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of the places where the bodies of the Saints have rested; people shall adore profane idols, like pagans, and Jews, and Saracens. Nation shall arise against nation, and one kingdom against another, and there shall be great earthquakes in divers places, and pestilence and famine, and the stars shall fall down upon the earth; rivers shall be changed into blood, and all the waters which are below the heavens.

In his reign two prophets, namely, Enoch and Elias, shall wage war against him, who are now sorrowing in Paradise at the contemplation of death, and Antichrist shall slay them, and they shall lie dead in the streets of the city during three days and three nights, and on the fourth day they shall rise again to life everlasting. At the last, Almighty God, who wishes that all should be saved, shall send Michael, the Archangel, having a sharp two-edged sword in his hands, that is to say,

the sword of the Holy Spirit, and shall slay him, and shall cleave him into two parts from head to foot, that so the world may not be destroyed, but may be renewed for the better; three years

and six months shall it thus be in the bringing of the world to a state of perfection.s

In the same year, Richard, king of England, gave to his nephew Otho, son of his sister Matilda, formerly duchess of Saxony, the earldom of Evreux, and although many would have received him and have done to him homage and fealty, still many resisted him, declaring that they would not withdraw from their fealty to the king, before they had spoken to him face to face. In consequence of this, our lord the king gave to the said Otho the earldom of Poitou by way of exchange for the earldom of Evreux. The names of the nobles who died this year at the siege of Acre.

Queen Sibylla, the wife of Guido, king of Jerusalem, and her two daughters,'Heraclius, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, the archbishop of Nazareth, the archbishop of Besançon, the archbishop of Arles-le-blanc, the archbishop of Montreal, the bishop of Sidon, that is to say, of Saeta, the new bishop of Acre, the bishop of Baruth, the bishop of Saint George, the bishop of Saint Abraham, the bishop of

8 It is not improbable that this wearisome and nonsensical piece of jargon may have formed part of one or more sermons on the subject of Antichrist; and, in the enthusiasm of our chronicler, been deemed worthy of a place in his compilation.

Tiberias, the abbat of the Temple of our Lord, the abbat of Mount Sion, the abbat of Mount Olivet, the abbat of Forde, the prior of Saint Sepulchre, Ralph de Hautereve, archdeacon of Colchester, Roger le Abbè. Frederic, emperor of the Romans, died on the journey to the land of Jerusalem, being drowned in the river which is called Salef, and Conrad, his son, duke of Suabia, died at the siege of Acre ; Robert, earl of Leicester, also died in Romania, in going to the land of Jerusalem; the Landgrave of Germany died in Romania while returning home; John, constable of Chester, also died at Tyre, in the land of Jerusalem: Rotrod, count of Perche, also died at the siege of Acre, the count de Puntif, Theobald, earl of Blois, and Stephen, count de Sancerre, his brother; William, count de Ferrers, the duke Bertold of Germany, Roger, earl of Apulia, and Jocelyn, earl of Apulia, as also the count de Brenes and his brother Andrew, who was slain. Among the slain were also Ingelram de Fenes, Louis 'de Arseles, Hugh de Hoiry, Walter de Moy, Guido de Dancy, Odo de Gunesse. The butler of Santstlir was taken by the pagans, as also the marshal of count Henry, Reginald de Magny being slain.

In the same year, there died besides the above at the siege of Acre, the viscount of Touraine, the lord de Wancy, Gilbert de Tileres, Florence de Angest, Jocelyn de Montmorenci, the viscount of Chastel Heraud, Anselm of Montreal and all his household, the viscount of Chatillon and his mother, John, count of Vendôme, Æstellan de Ypres, Geoffrey de la Bruyere, Robert de Boives, Adam, chamberlain of the king of France, Adam de Leun, Boves de Juvenny, William de Pinkim, Roger de Polebare, and Robert, the constable, seneschal of earl William de Mandeville. Ranulph de Glanville, justiciary of England, also died at the siege of Acre, as also Bernard the younger, of Saint Valery, Richard Clare, Guido de Chatillon, Walter de Kime, son of Philip de Kime, John de Lamburne, and Walter de Ros, brother of Peter de Ros.

In the same year, Sancho, king of Portugal, gave his daughter Tarsia in marriage to Alphonso, king of Saint Jago, his nephew; he had by her three sons, and though pope Celestinus used all possible endeavours that they might be separated, he still adhered to her in spite of God and the prohibition of our lord the pope for a period of five years; accordingly, our lord the pope Celestinus placed the said king of Saint Jago under an interdict, and so he remained for five years. In the meantime,

however, Alphonso, king of Castille, arose against the said king of Saint Jago, and compelled him to relinquish his wife, the daughter of the king of Portugal, and by the persuasion of pope Celestinus, for the sake of peace, gave him his own daughter to wife.

In process of time, the daughter of Boyac El Emir Amimoli, emperor of Africa, having heard from common report of the prowess of Sancho, king of Navarre, brother of Berengaria, queen of England, fell in love with him to such a degree, that she greatly longed to have him as her husband. When she was unable any longer to conceal her designs, she told her father, the emperor, that she would hang herself unless Sancho, king of Navarre, would have her for his wife; on which her father made answer, “How can that be effected, seeing that you are a pagano and he a Christian?” To this his daughter made answer, “ Indeed I am quite ready to embrace the Christian faith, and to live conformably to their laws, if I only have the king of Navarre for my husband, a thing which, my dear father, can easily be brought about by you. For all stand in awe of you, and extend their arms to you; still, there is need of blandishment; away with all fury and intimidation; send entreaties and gifts to this man, that by such means you may gain him for me. 'Believe mé, 'tis a noble thing to give.'io Send also to his mother and sister, and the rest of his family, bounteous presents, in order that they may allow him to assent to your proposals. The prey that's sought by many hands is speedily obtained.' ” 1 On this, her father made answer :


you were guileless, I loved your body and your mind; now, is

your beauty blemished by the vices of your disposition.' What to do I know not, for I am in difficulties on every side. For if the king of Navarre shall fail to return your passion, then you will hang yourself. I will therefore attempt to prevail upon him by entreaties and various presents, that so I may gain him in some way or other as a husband for you. Still, I would much rather that you would take a husband of our own nation." The

9 “Follower of Mahomet,” he would be more likely to say.

10 “ Crede mihi res st ingeniosa dare." A singular thing, for a Mabo. medan lady to quote Ovid. 11 A quotation from Ovid

“ Fit cito per multas præda petita manus.” 13 From Ovid

“ Donec eras simplex, animum cum corpore amavi,

Nunc mentis vitio lipsa figura tua est.

► 12

answer of the damsel to this was, “May I be rather devoured by the yawning earth, I pray, or burned by the gleaming flames of the hurled thunderbolt, 13 than that I should take any man for my husband but the king of Navarre.'”

Accordingly, the emperor of Africa sent envoys to Sancho, king of Navarre, by whom he begged that he would come to him, for the purpose of marrying his daughter, and he would give him as much money as he should desire, besides the whole of the land that lies between the extremities of the territory of the king of Portugal and the mountain of Muncian, which divides the territories of the Pagans in Spain from those of the king of Arragon. But while the king of Navarre was on the way to him, Boyac El Emir Amimoli, emperor of Africa, died ; so that when the said king of Navarre arrived in Africa he found the emperor dead, and the son of the emperor as yet but a little child, and not fit to govern the kingdom; while there were many competitors with him for the empire.

On the king of Navarre coming to him, fully expecting that he should receive the damsel before-mentioned as his wife, the boy who was to reign said to him, that if he was ready to assist him and to serve him in his endeavours to obtain the empire, he would give him his sister in accordance with the promises of his father ; but if not, he would place him in confinement, from which he should never be released. Seeing himself thus placed in a dilemma, he chose to serve under him rather than be placed in confinement; in conformity with the maxim of Saint Augustin ; “When a person is shut up within walls that he may not escape, let him precipitate himself from the part where the wall is lowest.”' Accordingly, the Lord granting it, and Sancho, king of Navarre, using his best endeavours, the son of the Emir Amimoli within three years subdued all his adversaries, and became emperor. In the meantime, Alphonso, king of Castille, and the king of Arragon, invaded the territories of the said king of Navarre, one of them on one side, the other on the other; in consequence of which, Alphonso, king of Castille, took from him twenty-four towns, and the king of Arragon eighteen.

In the year of grace 1191, being the second year of the reign of king Richard, the said king Richard, and Philip, king of the Franks, were together at Messina, in Sicily, on the day of

13 “ Devorer ante precor subito telluris hiatu,

Aut rutilo missi fulminis igne cremer.”

the Nativity of our Lord, which fell on the third day of the week. On the same day, after dinner, the Pisano and Genevese seditiously made an attack upon the galleymen of Richard, king of England, and a slaughter took place on both sides. The noise of this accordingly reached the ears of the king of England, who was still sitting at table in his castle of Mate Griffon; and on this day there were feasting with him Reginald, bishop of Chartres, Hugh, duke of Burgundy, William count de Nevers, William count de Juvigny, Geoffrey count of Perche, and many others of the household of the king of France. The tables being instantly set aside, all these persons arose, and went out with the king fully armed, for the purpose of putting an end to the fight, which, however, they were unable to do; but, night coming on, the parties were separated from each other till the morning. On the following day, when the people had assembled in the church of Saint John of the Hospital, to hear Divine service there, a certain Pisan, drawing his knife, slew one of the galleymen of the king in the church; on which a conflict took place a second time between the Pisans and the galleymen, and multitudes were slain on both sides. Upon this, the king of France and the king of England came with a large body of armed men, and made peace between them.

After this, in the month of February, on the day of the Purification of Saint Mary ever a Virgin, being Saturday, after dinner, Richard, king of England, and many of his household, and some of the people of the household of the king of France, assembled after their usual manner, outside of the walls of the city of Messina, to view the games of the people ; and when they were returning home, as they passed through the middle of the city, they met a peasant coming from the country with an ass laden with reeds which they call “canes ;"' of which the king of England and the others who were with him each took one, and engaged with one another. happened that the king of England and William de Barres, one of the bravest knights of the household of the king of France, engaged with each other, and broke their reeds, while the head-piece of the king of the English was broken by a blow from William de Barres ; at which the king being enraged, made an attack upon him with such violence that it made him and his horse stumble; but, while the king was trying to throw him to the ground, the king's saddle slipped,

It so

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