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would place keepers for the purpose of protecting her dowry. The time therefore drawing nigh at which the before-named duke was to withdraw from his country and kindred, he and his wife, with their sons and daughters, and his counts and barons, and the richest men of his territories, departed from their country and kindred, and came to Normandy, to Henry, king of England, the father of the before-named duchess, who joyfully received them. Shortly after, the before-named duke gave to his counts and barons, and the richer men of his territories, permission to return home, and the king of England, the father of the duchess, bestowed on them many presents and then dismissed them. The duke himself set out on a pilgrimage to Saint Jago, 23 and the duchess his wife being pregnant, remained with the king, her father, at Argenton in Normandy, where she was shortly after delivered of a son.

In the same year, the Welch slew Ranulph Poer, the king's sheriff of Gloucestershire. In this year also, Roland, the bishop-elect of Dol and subdeacon of the Roman Church, came into England on behalf of pope Lucius, for the purpose of making peace between the king of Scotland and John, bishop of Saint Andrew's; and proceeded to the court of the king of the Scots, together with Silvanus, the abbat of Rievaulx, his colleague, where, after having for a long time negotiated upon making peace between them, at their request the following terms were made between the king and the before-named bishop :-Hugh was to abjure the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, and bishop John was to release the said bishopric from all claims whatever on his part and, instead thereof, he was to have the bishopric of Dunkeld, and all the yearly revenues which he had had before his election, as also the chancellorship to the king, and forty marks of yearly revenue arising from the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, during his life. Hugh, however, when called upon by his lord the king of Scotland to abjure the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, made answer that he would rather receive judgment thereon at the Roman court, than in this way abjure a bishopric to which he had been consecrated : and immediately charged the letters which bishop John had obtained against him from the Roman Pontiff with being forged, and appealed to the Roman Pontiff: upon which the before-named Roland and the abbat Silvanus, being unable to proceed as they ought, wrote to the Supreme Pontiff to the following effect :

23 Of Compostella.



The Letter of Roland, bishop-elect of Dol, and Silvanus, abbat

of Rievaulx, to pope Lucius. "To the reverend father and lord, Lucius, by the grace of God, supreme and universal Pontiff, Roland, by the like grace, bishop-elect of Dol, servant of his Holiness, the foster-child of the Apostolic See, and the least of the sub-deacons, and Sil. vanus, appointed abbat of Rievaulx, the respect of duteous obedience. After we had presented to bishop Hugh the letters which that bishop charges with being forged, and those in which the case is stated at length, and proposed, on receiving leave of our lord the king of the Scots, to return home with all haste, our lord the king entreated me, the bishop-elect of Dol, with earnestness and anxiety, to pass by the way of the lord bishop John, and, as a mark of his favour, to make him an offer on his behalf of the bishopric of Dunkeld, with the yearly revenues which he had before received in the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, together with an increase of forty marks to be received yearly, as also the office of chancellor to the king; and he further added that he would restore to him and his every thing he had taken away, with the exception only of what he knew to have already come to his hands, and would restore them to the fulness of his favour, in the same manner as had been previously offered him. He also desired that the said bishop John would burn all documents that had been ob

the matter of Saint Andrew's from your predecessor Alexander, of pious memory. He also gave

his sanction that bishop Hugh should be transferred to the bishopric of Glasgow, if bishop John should refuse to consent on other terms, and if that could not be brought about, still he would agree to what he had offered. On making offer of all these things in presence of Hugh, the lord bishop of Durham, to our lord John, he courteously acceded thereto on these terms: namely, that he would never allow bishop Hugh to remain in the enjoyment of the bishopric of Saint Andrew's. He was also willing that the documents before-mentioned should be put aside in some place, so that he could never make use of them against the king's wishes. Upon this, we returned to the king's presence, while bishop John waited for us near Rokelburg; on which the king informed us that it would give him great pleasure if bishop Hugh could remain in the bishopric

24 Roxburgh.

tained upon


of Saint Andrew's, and requested me to use my best endeavours to prevail upon bishop John to admit of this; and when I made answer to him that I would never again make any request of him upon that point, because I had not been able to make any impression upon him on the subject, his answer was, 'I am fully persuaded that since the lord John has returned to reconciliation and favour with me, he will, on consideration of my favour, and at the urgency of my entreaties, admit of this, and I would gladly confer with him thereon ;' and the king requested me to advise him to come and have a conference with him. The king's clerks being accordingly sent to bishop John, he made answer that he would not come, because he had heard from certain advisers of our lord the king, that the king was always endeavouring, in every possible way, to gain his point that Hugh should remain in the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, and asserted that, if he should be inclined to come, they were not able to give him a safe conduct. When this answer was returned him, our lord the king sent a bishop, and some abbats, earls, and barons to the said bishop, requesting that he would come to him for the purpose of an interview, and ordered them to guarantee to the said bishop entire security. These, on their return, stated that the lord John, inasmuch as he had a presentiment that his lord the king wished bishop Hugh to remain in the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, made answer that he would never come to the king unless they should first make oath that their lord the king would observe everything that through me he had offered to him; this, however, they were unwilling to do, upon which, the lord John returned home. We, however, have appointed a stated time, on the calends of October, for the before-named bishops, John and Hugh, to come to you, and to submit to your judgment. Farewell.'

In the same year died Walter, bishop of Rochester, and was succeeded in the bishopric by Waleran, archdeacon of Bayeux. In this year, while Walter, a servant of Eustace, the lord abbat of Flaye, was one night asleep, he heard a voice from heaven, saying to him a first, second, and third time, “Go and say to Henry, king of England, 'In the name of Christ, annihilate and destroy,' and say to him that so he must do, and, if he does not do so, both his sons and himself shall die.” On this the before-named Walter made answer and said, " Who am I, that I should carry thy commands unto the king ?” To which he received for answer, “Go to Rotrod, the archbishop of Rouen,

and to his chaplain, and to Eustace, the abbat of Flaye, and they shall remove the thorns and briars from out of thy path, and, unless thou shalt make haste, thou shalt die.” After the third warning, therefore, the said Walter came to the before-named archbishop of Rouen, and to his chaplain, and to abbat Eustace ; and whereas, the archbishop and his chaplain, being worn out with sickness and old age, could not attend to the matter, they deputed the abbat of Flaye to act in their behalves; on which, he with his servant went to the king, and the servant related to the king his vision and the accompanying threats; but the king, not being able to understand any part thereof, and there being no one to interpret the vision to him, paid no attention whatever to it; and, shortly after, his son king Henry died, and then his son Geoffrey, earl of Brittany About the time at which this vision took place many of the Manichæan heretics 2 were burned in many places throughout the kingdom of France, a thing that the king would in nowise allow in his territories, although there were great numbers of them.

In the year of grace 1183, being the twenty-ninth year of the reign of king Henry, son of the empress Matilda, the said king of England was at Caen, in Normandy, on the day of the Nativity of our Lord; the [young] king also, and Richard and Geoffrey, his sons, and Henry, duke of Saxony, and his wife, together with their sons and daughters, and a large retinue, together with Richard, archbishop of Canterbury, and John Cumin, archbishop of Dublin, and many bishops, earls, and barons were there with him. After the Nativity of our Lord, the king ordered the king, his son, to receive homage from Richard, earl of Poitou, and from Geoffrey, earl of Brittany, his brothers; on which, in obedience to his father, he received the homage of his brother Geoffrey, and was willing to receive it from his brother Richard, but Richard refused to do homage to him; and afterwards, when Richard offered to do homage to him, the king, the son, refused to receive it. Richard, feeling greatly indignant at this, withdrew from the court of the king, his father, and going to Poitou, his own territory, built there some new castles and fortified the old ones.

At the request of such of the earls and barons of Poitou as 25 “ Publicani.” Under this name the Albigenses, who were said to be Manichæans, are alluded to.

adhered to him, and who inflicted many losses on earl Richard, the king, his brother, pursued him. Geoffrey, earl of Brittany, also came to Poitou, with a large force, to assist the king, his brother. On Richard perceiving that he could not make head against his brothers, he sent for assistance to the king, his father, who, raising a great army, came in all haste, and laid siege to the castle of Limoges, which had been a short time before surrendered to the king, his son.

The cause of the dissensions between the king and his sons.

In order, however, that the cause may be known of these shocking dissensions that took place between the father and his sons, it ought to be stated that, on the holy day of the Circumcision of our Lord, king Henry, son of our lord the king of England, of his own accord, and no one forcing him thereto, touching the Holy Gospels, and in presence of a large body of the clergy and laity, made oath that he would from that day forward all the days of his life maintain his fealty unblemished to Henry, king of England, as being his father and his liege lord, and would show him all due honor and obedience. And because, as he asserted, the king wished to retain no rancour and malice in his mind, by reason of which his father might possibly be afterwards offended, he declared to him that he had entered into a compact with the barons of Aquiaine against his brother Richard, being influenced by the fact hat his said brother had fortified the castle of Clairvaulx, which was part of his own inheritance after his father's death, contrary to his own wishes. Wherefore he earnestly entreated his father to take the said castle from Richard, and keep it in his own charge.

Richard, being admonished by our lord the king relative thereto, at first refused to do so, but afterwards freely delivered it to be disposed of at his father's pleasure. Accordingly, the three sons of our lord the king, namely, the [young] king, Richard, and Geoffrey, came to Anjou, with the king, their father, for the purpose of entering into a final treaty of peace between them; and each of the three made oath that they would observe their fealty at all times towards the king, their father, against all men, and would

pay him all honor and lasting obedience. They also made oath, in accordance with the directions of their father, that they would observe lasting peace between themselves. On a given day, therefore, for ratifying the peace made between

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