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him to whom our lord the king shall have so given it, the rent which shall be due from him for the same until the end of the year. The right to the escheat, however, which he shall have so given is to remain with our lord the king, unless our lord the king shall have given it by name. The farmer, when he. shall give up his farm, is to have all his stock which he shall have placed upon the farm, and all his property over and above the property of the king there, freely and without diminution. They shall also have letters patent of our lord the archbishop, containing the tenor of the charter of our lord the king made relative thereto.

Most diligent enquiry shall also be made what is the rental assessed upon each manor in demesne, and the value of all other assessments in the said manors, and how many carucates there are, and how much they are each worth, not estimating them at a fixed value of twenty shillings only, 22 but, according as the land is good or bad, whether the value is likely to increase or decrease. Those persons who shall take these farms shall stock their farms as already mentioned, according to the sum named as to the revenues of the escheats and wardships. Enquiry is also to be made with how many oxen and plough horses each carucate ought to be stocked; and how much stock, and to what amount each manor is able to support; and the result thereof is then to be speedily and distinctly reduced to writing. The price set upon a bull shall be four shillings, and upon a cow the same, upon a ploughhorse the same, upon a sheep with fine wool ten pence, upon a sheep with coarse wool six pence, upon a sow twelve pence, and upon a boar twelve pence; and when the farmers give up their farms they shall be answerable in the aforesaid sums, or in animals payable for the same, at the option of the farmers; and when all the aforesaid stock shall be placed thereon and duly valued, they shall all be enrolled openly and distinctly, and the register thereof shall be deposited in the exchequer. From this assize are to be excepted bishoprics and abbeys, and lands of bårons who are nearly of age. Also, let enquiry previously be made, by the oath of the parties aforesaid, as to all wardships and escheats which are not in the hands of

» Probably the rental of each carucate, or plough land of one hundred acres, was assessed at twenty shillings, for the purpose of collecting the carucage or land tax levied thereon.



our lord the king, and they are to be taken possession of by our lord the king, and dealt with as other lands and escheats.

Heads as to the Jews. All debts and pledges of Jews are to be enrolled, as also their lands, houses, rents, and possessions. Any Jew who shall make concealment of any one of these things, shall forfeit to our lord the king his body, as also the thing concealed, and all his possessions, and all his chattels; and no Jew shall ever be allowed to recover what he has so concealed. Also, let six or seven places be appointed at which they shall make their loans, and let two lawful Christians and two lawful Jews and two lawful scribes be appointed, and in their presence, and in that of the clerks of William of the Church of Saint Mary and of William de Chimelli, let such loans be made, and let a deed describing the loan be made, after the manner of an indenture. One part 23 is to remain in the hands of the Jew, sealed with his seal to whom the money is paid, while the other part is to remain in the common chest; on which there are to be three locks; whereof the two Christians are to keep one key, the two Jews another, and the clerks of William of the Church of Saint Mary and of Master William de Chimelli the third; as also three seals, those who have the keys setting thereon their seals. The clerks also of the two Williams aforesaid are to have a register containing copies of all the deeds, and as the deeds are altered so shall the register be altered. For each deed shall be paid three pence; a moiety thereof by the Jew, and a moiety by him to whom the money is lent; of which the two scribes are to have two pence, and the keeper of the register the third : and, for the future, no loan shall be made, no payment made to Jews, no alteration of the deeds, except in presence of the persons aforenamed, or the major part of them, if all shall be unable to be present. The said two Christians also are to have a register of receipts for payments made henceforth to Jews, and the two Jews are to have one, and the keeper of the register one.. Also, every Jew shall make oath upon his register that he will cause all his debts, pledges, rents, and all his property and possessions to be enrolled, and that, as above stated, he will not conceal anything; and that, if he shall be able to learn that any one has concealed anything, he will secretly disclose the same to the

23 The script, the other part being the rescript.

judges sent to them, and that forgers of deeds and clippers of money, when he shall know of such persons, he will give information against, and detect the same, and the like with regard to the deeds so forged.

Also, inquisition shall be made relative to the holdings of and seizures made by all bailiffs of the king, both justices as well as sheriffs, and constables, and foresters and their servants, since the time of the first coronation of our lord king Richard, and why such seizures were made, and by whom; and of all the chattels, gifts, and promises made on the occasion of seizure of the lands of earl John and his supporters; and who received the same, and what they were, and what delay was caused by command of Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, at that time the king's chief justice."

In the meantime, Richard, king of England, having settled his affairs in Poitou to his satisfaction, returned to Anjou, and fined all his bailiffs, that is to say, forced them to pay a fine; and did the same in Maine. After this, he came into Normandy, and was vexed with what had been done in relation to the truce above-mentioned, and imputing it to his chancellor that this had been done through his agency, took away from him his seal, and caused a new seal to be made, and had proclamation made throughout all his territories, that nothing would be held as ratified that had been done by means of his old seal, both because his chancellor had wrought more indiscreetly with it than was becoming, as also because that seal had been lost when Roger Malchine, his vice-chancellor, was drowned at sea, before the island of Cyprus. The king also gave orders that all persons who had charters should come to renew the same with the new seal.

The king also ordered tournaments to be held in England, and by his charter confirmed the same; upon condition that whoever should wish to tourney, should pay him a sum according to the terms underwritten, namely; an earl was to give, for permission to tourney twenty marks of silver, a baron ten marks of silver, a knight, holding land, four marks of silver, and a knight, not a landholder, two marks of silver; and the king gave orders that no knight should come near the places where the tournaments were held unless he had first paid him the said sum of money. The charter of this grant the king delivered into the custody of William, earl of Salisbury : and Hubert Fitz-Walter, the king's chief justice, appointed

his brother, Theobald Fitz-Walter, to be collector of this money.

In the same year, Roger, the son of Tancred, king of Sicily, whom his father had caused to be crowned king of Sicily, and who had married the daughter of Tursac, emperor of Constantinople, departed this life; after whose decease, king Tancred caused his son William, brother of the said king Roger, to be crowned king of Sicily. Shortly after this, the said Tancred died: on hearing of which, Henry, emperor of the Romans, assembling a large army, entered Apulia in the beginning of the month of August, and subdued it, and, fifteen days before the feast of Saint Michael, took Salerno by storm; and because the people of Salerno had behaved treacherously towards him, as above stated, in delivering the empress Constance into the hands of king Tancred, to avenge the said betrayal he either put to death all the more powerful citizens of that city, or else condemned them to exile, and put up their wives and children for sale to his troops. He also found in the great Tower there a large treasure, valued at two hundred thousand ounces of gold, and his army was enriched by the spoils of the people of Salerno. After this, the emperor proceeded to the city of Amalfi, which was immediately surrendered to him; and, while he was staying there, all the cities of Apulia were surrendered to him, three of which he levelled with the ground-Salerno, Spinchola, and Polichore.

Before the feast of All Saints, he came to the city of Messina, in Sicily, with such honor and glory, that it had never been heard of any person entering that territory with greater honor and glory. Here he was honorably received by the archbishops, bishops, earls, and barons of the kingdom of Sicily, and departing thence proceeded to Palermo; having arrived at which place, the queen of Sicily, formerly the wife of king Tancred, and Richard de Therne, her brother, surrendered to him the palace of the king of Sicily, as also, king William, son of king Tancred, the widow of king Roger, daughter of Tursac, emperor of Constantinople, and the king's treasure of gold and silver inexhaustible, which the kings of Sicily had laid up. After this, all the cities and fortresses of the kingdom of Sicily were delivered up to him, and the admiral Margarite surrendered to him the castle at the port of Palermo, on which the emperor gave him the dukedom of Durazzo, the principality of Tarento, and the principality of La

Mare. There also came to the before-named emperor of the Romans all the pagans and Jews who were in the kingdom of Sicily, and, paying him certain sums, remained in the kingdom of Sicily, each in his own place, in the same condition in which he had been before.

The emperor then caused himself and the empress Constance, his wife, to be crowned at the city of Palermo, in presence and with the consent of the archbishops, bishops, and principal men of the kingdom. The emperor then caused the bodies of king Tancred and king Roger, his son, to be disinterred, and spoiled them of their crowns and sceptres, and other royal ornaments, saying that they were not kings by right, but rather usurpers of the throne, and holders thereof by violence. The emperor next gave in marriage to Philip, his brother, duke of Suabia, the above-mentioned daughter of Tursac, emperor of Constantinople, and put out the eyes of king William, son of king Tancred, and had him emasculated.

In the same year, the citizens of Rome elected fifty-six senators, and placed them in authority over themselves : whereas, previously, they had had but a single senator, whose name was Benedict, a worthy man, who had ruled over them two years, and after him they had had another senator, who was called John Capuche, and had similarly reigned over them another two years; in whose times Rome was better governed than at the present day, in the time of the fifty-six senators.

In the same year, Swere, prince of Norway, contrary to the prohibition of our lord the pope, had himself crowned king of Norway; on hearing of which, Eustace, archbishop of Drontheim, chose rather to go into exile than be present at his coronation; he accordingly departed, and the said Swere, son of Siward, king of Norway, gave orders that all the bishops of Norway should meet together at Bergen, on the feast of the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, for the purpose of crowning him. Among these was the bishop of Wie, whose name was Nicholas. He declared that he was unwilling to be present at the coronation, because of the absence of the archbishop; on hearing which, Swere caused the bishop to be seized, and to be bound on the sea-shore on a small eminence, so that the waves of the sea, flowing on, nearly entered his mouth; upon which, the bishop being terrified, assented to the wishes of Swere Birkebain, and crowned and consecrated him king at Bergen, on the feast of the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul,


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