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of the Temple, and the Marshal of the Temple, with eighteen of the brethren, who had behaved most valiantly, were slain; the Christians also lost many other soldiers, and among them forty knights and one hundred Turcopoles.31 Saladin, however, lost Mirsalim, his eldest son, and his nephew Tekehedin, Migemal, his seneschal, and a hundred of the choicest of his troops, besides many others, whose numbers were not ascertained.

On the fourth day of the week, Saladin again approached with his army; but when the Christians showed a readiness to engage with him, he hastily retreated, and, on the third day after, shifted his camp, and hastened to a place which has the name of Saftan, while his army occupied the whole space that lies between Casale l’Eveque and Docus; as, from the time that Saladin was born, he had never levied such a mighty army as this. For, throughout the whole of his territories, there was not a person fitted for war who was not included in this army. Nor do I believe that any person could ever have set eyes upon so large and so valiant a band of Christians as he might have seen on this occasion. In addition to this, after the battle was over, there arrived five hundred most valiant Christian knights and ten thousand men, brave warriors, well provided with all kinds of arms. In the same year, also, there came to those shores ships and busses, 32 more than five hundred in number, besides numerous galleys and cutters, which immediately returned to Apulia, that they might bring further supplies of men and provisions. The ships, however, of the Germans and of the Danes remained at

re, for the purpose of fuel : as the Christians there had no fuel with which to cook their food, except such as the ships had brought, and the ships themselves.

It deserves to be described how the city of Acre was besieged ;—Guido, king of Jerusalem, with the queen, his wife, and his two daughters, was lodged at Turon, looking towards the sea, and near the summit of the mountain, Heraclius, the Patriarch, and Geoffrey, the king's brother, being with him. The whole sea-line, which extends to Caiaphas, was 31 Sons of Christian mothers by Saracenic fathers.

Burciæ,” or “ bussæ," “ busses,” were a kind of large merchant ships, rounded fore and aft, and with capacious hulls. Spelman thinks that they took their name from the English word “buss," signifying "a box." It has been, however, suggested that they were so called from their resemblance to a wine-cask, which the Greeks of the middle ages called βέτζιον. .

32 "


occupied by the camp of the Pisans, so much so, that no one could escape from the city on that side. On the other side of [Mount] Turon, where Maconiatum is situate (called Lamaħumheria by the Saracens), the lord landgrave and the said Jacques de Avennes, and all the Germans and the Genevese, had pitched their tents. Beyond these, the Temple with its brotherhood took up its quarters at the spot where were the gardens and the Tanks of the Latins. The Hospital, with its brethren and people, pitched its camp on the spot where were the gardens and land of the said Hospital. In the other direction, the whole space, as far as the sea, was occupied by the marquis Conrad, and many of the people from beyond the Alps, quite as far as Mount Musard. Count Robert de Drues, 33 the bishop of Beauvais, and the count Erard de Breines, as also the Franks and Campanians, together with the king's people, took up their quarters towards Mount Turon, and near the town; the archbishop of Pisa, the archbishop of Nazareth, the archbishop of Besançon, the archbishop of Arlesle-blanc, and the archbishop of Montreal being with them.

The Christians next made a large trench from sea to sea, where the foss of the Temple was already in existence, lying between them and the army of the pagans. They also made another trench between themselves and Acre, so that they were in no fear of assault from the persons in Acre, and none of the

pagans could go forth from Acre without falling into their hands. The engines also and stone batteries of the Christians were masked behind them, so that no one could do them any injury from the opposite side; but the Christians there were exposed to the winds and rain, having neither houses nor cabins in which to shelter themselves; nor indeed, if they had sworn so to do, could they have retreated, but there they must live or die. In this way, as previously mentioned, was siege on all sides laid to Acre; so strictly that no person whatever could possibly escape therefrom, while day after day they made assaults against it.

On the other hand, on one side of the Christians was Acre, full of pagan warriors, and on the other was Saladin with his mighty army. And, with all truth do I assert it, never were the Christians irra similar position, or one full of such anxious

33 Such is the inaccuracy of the text, that it is doubtful whether this name is Drues or Arves; as the same person is first called by one name and then by the other.

3. Across the Peninsula.

expectation, as no provisions could be brought them but by sea. In the meanwhile, prayers were put up for them without ceasing by the Church to the Lord.

In the same year, in the month of October, Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, consecrated Godfrey, bishop of Winchester, William, bishop of Ely, Hubert, bishop of Salisbury, and Richard, bishop of London. In the same month Rees, the son of Griffin, 35 king of South Wales, came into England as far as Oxford, under the safe conduct of John, earl of Mortaigne, the king's brother; but because the king of England declined to come to meet him, he was greatly indignant, and returned to his country without an interview with the king.

In the same year, in the month of November, cardinal John of Anagni, who had been sent as legate a latere by our lord the pope to put an end to the disputes which existed between Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, and the monks of the Holy Trinity at Canterbury, landed at Dover, in England; on which he was forbidden to proceed any further without the king's command, and, accordingly, he remained there till our lord the king sent for him. In the meantime, our lord the king went to Canterbury, and made peace and a final reconciliation between Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, and the monks, on the following terms: Roger le Norreys, whom the before-named archbishop, against the wishes of the monks, had made prior of the church of Canterbury, was to be deprived of the office, and the church, 36 which the said bishop had built in the suburbs against the wish of the monks, was to be pulled down, while the monks were to pay canonical obedience and make profession thereof to the said archbishop, in the same manner in which they had been accustomed to do to his predecessors. Thus were matters arranged; and, at the prayer of the archbishop of Canterbury, our lord the king gave to the before-named prior, after his deposition, the abbacy of Evesham, and he was elevated to the rank of abbat thereof. The archbishop also placed a prior over the church of Canterbury with the king's assent, and with the sanction of the chapter. The monks of Canterbury, however, after the death of that archbishop, deposed him. In the meantime, the archbishop built a church at Lamhe, 37 opposite to Westminster, and the prebends which he had given to the

36 Rice ap Griffydd. 36 Akington or Hackington church, previously mentioned. See p. 69.

37 Lambeth.



church built by him in the suburbs of the city of Canterbury, he gave to this new church which he had built at Lambeth.

At this treaty of peace and final reconciliation there were present Richard, king of England, and queen Eleanor, his mother, Walter, archbishop of Rouen, John, archbishop of Dublin, Hugh, bishop of Durham, John, bishop of Norwich, Hubert, ** bishop of Salisbury, Godfrey, bishop of Winchester, Gilbert, bishop of Rochester, Reginald, bishop of Bath, Hugh, bishop of Coventry, Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, William, bishop of Worcester, the abbat of Saint Augustin's at Canterbury, Benedict, abbat of Burgh, Sampson, abbat of Saint Edmund's, the abbat of Battle, the abbat of Westminster, Guarine, abbat of Saint Alban's, and many other priors and abbats, all of whom set their seals to the writing in which was set forth the said agreement.

After this, the king sent for cardinal John of Anagni, who came to Canterbury, and was received with a solemn procession, but was greatly offended that in his absence a reconciliation bad been effected between the archbishop of Canterbury and his monks.

In the same year, in the month of November, Geoffrey, the archbishop elect of York, together with the barons of Yorkshire, and the sheriff of York, by command of our lord the king, went as far as the river Tweed, and there received William, king of the Scots, and paid him all due honor, and gave him a safe conduct to the king of England. Accordingly, William, king of the Scots, came to the king of England at Canterbury in the month of December, and did homage to him for his dignities in England, in the same manner that his brother Malcolm had held them. Richard, king of England, also restored to him the castle of Roxburgh and the castle of Berwick, freely and quietly to be held by him; and he acquitted and released him and all his heirs from all homage and allegiance, for the kingdom of Scotland, to him and the kings of England, for ever. For this gift of his castles and for quitting claim to all fealty and allegiance for the kingdom of Scotland, and for the charter of Richard, king of England, signifying the same, William, king of the Scots, gave to Richard, king of England, ten thousand marks sterling. The charter, executed by the king of England, was to the following effect :

38 This is the proper reading, and not John, as it stands in the text.

The Charter of the king of England as to the liberties granted by

him to William, king of Scotland. “Richard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to the archbishops, bishops, abbats, earls, barons, justices, and sheriffs, and all his servants and faithful people throughout the whole of England, greeting. Know ye that we have restored to our most dearly-beloved cousin William, by the same grace king of the Scots, his castles of Roxburgh and Berwick, to be held by him and his heirs for ever as his own of hereditary right. We have also acquitted and released him of and from all covenants and agreements which Henry, king of England, our father, of happy memory, extorted from him by new charters, and in consequence of his capture; upon condition, however, that he shall in all things do unto us as fully as Malcolm, king of the Scots, his brother, did as of right unto our predecessors, and of right was bound to do. We likewise will do for him whatever of right our predecessors did and were bound to do for the said Malcolm, both in his coming with a safe-conduct to our court, and in his returning from our court, and while he is staying at our court, and in making all due provision for him, and according to him all liberties, dignities, and honors due to him as of right, according as the same shall be ascertained by four of our nobles who shall be selected by the said king William, and four of his nobles who shall be selected by us. And if any one of our subjects shall, since the time when the said king William was taken prisoner by our father, have seized upon any of the borders or marches of the kingdom of Scotland, without the same being legally adjudicated to him; then we do will that the same shall be restored to him in full, and shall be placed in the same state in which they were before he was so taken prisoner. Moreover, as to his lands which he may hold in England, whether in demesne or whether in fee, that is to say in the county of Huntingdon, and in all other counties, he and his heirs shall hold the said counties as fully and freely for ever as the said Malcolm held or ought to have held the same, unless the said Malcolm or his heirs shall have since enfeoffed any one of the same; on the further condition also that if any one shall be hereafter enfeoffed of the same, the services of the said fees shall belong to him or his heirs. And if our said father shall have given anything to William, king of the Scots, we do will that the same shall be hereby ratified and con

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