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the bishops, Martin of Bergen, Eric of Stavangre, Thore of Burgunde, 24 and Absalom, being present and assenting thereto. On the same day, when the said Swere, the king and priest, was dining in regal state with the bishops and principal men of his kingdom, he caused the head of Siward, the son of Adestan, the former king of Norway, to be cut off, and to be brought before him and his guests, as they sat at table. It is worthy of remark that this Swere Birkebain conquered fifteen kings in fifteen naval battles, and slew them, with all their followers, before he was able to secure the crown; their names were as follows, - king Magnus, king Borgher, king Siward, king Ordus, king Guthrum, king John Cuvelung, king Belue, king Zether, and six others, with the above Siward, son of Adestan. It also deserves to be known, that it is the custom of the kingdom of Norway to the present day that every one who is known to be the son of any king of Norway, although illegitimate, and the issue of bondwoman, has equal right to lay claim to the kingdom of Norway with the son of a king legally married, and being the son of a free woman; the consequence of which is, that there are battles going on between them without ceasing, until one of them is conquered and slain.

The same year, a little before the feast of Saint Michael, there came to York, Hamo, præcentor of the church of York, Geoffrey de Muschamp, archdeacon of Cleveland, and Master William Testard, archdeacon of Nottingham, who had gone to Rome with Master Simon of Apulia, and Ralph, the archdeacon of the West Riding, relative to the injuries which Geoffrey, archbishop of York, had inflicted on them and their fellow-canons, he having excommunicated them and all who held communion with them, and, on their appeal to the Supreme Pontiff, laid an interdict on their churches. They also brought with them letters of absolution both from the excommunication and the interdict, and letters for the restitution of what had been taken from them ; undertaking the execution of which at the mandate of pope Celestinus, Hugh, bishop of Durham, came to York, and on Saint Michael's day celebrated mass in the mother church there, declaring before the clergy and the people, that the sentence which Geoffrey, archbishop of York, had pronounced upon his canons and those holding communion with them was null and void.

7+ Perhaps meaning Alborg.

But Ralph, the archdeacon of the West Riding, died while on his return from Rome; on which, Geoffrey, archbishop of York, gave his archdeaconry, first, to his own brother, Peter, and afterwards to Peter de Nunant. The said archbishop then making appeal against his canons and their acquisitions, crossed over from England to Normandy, to Richard, king of England, his brother, and obtained from him a letter to the following effect:The Letter of Richard, king of England, on the reconciliation of

the archbishop of York. “Richard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to his dearly beloved and faithful subjects, William of the Church of Saint Mary, and Hugh Bardolph, greeting. We do hereby inform you, that Geoffrey, archbishop of York, our brother, has come to us, and over and above those thousand marks which he paid us in England, has done our will as to the other thousand marks; and, as he has informed us by a certain person, would willingly have before this made satisfaction for the debt if he had been able so to do, and has long been greatly vexed that he has thus long delayed so to do. Accordingly, we have received him into our favour and protection, and have granted him in the fullest manner our kind interest in his behalf. We have also sent our messenger to England with his messenger, to the end that he may see in what way he makes satisfaction to us for the remaining thousand marks ; for he has made a promise to us that he will satisfy us thereupon as soon as he possibly can. Wherefore we do command you to make restitution to him of his lands and all his property in full, without delay; and whatever of his rentals or of his property shall have been sold on account of the said debt, whatever of the same we have had, you are reasonably to set off the same against the residue of his debt; and if any part thereof shall have been sold at a less price than it ought, either through love or hatred for any person, you are to cause reparation to be made for the same by those who have so done, and the same to be credited to the archbishop on account of his debt. His men also who have been taken or detained, both clergy as well as laity, you are to cause to be held on bail and set at liberty without delay, according to the custom of England. Also, you are not to allow


the lay power to disturb him in exercising his right of ecclesiastical censure throughout the whole of his archiepiscopate, as in reason he ought. You are also to compel the men of Beverley to make good the injuries they have done him, and to do towards him what they are bound to do, and what they have been accustomed to do to his predeces

Witness myself, at Mamerz, on the third day of November.”

The said archbishop of York also obtained another letter from our lord the king to the following effect :

“Richard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to William, of the Church of Saint Mary, and Hugh Bardolph, greeting. Know ye, that we have learned, that at the time of the death of our father, without our command and consent, Geoffrey de Muschamp obtained letters under his seal to hold the archdeaconry of Cleveland; and William de Stigandby and Master Erard, similarly obtained letters to hold prebendal stalls in the church of York, which were then vacant, and at our disposal. Wherefore, we do command you, without delay, to deprive the persons aforesaid of the archdeaconry, and the said prebends, and exact from them whatever they have received, since they have so fraudulently and surreptitiously gained possession of the said revenues. Witness myself, at Mamerz, on the third day of November."

Oh shameful disgrace! Tis base for the censurer to be himself convicted of the fault." 25 For the said archbishop, while still chancellor of the king, his father, had that seal in his own possession ; by means of which the said archdeaconry and those prebendal stalls had been given to the persons before-named.

In the same year, John Belesme, archbishop of Lyons sur Rhone, resigned his archbishopric; and, being content with a revenue of one hundred pounds sterling belonging to the archbishopric of Lyons, lived an unspotted life, pleasing to God and man, to the end of his existence, in the house of Clairval.

In the same year, while Leopold, duke of Austria, was still remaining under the sentence of excommunication which our lord the pope had pronounced upon him for the captivity of Richard, king of England and, not repenting thereof, the Lord

25 “ Turpe est doctori, cum culpa redarguit ipsum.” The reason for his saying this, is shown in the following lines.

scourged his territories in the following manner. In the first place, all of the cities of his dominions were destroyed by fire, and yet the cause of none of these fires was known. In the second place, the adjoining country was overflowed by an inundation of the river Danube, in which ten thousand persons or more perished. In the third place, whereas all the earth in the middle of summer ought to, and usually does, possess vitality, at that period the whole of his territory, contrary to the usual and ordinary course of things, became parched up. In the fourth place, when the seeds of corn ought to have shot up into blade, they were changed into worms. In the fifth place, the most noble persons in his dominions were smitten with a mortality.

Although the Lord had smitten his territory with plagues so many and so great, he still was unwilling to repent, but his heart was hardened, so much so, that he took an oath that all the hostages of the king of England whom he had in his hands should undergo capital punishment, unless all the covenants were speedily performed which the king of England had made with him. Consequently, Baldwin de Bethune, who was one of those who had been given as hostages to the duke of Austria for the ransom of the king of England, by the common consent of the hostages, was sent to the king of England to declare to him the duke's purpose; and, on his arrival, the king, taking compassion on them, delivered to him the sister of Arthur, duke of Brittany, and the daughter of the emperor of Cyprus, to escort to the duke of Austria; the sister of Arthur for the purpose of being married to the son of the duke of Austria, and the daughter of the emperor of Cyprus to be delivered into the hands of the duke.

In the year of grace 1195, being the sixth year of the reign of Richard, king of England, the said king Richard was at Rouen, in Normandy, on the day of the Nativity of our Lord, which fell on the Lord's Day, being intent on supplying himself with all things necessary,



men, against Philip, king of France. For the truce which had been agreed upon between them as to last until the feast of All Saints was far from observed, the subjects of both kingdoms making excessive ravages.

On the same day of the Nativity of our Lord, Henry, emperor of the Romans, was crowned at Palermo, in Sicily, with the crown of the kingdom of Sicily.

In the same year, before the Nativity of our Lord, on the

day of Saint Stephen the Protomartyr, when the heart of Leopold, duke of Austria, was hardened, nor could be softened by means of the plagues previously mentioned which the Lord inflicted on his territories, the Lord scourged his body in the following manner. Having convened the elders of his territory to celebrate the festival of the Nativity of our Lord, while the said duke was on his road, on Saint Stephen's day, to take recreation with his knights, his horse fell upon him and crushed his foot, in such a manner that the bones, being broken on both sides, projected through the middle of the skin, and were exposed to the extent of the palm of one's hand : the surgeons, however, when they came, applied to the foot what they thought best for it. On the following day the foot was found to have turned black, and to be in such a state that it ought, in the opinion of the surgeons, to be taken off; but, upon his ordering this to be done, there was not a person found to acquiesce in his wishes: for no one dared, or could for sorrow, lay a hand on his master.

At length, he sent for his son and heir, and begged and commanded him to cut off his foot, and put an end to his pain ; and, on his refusal as well, he sent for his chamberlain, who being compelled so to do, the duke himself, with his own hand, held an axe close to the bone of the leg, while the chamberlain, wielding a mallet, after three blows, with great difficulty, cut off the foot; the surgeons, however, after applying remedies, on visiting him the next day, found in him no hopes of life. The duke, being consequently reduced to despair, caused the archbishops, bishops, and great men of his dominions, who had come to be present at the festival, to be assembled together; and, on asking to be absolved from the sentence which our lord the pope had pronounced against him, for the injuries which he had done to the king of England, was answered by the whole of the clergy that he could, under no circumstances, procure absolution, unless, by making oath, he should give security that, as to the said injuries, he would abide by the judgment of the Church; and, unless others of the chief men of his dukedom should join him in the said oath : and if he should be overtaken by the common destiny of man, they would use their exertions in every way that satisfaction might be made to the Holy Church, in order that the judgment of the Church might not be carried out with respect to him. Accordingly, being absolved through means of the judgment of the Church, he ordered

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