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beginning of the calends of June, by which, having made all sufficient preparations, they were to present themselves at the Apostolic See, there to receive, the Lord so providing, what is adjudged by the canons of the Church.

Accordingly, the aforesaid adversaries of the archbishop appearing at Rome in the presence of our lord the pope, at the time named, urgently made accusation against their archbishop; but the archbishop did not come at the time appointed, both by reason of the king's prohibition, and the pestilence which at that time prevailed at Rome. His clerks, however, appeared at the given time at the Roman court, and alleging these as the causes of his absence, obtained that whatever had in the meantime been done against the archbishop since his appeal, should be repealed as null and void : and the pope then appointed as the time for his coming to Rome, the octave of Saint Martin next ensuing. But because not even then did he make his appearance at the Roman court, either himself or by a sufficient proxy, at the feast of the Nativity of our Lord next ensuing, he was suspended from all episcopal duties.

During the before-mentioned meeting of abbats, that took place at York, to oppose the archbishop, Roger, abbat of Selby, died, and was buried at Selby; and, at the presentation of king Richard, was succeeded by Richard, prior of the same house, who received his benediction from Hubert Fitz-Walter, archbishop of Canterbury, at this time, legate of all England.

In the same year, while the king of England was staying at Chinon, in Anjou, certain assassins, fifteen in number, came to the king's court. But when they attempted to approach the king of England, for the purpose of killing him, some of them were taken and made prisoners, on which they stated that the king of France had sent them to assassinate the king of England; but the king of England pretending not to know that these had been the designs of the king of France, deferred pronouncing judgment upon them, until such time as their associates should have been arrested.

In the same year, in the month of February, Master Simon of Apulia, dean of the church of York, returning from the parts beyond sea, with the plenitude of the king's favour, and his confirmation of his appointment to the deanery of the church of York, on his approaching the city of York, there went forth to meet him the clergy and people of the city in great multitudes; among whom were some of the household of archbishop Geoffrey, namely, Master Otui and William de Bonville, and two others, who forbade the said dean, on behalf of our lord the pope and the archbishop of York, to approach the mother church as dean thereof, until the dispute which existed between the archbishop and himself, as to the said deanery, should have been duly disposed of by the Roman Pontiff, and appealed thereon to our lord the pope. And because the said dean would not desist from his purpose, they laid violent hands on him; but being immediately excommunicated themselves, on account of this violence, they allowed him to go; on which he proceeded on his way and came to the mother church, and the canons of the church received him in solemn procession, this taking place on the Lord's day next before the beginning of Lent: and, at the beginning of Lent, Hugh, bishop of Durham, came to York, and confirmed the sentence of excommunication pronounced upon those who had laid violent hands upon the dean. While the said bishop of Durham was on his road thence to London, and had arrived at Doncaster, he fell ill, and being unable to proceed any further, was carried by ship to his vill of Hoveden.

In the same month of February, in the country of the king of Scotland, died Gregory, bishop of Ross, who was succeeded by Reginald, surnamed "the Lean," a monk of Melrose. It is stated, that in the cathedral church of the bishopric of Ross, which is called Rosmarein, Saint Boniface, the pope who was the fourth from Saint Gregory, was buried. About this Boniface we read in the Ecclesiastical histories, that he prevailed upon Phocas Cæsar, the emperor of the Romans, to present the Temple at Rome, which was previously called the Pantheon, to the church of God; and, after banishing therefrom the abominations of Devils, he dedicated it in honor of the blessed Mary, the Mother of God and ever a virgin, and of all the Saints, appointing that festival to be celebrated every year, at the beginning of the calends of November.

In the same year, in the month of March, on the third day of that month, being the sixth day of the week, Hugh, bishop of Durham, departed this life, at his vill of Hoveden, and was buried at Durham, in the chapter house of the monks; but before his body had entered Durham, Walter de Ferlington delivered to Hugh Bardolph the castle of Durham, and hung up the keys of the castle over the shrine of Saint Cuthbert.



Rodolph de Stavely inconsiderately rushing on for the purpose of seizing them, fear suddenly came upon him, and, going back, he hung up the keys over the shrine where they previously were; but before leaving the church, by the judgment of God he was scourged with a severe attack of illness, and died in a few days after. The said keys, however, were afterwards delivered by the hands of the prior and of the monks to Hugh Bardolph, who made oath that he would faithfully keep them to the honor of Saint Cuthbert and the king. After this, Hugh de Ferlington delivered to Hugh Bardolph the castle of Norham, by command of the king's justiciary.

In the meantime, at the instance of the canons of York, pope Celestinus wrote to the following effect to Roger de Leicester and Winemer de Northampton, archdeacons of the church of Lincoln :The Letter of pope Celestinus against Geoffrey, archbishop of

York. “Celestinus, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his dearly beloved sons, Haimo, dean of Lincoln, Roger de Leicester, and Winemer de Northampton, archdeacons appointed in the diocese of Lincoln, health and the Apostolic benediction. Our most dearly beloved sons, Simon, the dean, and the chapter of the church of Saint Peter at York, have informed us that, after appeal made to us, the clerks of the chapel of our venerable brother, the archbishop of the said church, and some other persons, have been intruded into the cathedral church of the said city, to the great prejudice of the canons, the vicars and clerks of the said church being excluded therefrom, for the purpose of ministering therein, and, contrary to the ancient and approved custom, usurping the places and stalls of theclergy in the choir and chapter, have presumed to contravene the regulations of the church. Wherefore, wishing, as is right and proper, to put an end to presumptuous acts of this nature, we do by our precept, by means of these our Apostolical writings command, that, if what we have before stated is true, you will compel these presumptuous persons, by force of ecclesiastical censure, all power of appeal being taken away, in your presence to make due satisfaction for these matters to the church of Saint Peter, and the canons thereof. You are also to cause reparation to be made for the losses which shall appear to have been inflicted by the same clerks upon the aforesaid chapter in

such manner as shall be just. And if you shall not be able all of you to take part in the performance hereof, then two of you are to carry out the same. Given at Saint Peter's, at Rome, on the second day before the calends of June, in the fourth year of our pontificate.”

Accordingly, on the authority of these letters, the said dean of Lincoln and his colleagues appointed for the parties a time and place, first at Torkesey, and next at Avechester, where, in their presence, they proved the losses of the priors and canons of the church of York, which they had sustained by the archbishop of York and his intruders, to be of the value of one thousand marks of silver.

In the same year, Richard, king of England, forgave his brother, John, all the wrath and displeasure he felt towards him, and restored to him the earldom of Mortaigne, the honor of Eye, and the earldom of Gloucester, and all the appurtenances thereto belonging, with the exception of the castles : and, instead of all his other earldoms and lands, the king gave him eight thousand pounds of money Anjouin per annum.

In the same year, the Supper of our Lord approaching, on John, bishop of Whitherne, the suffragan and deputy of Geoffrey, archbishop of York, coming near to York, that he might there, according to usual custom, consecrate the chrism and the oil at the Supper of our Lord, the dean and clergy of the church of York refused to receive him. Consequently, he went to Sewell, and there consecrated the chrism and oil at the Supper of our Lord, and delivered them to the officials of the archbishop to distribute to the churches in the archbishopric. It is even said that Geoffrey de Muschamp, archdeacon of Cleveland, received the chrism and oil, and immediately threw them upon a dunghill. However, the other canons of the church of Saint Peter declined to receive any part thereof, but sent to Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, to obtain the oil and chrism of him; they were deceived, however, in their expectations : for Peter, archdeacon of Lincoln, brother of archbishop Geoffrey, forbade the bishop to give them the oil and chrism, and appealed on the matter to the Roman Pontiff.

In the same year, the king forgave his wrath and displeasure against Hugh, bishop of Coventry, and restored to him the bishopric, for five thousand marks of silver, which he paid to him; but Robert, the brother of the said bishop, died in the custody of our lord the king, at Dover.


In like manner, our lord the king forgave his brother Geoffrey, archbishop of York, his wrath and displeasure, and received him with the kiss of peace; in consequence of which, the said archbishop being beyond measure elated, so exasperated the king by his insolent speeches, that he ordered him to be deprived of his archbishopric and the shrievalty of York. Would that the archbishop had read the warning of the philosopher, who says: “Stir not the fire with the sword.” The Lord, also, inculcating humility in us, says, by the mouth of His Apostle, “Servants, be obedient to your masters in the

I say not only to the wise and modest, but also to the morose : “Be ye subject to the king as pre-eminent, and to his ministers sent by him for the punishment of the wicked and the praise of the good. Behold the ships ! large though they be, and are threatened by mighty winds, by a small helm are they turned round, wherever the intention of him who steers shall guide them : so, too, though the tongue is a small member, it leads to great results. Behold! the fire, however small, how great the wood it can burn! The tongue is truly a fire, and from the tongue all iniquity is carried into effect, which pollutes and inflames the whole body; and no one is able to control the tongue, but he who is wise and circumspect. Therefore, let us circumcise our hearts ; for, from the uncircumcised heart proceed fornications, adulteries, murders, thefts, false-witness, blasphemies, contentions, and strifes, and the like to these, which are the things that defile a man; and on the contrary to this, out of the clean and circumcised heart proceed charity, cheerfulness, peace, patience, longsuffering, kindness, benignity, meekness, fidelity, modesty, continence, chastity, and other things like unto these, which are the fruits of the soul, and lead it unto God its Creator, for

out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh, :30 whether it be good or whether bad.”

In the same year, there came a hermit to king Richard, and, preaching the words of eternal salvation to him, said: “Be thou mindful of the destruction of Sodom, and abstain from what is unlawful ; for if thou dost not, a vengeance worthy of God shall overtake thee.” The king, however, intent upon the things of this world, and not those which are of God, was not able so readily to withdraw his mind from what was un

28 Eph. vi. 5, not quite correctly quoted.
29 According to St. Matt. xv. 19, and St. Mark, vii. 21, 22.
30 St. Matt. xii. 34. St. Luke, vi. 45.

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