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Worcester, John, bishop of Exeter, Reginald, bishop of Bath, John, bishop of Norwich, Sefrid, bishop of Chichester, Gilbert, bishop of Rochester, Peter, bishop of Saint David's, the bishop of Saint Asaph, the bishop of Bangor, Albinus, bishop of Ferns, and Concord, bishop of Aghade, while nearly all the abbats, priors, earls, and barons of England were present.
The Order of the Coronation of Richard, King of England.
First came the bishops, abbats, and large numbers of the clergy, wearing silken hoods, preceded by the cross, taper-bearers, censers, and holy water, as far as the door of the king's inner chamber; where they received the before-named duke, and escorted him to the church of Westminster, as far as the high altar, in solemn procession, with chaunts of praise, while all the way along which they went, from the door of the king'schamber to the altar, was covered with woollen cloth. The order of the procession was as follows: First came the clergy in their robes, carrying holy water, and the cross, tapers, and censers.
Next.came the priors, then the abbats, and then the bishops, in the midst of whom walked four barons, bearing four candlesticks of gold; after whom came Godfrey de Lucy, bearing the king's cap of maintenance), and John Marshal by him, carrying two great and massive spurs of gold. After these came William Marshal, earl of Striguil, bearing the royal sceptre of gold, on the top of which was a cross of gold, and by him William Fitz-Patrick, earl of Salisbury, bearing a rod of gold, having on its top a of gold. After them came David, earl of Huntingdon, brother of the king of Scotland, John, earl of Mortaigne, the duke's brother, and Robert, earl of Leicester, carrying three golden swords from the king's treasury, the scabbards of which were worked all over with gold; the earl of Mortaigne walking in the middle. Next came six earls and six barons, carrying on their shoulders a very large chequer, upon which were placed the royal arms and robes; and after them William de Mandeville, earl of Aumarle, carrying a great and massive crown of gold, decorated on every side with precious stones. Next came Richard, duke of Normandy, Hugh, bishop of Durham, walking at his right hand, and Reginald, bishop of Bath, at his left, and four barons holding over them a canopy of silk on four lofty -spears. Then followed a great number of earls, barons,
knights, and others, both clergy and laity, as far as the porch of the church, and dressed in their robes, entered with the duke, and proceeded as far as the choir.
When the duke had come to the altar, in presence of the archbishops, bishops, clergy, and people, kneeling before the altar, with the holy Evangelists placed before him, and many relics of the saints, according to custom, he swore that he would all the days of his life observe peace, honor, and reverence towards God, the Holy Church, and its ordinances. He also swore that he would exercise true justice and equity towards the people committed to his charge. He also swore that he would abrogate bad laws and unjust customs, if any
such had been introduced into his kingdom, and would enact good laws, and observe the same without fraud or evil intent. After this they took off all his clothes from the waist upwards, except his shirt and breeches; his shirt having been previously separated over the shoulders; after which they shod him with sandals embroidered with gold. Then Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, pouring holy oil upon his head, anointed him king in three places, on his head, breast, and arms, which signifies glory, valour, and knowledge, with suitable prayers for the occasion; after which the said archbishop placed a consecrated linen cloth on his head, and upon that the cap which Geoffrey de Lucy had carried. They then clothed him in the royal robes, first a tunic, and then a dalmatic; after which the said archbishop delivered to him the sword of rule, with which to crushevil-doers against the Church: this done, two earls placed the spurs upon his feet, which John Marshal had carried.
After this, being robed in a mantle, he was led to the altar, where the said archbishop forbade him, in the name of Almighty God, to presume to take upon him this dignity, unless he had the full intention inviolably to observe the oaths and vows beforementioned which he had made ; to which he made answer that, with God's assistance, he would without reservation observe them all. After this, he himself took the crown from the altar and gave it to the archbishop; on which, the archbishop delivered it to him, and placed it upon his head, it being supported by two earls in consequence of its extreme weight. After this, the archbishop delivered to him the sceptre to hold in his right hand, while he held the rod of royalty in his left; and, having been thus crowned, the king was led back to his seat by the before-named bishops of Durham and Bath, pre
ceded by the taper-bearers and the
three swords before-mentioned. After this, the mass of our Lord was commenced, and, when they came to the offertory, the before-named bishops led him to the altar, where he offered one mark of the purest gold, such being the proper offering for the king at each coronation; after which, the bishops before-named led him back to his seat. The mass having been concluded, and all things solemnly performed, the two bishops before-named, one on the right hand the other on the left, led him back from the church to his chamber, crowned, and carrying a sceptre in his right hand and the rod of royalty in his left, the procession going in the same order as before. Then the procession returned to the choir, and our lord the king put off his royal crown and robes of royalty, and put on a crown and robes that were lighter; and, thus crowned, went to dine; on which the archbishops and bishops took their seats with him at the table, each according to his rank and dignity. The earls and barons also served in the king's palace, according to their several dignities; while the citizens of London served in the cellars, and the citizens of Winchester in the kitchen.
While the king was seated at table, the chief men of the Jews came to offer presents to him, but as they had been forbidden the day before to come to the king's court on the day of the coronation, the common people, with scornful eye and insatiable heart, rushed upon the Jews and stripped them, and then scourging them, cast them forth out of the king's hall. Among these was Benedict, a Jew of York, who, after having been so maltreated and wounded by the Christians that his life was despaired of, was baptized by William, prior of the church of Saint Mary at York, in the church of the Innocents, and was named William, and thus escaped the peril of death and the hands of the persecutors.
The citizens of London, on hearing of this, attacked the Jews in the city and burned their houses; but by the kindness of their Christian friends, some few made their escape. On the day after the coronation, the king sent his servants, and caused those offenders to be arrested who had set fire to the city; not for the sake of the Jews, but on account of the houses and property of the Christians which they had burnt and plundered, and he ordered some of them to be hanged.
On the same day, the king ordered the before-named William, who from & Jew had become a Christian, to be presented to
him, on which he said to him, “What person are you?” to which he made answer, “I am Benedict of York, one of your Jews.” On this the king turned to the archbishop of Canterbury, and the others who had told him that the said Benedict had become a Christian, and said to them, “Did you not tell me that he is a Christian ?” to which they made answer, “Yes, my lord.” Whereupon he said to them, “What are we to do with him?” to which the archbishop of Canterbury, less circumspectly than he might, in the spirit of his anger, made answer, “If he does not choose to be a Christian, let him be a man of the Devil ;" whereas he ought to have made answer, “ We demand that he shall be brought to a Christian trial, as he has become a Christian, and now contradicts that fact." But, inasmuch as there was no person to offer any opposition thereto, the before-named William relapsed into the Jewish errors, and after a short time died at Northampton; on which he was refused both the usual sepulture of the Jews, as also that of the Christians, both because he had been a Christian, and because he had, “like a dog, returned to his vomit.” 22
On the second day after his coronation, Richard, king of England, received the oaths of homage and fealty from the bishops, abbats, earls, and barons of England. After this was done, the king put up for sale every thing he had, castles, vills, and estates. Accordingly, Hugh, bishop of Durham, bought of the king his good manor of Sedbergh,23 with the Wapentake and knight's fees thereof, for six hundred marks of silver, by way of a pure and perpetual alms; and the said purchase was confirmed by charter to the following effect: The Charter of king Richard, confirming the sale of the Manor of
Šedbergh to Hugh, bishop of Durham. Richard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to the archbishops, bishops, [earls), barons, sheriffs, and all his bailiffs and servants throughout all England, greeting. Know ye that we have given and granted, and by this present charter do confirm to God, and to Saint Cuthbert and the church of Durham, and to Hugh, bishop of Durham, our dearly beloved cousin, and to his successors, as a pure and perpetual alms for the soul of our father, as also of our predecessors and successors, and for the salvation of ourselves and of our heirs, and for the
22 Prov. xxvi. 11; 2 St. Pet. ii. 22. 23 Roger of Wendover says it was “ Segesfield ;" meaning probably Sedgefield, in Durham.
establishment and increase of our kingdom, our manor of Sedbergh, together with the Wapentake to the said manor belonging, and all other things thereto appurtenant, both men, and lands, sown and unsown, ways, paths, meadows, pastures, ponds, mills, waters, piscaries, as also the services of Peter Carou, and his beirs, for one knight's fee, held at Seton and Oviton; the services of Thomas de Amudeville, and his heirs, for one knight's fee, at Cotton and Treyford; and the services of Godfrey Baarde, and his heirs, for two halves of one knight's fee, at Middleton and Hartburn, which lands they held of us between the Tyne and the Tees, together with all other things to the aforesaid fees pertaining, in exchange for the services of three knight's fees, which Philip de Kimber has held of the said bishop in Lincolnshire, and two knights' fees which Gerard de Camville has also there held of the said bishop, and one knight's fee which Baldwin Wake and Roger Fitz-Oseville also held there of the same bishop. Therefore we do will and command that the before-named Hugh, bishop of Durham, and his successors, shall have, hold, and enjoy, freely, quietly, and with all due honor, the said two knights' fees and the said two halves of one knight's fee, together with the before-mentioned manor of Sedbergh and the Wapentake as hereinbefore named, with all things thereto pertaining in wood and plain, with soc, and sac, and tol, and them, and infangtheof, and with all other liberties and free customs, and with the pleas belonging to the crown, in such manner as we hold the same in our own hands, and in such manner as the said bishop has and holds the other lands and knights' fees in his bishopric, and so that the said bishop, as also his successors, may dispose of the men and lands to the same manor pertaining according to his own pleasure and free will, in such manner as he does with respect to his other men and lands in the said bishopric. Witnesses hereto: Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, Walter, archbishop of Rouen, John, archbishop of Dublin, Reginald, bishop of Bath, Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, John, bishop of Norwich, Hugh, bishop of Coventry, Sefrid, bishop of Chichester, Gilbert, bishop of Rochester, John, bishop of Exeter, the lord John, brother of our lord the king, William de Mandeville, earl of Essex, Robert, earl of Leicester, Hamelin, earl of Warenne, Waleran, earl of Warwick, William, earl of Arundel, Richard, earl of Clare, William, earl of Salisbury, Roger Bigot, William Marshal, lord of Striguil. Given in the first year of our reign, on the eighteenth day of September,