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against the fealty which he had sworn to him, had taken possession of his castles, laid waste his lands on both sides of the sea, and had made a treaty against him with his enemy, the king of France. In like manner, against Hugh de Nunant, bishop of Coventry, he demanded judgment to be pronounced, who, being aware 11 of their secret plans, had devoted himself, and had given his adherence to the king of France and earl John, his enemies, devising all kinds of mischief to the injury of his kingdom. Judgment was accordingly given, that earl John and the bishop of Coventry should be

peremptorily cited, and if they should not come within forty days to take their : trial, they pronounced that earl John had forfeited all rights in the kingdom, and that the bishop of Coventry would be subjected to the judgment of the bishops, because he himself was a bishop, and of the laity, because he had been a sheriff under the king.

On the calends of April, being the first day of that month, the said king of England held the third day of his council, on which he enacted that there should be granted to him, out of every carucate of land throughout the whole of England, the sum of two shillings, which, by the ancients, was called Temantale."

He then commanded that every man should render to him the third part of a knight's service, according as each fee would bear, in order to make preparations for crossing over with him to Normandy He then demanded of the monks of the Cistercian order all their wool for the current year; but as this was to inflict a grievous and insupportable burden upon them, they made a pecuniary composition with him.

On the second day of the month of April, being Saturday, he held the fourth and last day of his council, upon which all, both clergy as well as laity, who wished to make complaint to him of the archbishop of York, made their complaints, which were many in number, as to his extortions and unjust exactions; the archbishop of York, however, gave them no answer. After this, by the advice and artifices of the chancellor, as it is said, Gerard de Camville was arraigned for harbouring some robbers, who had plundered the goods of certain merchants

11 “ Conscium " appears to be a mistake for "conscius,"

12 Holinshed calls this “ Tee men toll,” or “ Theynae toll.” There is some doubt as to the origin of the name, whether it is derived from “ mentum," or, more probably, from the Saxon, meaning " a toll paid by ten men,” or “decenniers," the whole of which would amount to a pound.See vol. i. p. 550.


going to the fair of Stamford ; and it was said that they had set out from his residence for the purpose of committing the robbery, and after committing it, had returned to him. They also accused him of treason, because he had refused to come at the summons of the king's justices, or take his trial as to the aforesaid harbouring of the robbers, or produce them before the king's justices; but made answer that he was a vassal of earl John, and would take his trial in his court. They also arraigned him for having taken up arms, and aiding earl John, and others of the king's enemies, in taking the castles of Tickhill and Nottingham. Gerard de Camville, however, denied all these charges which were so made by them against him; on which they gave pledges to follow their suit, and Gerard de Camville gave pledge to defend himself by one of his freeholders.

On the same day, our lord the king appointed as the day of his coronation, at Winchester, the close of Easter. On the same day, the king also proceeded to Clipston, to meet the king of the Scots, and gave orders that all who had been taken at the castle of Nottingham, the castle of Tickhill, the castle of Marlborough, the castle of Lancaster, and at Mount Saint Michael, should come and meet him at Winchester the day after the close of Easter. On the third day of the month of August, namely, Palm Sunday, the king of England stayed at Clipston, and the king of the Scots at Worksop, on account of the solemnity of the day. On the fourth day of the month of April, the king of England and the king of Scotland came to Sewell. On the fifth day of the month of April, the king of England and the king of Scotland came to Malton, where the king of Scotland demanded of the king of England the dignities and honors which his predecessors had enjoyed in England. He also demanded that the earldoms of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland, and the earldom of Lancaster, should be given up to him, as of right enjoyed by his predecessors: to which the king made answer, that he would satisfy him according to the advice given by his earls and barons.

On the sixth day of the month of April, the said kings came to the house of Peter the Forester of Rutland. On the seventh day of the month of April, the said kings came to Gaindinton. On the eighth day of the month of April, the said kings stayed at Gaindinton, out of respect for the day of the Preparation 13 of our Lord. On the ninth day of the month of April, on the vigil of Easter, the said kings arrived at Northampton; and on the tenth and eleventh days of the month of April

13 “ Parasceue,"— Good Friday.

, the said kings stayed at Northampton, where the king of England, taking counsel with his bishops, earls, and barons, after due deliberation in the council, made answer to the king of Scotland that he ought on no account to do what he had requested as to Northumberland, and especially in those times, at which nearly all the powerful men of the kingdoms of the Franks were at enmity with him. For, if he were to do so, it would seem that this was rather the effect of fear than of affection.

However, in the presence of his mother Eleanor, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, Hugh, bishop of Durham, Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, and many others, both clergy and laity, of both kingdoms, the king granted, and by his charter confirmed, to William, king of the Scots, and his heirs for ever, that whensoever they should, at his summons, come to the court of the king of England, the bishop of Durham and the sheriff of Northumberland should receive them at the river Tweed, and should, with a safe conduct, escort them as far as the river Tees, and there the archbishop of York and the sheriff of York should receive them, and escort them, with a safe conduct, to the borders of the county of York, and so, by the respective bishops and sheriffs, they should be escorted from county to county, until they should have arrived at the court of the king of England ; and that, from the time that the king of Scots should enter the territory of the king of England, he should have daily from the king's purse one hundred shillings for his livery; and when the king of Scotland should have arrived at the court of the king of England, so long as he should be staying at the court of the said king of England, he should have daily thirty shillings for his livery, and twelve wastels 14 for the lords' table, twelve simnels for the lords' table, 16 and four gallons of wine for the lords' table, and eight

14 Wastels were a peculiar kind of delicate bread, probably something like the rusks of the present day. “Dominicus” is added to describe the quality, as probably meaning that these articles of provision were to be of the best kind, and suited for the lords' table.

15 Simnel cakes were probably so called from being made of " simila,” the finest wheat flour. There were the “siminelli sali," and the “ siminelli dominici,” the inferior, and the best bread, the latter being unfermented. They were made in the shape of plates, or cups, and were some. times marked with the figure of the Virgin Mary. They are made in Shropshire at the present day.

gallons of household wine, two pounds of pepper, four pounds of cinnamon, two stone of wax or else four waxen links, forty long and thick lengths of best candle, such as is used by the king, and eighty lengths of other candle for household purposes: and that, when he should wish to return to his own country, he should be escorted by the bishops and sheriffs from county to county, until he should have arrived at the river Tweed : and should in like manner have daily one hundred shillings from the purse of the king of England for his livery.

The charter of this grant and confirmation of the king of England was delivered to William, king of Scotland, in the town of Northampton, on the second day of Easter, by the hand of William, bishop of Ely, the king's chancellor.

In the year from the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ 1194, which was also the fifth year of the reign of king Richard, on the twelfth day of the month of April, being the third day in Easter week, Richard, king of England, departed from Northampton, and proceeded as far as Selveston; and Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, and Hugh, bishop of Durham, proceeded to Brackley, where was a lodging prepared for the bishop of Durham, which he had held for thirty years past at the award of the marshal of king Henry. When his entertainment had been prepared, the servants of the king of Scotland came up and attempted to expel the servants of the bishop, but were unable. However, they purchased provisions for the king, and prepared the same in a house belonging to the same estate. When the bishop of Durham came thither, and was told by his people what had taken place, he was determined not to move a step thence, but boldly entered his lodging, and ordered the tables to be set.' While he was at dinner, Hubert, the archbishop of Canterbury, came and offered him his lodging, and advised him to leave that one to the king of Scotland, and quit the house.

When the king of Scotland, at a late hour, returned from hunting, and was informed of what had happened, he was greatly offended, and refused to go there, but ordered all that had been prepared for him to be given to the poor, while he himself went to the king at Silveston, and made complaint to him of the insult he had received from the bishop of Durham ; on which, the king, being greatly vexed, censured the bishop of Durham.

On the thirteenth day of the month of April, the king came to Woodstock. On the fourteenth day the king came to Free

mantle. On the fifteenth day of the month of April, the king of England came to Winchester, and on the same day dispossessed Godfrey, bishop of Winchester, of the castle and county of Winchester, and of the two manors which the bishop had bought of him before his departure for Jerusalem, and of a great part of his inheritance. On the sixteenth day of the month of April, after dinner, the king of England left the castle of Winchester for the priory of Saint Swithin, and lay there that night, and took the bath; and he sent word to Geoffrey, the archbishop of York, not to come next day to his coronation with his cross, lest there might happen to be a dispute between him and the archbishop of Canterbury. Because he was forbidden to


his cross, he declined to be present at the king's coronation. The Coronation of Richard, king of England, after his liberation.

On the seventeenth day of the month of April, being the Lord's day, and the octave of Easter, there being assembled in the church of Saint Swithin, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, John, archbishop of Dublin, Hugh, bishop of Durham, Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, Richard, bishop of London, Gilbert, bishop of Rochester, William, bishop of Ely, Sefrid, bishop of Chichester, Henry, bishop of Exeter, William, bishop of Hereford, and the bishops of Worcester, Saint David 's and Bangor; and, many of the abbats, clergy, and people being there present, Richard, king of England, arrayed in royal robes and having a crown of gold on his head, proceeded from his chamber, carrying in his right hand the royal sceptre, on the top of which was a representation of the cross, and in his left hand a wand of gold, on the top of which was the figure of a dove. On his right hand walked William, bishop of Ely, his chancellor, and on his left Richard, bishop of London. A procession also preceded them in due order, of archbishops, bishops, abbats, monks, and clerks. The earls also, and barons, and knights, and a great multitude of the common people, followed the king. A canopy of silk, supported on_four lances, was carried over the king, by these four earls, Roger Bigot, earl of Norfolk, William, earl of the Isle of Wight, the earl of Salisbury, and the earl of Ferrers. Three swords also, taken from the king's treasury, were borne before the king, one of which was carried by William, king of the Scots, while Hameline, earl of Warenne, carried another, and Ranulph, earl of Chester, carried the third;



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