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became subject to our sway? Too well is this known to the kings in whose blood the Roman sword has been so often drenched; you too, God willing, shall learn by experience what our conquering eagles, what the troops of the various nations can effect. You shall now become acquainted with the rage of Germany, who even in peace brandishes her arms—the untamed head of the Rhine93—the youths who know not how to flee—the tall Bavarian—the cunning Swede—wary France—cautious England —Albania94—Cambria—Saxony, that sports with the sword— Thuringia—Westphalia—active Brabant—Lorraine, unused to peace—restless Burgundy—the nimble inhabitants of the Alps —Frisonia, darting on with javelin and thong—Bohemia,95 delighted at braving death—Polonia, fiercer than her own wild beasts—Austria—Styria96—Rutonia—the parts of Illyria— Lombardy—Tuscany—the March of Ancona97—the pirate of Venice—the sailor of Pisa; and lastly also, you shall learn how effectually our own right hand, which you suppose to be enfeebled by old age, has learned to brandish the sword on that day full of reverence and gladness which has been appointed for the triumph of the cause of Christ."
In the same year, on the feast of Saint Thomas the Apostle, before the Nativity of our Lord, William, bishop of Winchester, departed this life. In the same year also, Frederic, emperor of the Romans, having given his kingdom of Germany to his son Henry, leaving his city, which is called Rainesburg, being unwilling to trust himself to the winds and waves, determined to proceed by land; and when he arrived at Constantinople, the emperor Isaac received him very courteously, and supplied him and his people with all necessaries.
After this, with a strong hand and outstretched arm, he passed through the territory of the sultan of Iconium, and when he had come into Armenia,'the territory of Rupin de Lamontaigne, at a river which bears the name of Salef, when half of his army had forded the stream, he, while accompanyingthe rest,
93 "Regni," " of the kingdom," in the text, is clearly erroneous.
94 Probably Scotland. 95 In this and the next instance we have adopted the words of Roger of Wendover, instead of those in our author, which are " Reemia," and " Boemia." It seems impossible to say what country is meant by " Reemia;" but it is most probably a misprint.
86 Incorrectly in the text, " Frisia."
97 This absolutely stands in the text as "Amonitana Narcia," instead of "Anconitana Marcia!!"
fell from his horse into the river, and was the only person drowned. Accordingly, they drew him on shore, and there disembowelled him; after which, his entrails, brains, and flesh, which had been boiled in water, and thus separated from the bones, were buried in the city of Antioch. His bones being wrapped in clean linen, Conrad, duke of Suabia, his son, carried them with him to the city of Tyre,98 where he buried them.
In the same year, it was enacted by our lord the pope and the cardinals that prayers should be put up to the Lord by the Church Universal, without intermission, for the peace and deliverance of the land of Jerusalem and of the Christian captives who were confined in chains by the Saracens. Mass was performed each day in the church of Saint Paul in the following form: when the priest had said " Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum" [the peace of the Lord be with you always], and the choir had made answer "Et cum spirituo tuo" [arid with thy spirit], before the "Agnus Dei" [the Lamb of God] was begun, the priest or prascentor commenced with this antiphone, "Tua est potentia, tuum regnum. Domine,tu es super omnes gentes. Dapacem,Domine,indiebusnostris" [Thine it the power, thine is the kingdom. O Lord ! thou art above all nations. Grant peace, O Lord, in our days.] On the Lord's day, this was accompanied with the following Psalm, beginning "Quare fremueunt gentes" [ Why do the heathen rage?] on Monday, with this Psalm, "Deus, in nomine tuo, salvum me fac" [Save me, O God, by thy name];1 on Tuesday, with this Psalm, "Deus repulisti nos et destruxisti?" [ O God, Why hast thou cast us out ?]2 on Wednesday, with this Psalm,'' Ut quid Deus, repulisti in finem ?'1 [0 God, why hast thou cast us off for ever ?]3 on Thursday, with this Psalm, "Deus, venerunt gentes in hsereditatem tuam" [O God, the heathen are come into thine inheritance] -* on Friday, with this Psalm, "Deus quis similis erit tibi" [God, who shall be like unto Thee ?]' and on Saturday, with this Psalm, "Deus, ultionum Dominus" [O Lord God, to whom vengeance belongeth].' After having repeated these Psalmsand the antiphone beforementioned, the "Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison"'was to follow, and then the "Paternoster" and the prayer " Et ne nos;"8 [after which the following sentences were
98 Menzel, Hist. Germ, says Antioch.
89 Psalm ii. 1 Psalm liv. 2 Psalm lx 3 Psalm lxxiv.
4 Psalm lxxix. s Psalm lxxxii. This Psalm begins differently in our version. 6 Psalm civ. '"Lord have mercy upon us. Christ have mercy upon us. Lord have mercy upon us." 8 " And lead us not."
to be repeated] "O Lord, shew unto us thy mercy. Let thy mercy, O Lord, be shewn upon us. O Lord, deal not with us after our sins. Remember not our former iniquities. Assist us, O Lord of our salvation. Save thy people, O Lord. Be thou to them, O Lord, a tower of strength. Let not their enemies prevail against them. Let there be peace through thy might, O Lord. O Lord God of might, correct us. O Lord, hear our prayer. The Lord be with you." "Let us pray." "Almighty and everlasting God, in whose hands are the power and rule of all kingdoms, in thy mercy look upon the Christian armies, that the heathen who put trust in their own valour may be vanquished by the might of thy right hand."
In the same year, Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, by means of the influence of the king, seized into his own hands the priory of the Holy Trinity at Canterbury; and having expelled the monks who held offices therein from their said offices, placed his own servants in their room, and refused sustenance to the monks. In this year also, Honorius, prior of the church of Canterbury, having gone to Rome to procure the restitution of his house, departed this life atRome, together with all the monks whomhe had taken with him. In the same year, Hugh, bishop of Durham, having assumed the cross, gave the priory in charge to the prior and convent of Durham, for which they were bound to pay two hundred marks or more, and which he for the profits thereof had retained in his hands for a period of two years.
In the same year, our lord the pope, hearing of the death of Henry, the cardinal-bishop of Albano, whom he had sent for the purpose of settling the dispute between the king of France and the king of England, sent cardinal John of Anagni for the same purpose. In the same year, William, king of the Scots, sent envoys to Clement, the Supreme Pontiff, and obtained from him letters of protection to the following effect :—
The Letter of pope Clement to William, king of the Scots, as to the exemption of the churches of his kingdom.
"Clement, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his dearly-beloved son in Christ, William, the illustrious king of the Scots, health and the Apostolic benediction. Whereas all persons subject to the yoke of Christ ought to find favour and protection at the Apostolic See, it is most especially proper that those should be supported with our defence and protection whose fidelity and dutifulness have been experienced on the most occasions, to the end that a stronger inducement maybe held out to obtain the favours consequent upon such a choice, and duteous affection and reverence to the same may be more generally extended, from the fact of its being known that they will certainly obtain the pledges of its benevolence and favour. Wherefore, most dearly-beloved son in Christ, considering the reverence and dutifulness which for a long period we know you to have felt towards the Church of Rome, by the pages of this present writing we have thought proper to enact that the Church of Scotland, as an especial daughter thereof, shall be subject to the Apostolic See, with no intermediate party thereto; • in which Church the following are recognized as episcopal sees; namely, the churches of Saint Andrew's, Glasgow, I)unkeld, Dumblane, Brechin, Aberdeen, Moray, Ross, and Caithness. And it is to be lawful for no one but the Roman Pontiff or his legate a latere to pronounce against the kingdom of Scotland any sentence of interdict or excommunication; and if such shall be pronounced, we do hereby decree that the same shall not be valid; we do also declare that it shall not be lawful for any person in future who is not a subject of the king of Scotland, or one whom the Apostolic See shall have especially appointed from its body for that purpose, to hold courts in the said kingdom for the settlement of disputes therein. We do moreover forbid that any disputes which may exist in the said kingdom as to its possessions, shall be brought for judgment before judges out of that kingdom, except in cases of appeal to the Roman Church. And further, if any written enactments shall appear to have been obtained in contravention of the liberties hereby granted by enactment, or if in future, no mention being therein made of this concession, any such shall happen to be granted, nothing to the prejudice of yourself or of your kingdom is thereby to arise with reference to the concession of the above-mentioned prerogative; but we do enact that the liberties and immunities that have in their indulgence been granted to you or to the said kingdom or to the churches therein existing by our predecessors the Roman Pontiffs, and hitherto observed, shall be hereby ratified, and shall at all future times remain untouched. Let no man therefore deem it lawful to infringe upon the tenor of this our constitution and prohibition, or in any way to contravene the same. And if any person shall presume to attempt so to * Without any archbishop holding intermediate authority.
do, let him know that he will thereby incur the indignation of Almighty God and of the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul. Given at the Lateran, on the third day before the ides of March, in the first year of our pontificate."
In the year of grace 1189, being the thirty-fifth and last year of the reign of king Henry, son of the empress Matilda, the said Henry was at Saumur, in Anjou, on the day of the Nativity of our Lord, which fell on the Lord's day, and there he kept that festival; although many of his earls and barons, deserting him, had gone over to the king of France and earl Richard against him. After the feast of Saint Hilary, the truce being broken, which existed between the before-named kings, the king of France, and earl Richard and the Bretons, (with whom the said king of France and earl Richard had entered into covenants, and had given sureties that if they should make peace with the king of England, they would not omit to include them in that peace,) made a hostile incursion into the territories of the king of England, and ravaged them in every direction.
On this, the cardinal John of Anagni came to the beforenamed kings in behalf of our lord the pope, and sometimes with kind words, sometimes with threats, exhorted them to make peace. Moved by his urgent entreaties, the said kings, by the inspiration of the Divine grace, gave security that the}r would abide by the decision of himself, and of the archbishops of Rheims, Bourges, Rouen, and Canterbury, and named as the day for a conference to be held near La Fert6 Bernard, the octave of Pentecost; on which the before-named cardinal, and the four archbishops above-mentioned, pronounced sentence of excommunication against all, both clergy and laity, who should stand in the way of peace being made between the said kings, the persons of the kings alone excepted.
On the day of the conference, the king of France, and the king of England, earl Richard, the cardinal John of Anagni, and the four archbishops before-mentioned, who had been chosen for the purpose, and the earls and barons of the two kingdoms, met for a conference near La Ferte Bernard. At this conference, the king of France demanded of the king of England, his sister Alice to be given in marriage to Richard, earl of Poitou, and that fealty for his dominions should be sworn to the said Richard, and that his brother John, assuming the cross, should set out for Jerusalem. To this the king of England made answer that he would never consent to such a