, calling before him religious men, he was not ashamed to confess the guiltiness of his life, and, after receiving absolution, took back his wife, whom for a long time he had not known: and, putting away all illicit intercourse, he remained constant to his wife, and they two became one flesh, and the Lord gave him health both of body and of soul. Oh! happy the son, whom, in this pilgrimage, the father's severity chastens for his correction, and not for his destruction ! For the father corrects his son sometimes in kind words, and sometimes in harsh, that, by the one means or the other, he may recall him to do what is right. And thus, in the furnace of justice does the Lord try His gold; there does He in adversity prove His holy one, that He may promote him to a crown. Truly, great and inexpressible are the works of the Lord, and His mercies are over all His works. For this king, over whose head his iniquities had passed away, was adopted by Christ as His son, and turning from his wickedness unto the Lord, was received by Him as a son.

For God, in whose hands are the hearts of kings, and who turneth them whichever way He thinketh fit, instilled it into the heart of the king, that he should so quickly change his life and conversation for the better: for, rising early every day, he first sought the kingdom of God and its justice, and did not

31 Alluding to 2 Kings, vii.


depart from the church until, after the usage of the Church, the whole of the Divine service had been performed.

A glorious thing indeed is it for a prince to begin his daily actions, and to finish them in Him who is the beginning without beginning, and who judges the limits of the earth.

The said king, mindful also of those words which say, “ Blessed is he that considereth the poor and needy; the Lord will deliver him in time of trouble,"32 ordered each day, many poor to be fed, both in his court, as also in cities and in his vills, whom he daily increased, according as there was need. For there was a great famine in this land, and the poor resorted to him that they might be fed. By the example of such, is faith confirmed, hope upraised, charity nourished, humility protected, devotion increased, and a desire to do good excited. The said king also caused many chalices of gold and silver to be made, which he distributed among the churches, from which their chalices had been taken for the purpose of paying his

“Woe unto that man through whom the offence cometh ;"* for it ought not to be imputed to the king that through him those chalices had been given for his ransom, but rather it ought to be laid to the charge of those who gave such counsel to him, inasmuch, as “Evil communications corrupt good manners, 34 and we read in the Gospel,

35 “ Wherefore he hath the greater sin who hath delivered me up unto thee.'

In the same year, pope Celestinus, at the prayer of Richard, king of England, appointed Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, legate of the whole of England; on which occasion, the said pope wrote to him to the following effect: The Letter of pope Celestinus on the legateship of Hubert,

archbishop of Canterbury. “Celestinus, the pope and bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his venerable brother, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, legate of the Apostolic See, health and the Apostolic benediction. That sincerity in its duteousness and in its established faith, which the church of England has always maintained towards the holy Church of Rome, has, as we fully trust, flourished once again under your energy and prudence, and has received an acceptable increase of tranquil fervour For such an opinion of your brotherhood has gone forth to the Church of Rome, that by the odour of your good works we are 32 Psalm xli. 1. 83 St. Matt. xviii. 7. 34 1 Cor. xv. 33. 35 St. John, xix, ll.

refreshed, and are strengthened by the vigour of the constancy which you manifest; so much so, that we may now more openly by our deeds disclose the confidence we have placed in your probity. Wherefore, at the entreaty of our most dearly beloved son in Christ, Richard, the illustrious king of the English, and all the suffragans of the church of Canterbury, that the church of England might have a legate from the Apostolic See, for its own advantage, as also that of the kingdom; as also, in consideration of the feelings of devotion which we entertain towards the church of Canterbury for the merits of its glorious martyr, and out of respect for your virtues and honesty, we have given our assent and favour to their prayers; and this in especial, because we believe that it will greatly conduce to the advantage of the Church and of the kingdom if she receives such a person, acting in the above-named kingly office, as the urgent prayers of the said king and of others pronounce you to be, in commendation of the meritoriousness of your life, and of your devotion to the faith. Therefore we do for the honor of God, for the safety of the church of Canterbury, and for the peace of the whole kingdom of England, all exceptions or privileges granted to our venerable brother, Geoffrey, archbishop of York, or to his church, or any other, notwithstanding, grant unto you the office of legate, enjoining you by these Apostolic writings, to receive the same with the humility of fraternal obedience, and, in accordance with the powers granted you by heaven, for the purpose of amending the things that require amendment, and of enacting what requires to be enacted, to apply the hand of diligence to the exercise of the authority of the legateship: so observing in all things, with ready dutifulness, the respect due to your mother, the Roman Church, that, through the profitableness of the ministry, which with joy she entrusts to you, you may, by your acts, render her even more joyful. Given at the Lateran, on the fifteenth day before the calends of April, in the fourth year of our pontificate.'

The said pope Celestinus wrote also to the following effect to Geoffrey, archbishop of York, and all the bishops, abbats, priors, and others, appointed prelates of churches throughout the kingdom of England :

“Celestinus, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his venerable brethren in Christ, the archbishop of York, and all bishops, abbats, priors, and others, appointed prelates of

churches throughout the kingdom of England, health and the Apostolic benediction. The inscrutable depths of the Divine wisdom have established the Holy Church throughout the breadth of this world, and have, in its inimitable foresight, so willed its rule and governance to be carried out, that, for the purpose of its healthful governance, many should be associated in the care thereof, although, for the purpose of establishing ecclesiastical unity, the Roman Church has received the fulness of power therein. For it has willed that, in accordance with what is said by the Prophet in reference to the Church, some should be born unto the fathers, who, being appointed princes over the earth, might by the merits of their virtues, and by the words of doctrine, train those ignorant of the faith, when more advanced, to righteousness. Wherefore, the holy Church of Rome, to which Church the Lord has given rule over the others, has, in her motherly care, had regard for the others from the beginning, and has with a laudable practice, hitherto used all watchfulness, that she might from different parts of the world appoint prudent men to undertake the ministry of them, whose authority and doctrine, under the control of the Roman Pontiff, may minister to churches far distant those things which he himself is not able. Accordingly, we, who, insufficient as our merits may be, have been raised to the lofty elevation thereof, following in the footsteps of our forefathers, so endeavour with the help of God to perform the duties enjoined on us in reference to the neighbouring churches, that a due and proper foresight may not be withdrawn from those, from which, by distance, we are far separated. Wherefore in especial, looking with the eye of our fatherly regard at the present state of the English Church, for its safety and for its especial advantage in Christ, we have, by the common advice of our brethren, decreed that our venerable brother, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, in whose merits and virtue, wisdom and learning, the whole church rejoices, taking upon himself the duties of the legateship, shall, at will, perform our functions to the honor of the Church, and the safety and peace of the entire realm, throughout the whole kingdom of England, all exceptions or privileges granted to you or to your church, or to any other brother archbishop, notwithstanding. Therefore, by our authority, we do command the whole of you, through these Apostolic writings, to show to him all due reverence and honor as legate of the Apostolic See, and humbly to receive

his healthful warnings and commands, and to obey the same, steadfastly observing

the things that, by the authority of the legateship, which by the will of the Lord he holds, he shall think fit and proper to ordain. Given at the Lateran, on the fifteenth day before the calends of April, in the fourth year of our pontificate."

Accordingly, upon the authority of these letters, the said archbishop of Canterbury, legate of the Apostolic See, sent to York Master Peter, the prior of Bineham, in Norfolk, and Master Gervaise, with the letters of our lord the pope, and letters from himself to the canons of York, and to the officers of the archbishop of York, sending word to them, that he should shortly come thither on the authority of his legateship, for the purpose of amending the things that required to be amended, and of enacting the things that, with the sanction of the Lord, required to be enacted; and he commanded them, convoking the clergy, to show to him, as the legate of the Apostolic See, due honor and obedience, adding, that he had already pronounced sentence of excommunication upon all those who in this respect should contravene the mandates of our lord the pope. He also sent, relative thereto, his letters patent to Simon, the dean of York, instructing him, if he should find any rebellious against the said mandate of our lord the pope, to denounce them as excommunicated. Accordingly, both the canons, as also the officers of the archbishop of York, answered the messengers of the legate, that they would receive him in his character of legate of the Apostolic See, but not as archbishop of Canterbury, or primate.

The legate arrived at York, on the feast of Saint Barnabas the Apostle, being the Lord's day, and was received by the clergy in solemn procession ; and, being escorted to the church of the Cathedral See, on the Monday following caused assizes to be held by his servants, of all pleas of the crown of the king, and of novel disseisin and of mort d'ancestor ; while he himself and his officers held pleas of spiritual matters. On the following day, being the third day of the week, the legate proceeded to the abbey of Saint Mary of York, and was there received in solemn procession by the monks of the said church. He then entered the chapter-house of the monks, and on the monks making complaint to him that Robert their abbat could not, by reason of sickness, and his bad state of health, discharge his duties to the house, he removed him from his pastoral charge,

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