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Map of Cooksland to front Title-Page. ✓ Sketch of the Coast near Cape Byron, to front ✓ Entrance into Shoal Bay, Shoal Bay, ✓ Mouth of the Clarence River, View to the Northward at the opening of the Estuaries, Susan Island,

Portrait of Dr. Leichhardt,

12 37 38 44 46 48 312

BY THE SAME AUTHOR, Just Published, in one vol. 16mo, bound in Cloth, with Maps

and Illustrations, Price 78. 6d.,






both as a Penal Settlement, and as a British Colony. Third Edition : bringing down the History of the Colony to the close of the Administration of Sir George Gipps, in August 1846. Two vols. 16ino.




WHEN the project of forming a British Colony on some part of the Southern Coast of Australia-chiefly with a view to the carrying out of a new theory of colonization—was in agitation in London in the year 1834, I took the liberty, on meeting with certain of the projectors of that Colony, to recommend that they should by all means give it a distinctive and appropriate designation, and suggested that, in honour of the reigning Sovereign, His late Majesty King William IV., (in whose reign the new theory had been projected,) it should be called WILLIAMSLAND. Unfortunately, however, my suggestion was not received ; and the godfathers and godmothers of the first-born of the Wakefield theory, named the child South Aus

It was as absurd a name for a colony in any such locality, as if the British Colony of Demerara had been called South America, or the island of Ireland, West Europe. It was neither distinctive nor appropriate, as every proper name ought to be; not distinctive, because it applies equally to any part of the extensive coast line from Cape Howe, the south-eastern, to Cape Leeuwin, the south-western extremity of the



Australian land, a distance of not less than two thousand miles; not appropriate, because a large portion of the neighbouring province of Port Phillip to the eastward is considerably farther south than any part of what is now called by authority South Australia. How such a name could have received the sanction of any number of mere metropolitan speculators in new Colonies and Colonial stock is easily conceivable ; for the more irrational any scheme of the kind appears to be in the eye of common sense, the more favour it seems to meet with in certain quarters in the British Metropolis ; but how it could also have passed muster with the Secretary of State, and the two Houses of Parliament, so as to be adopted in an Act of the Imperial Legislature, I cannot imagine. To give such a mere apology for a name to a British Colony, and it may be to another Infant Empire, under so high a sanction too, argues a poverty of conception and a want of discernment discreditable alike to the intellect and the taste of the nation, and must tend to give enlightened foreigners a very mean idea of both.

A single slip of this kind might indeed have been passed over and forgiven ; but the name Australia,” absurd as it is, seems to have been already exalted into a sort of national precedent in the estimation of the Colonial office; for one of the last Acts of the Colonial Autocracy of my Lord Stanley, was to take the requisite measures for the establishment of a new Penal Colony on the north-eastern coast of New Holland, of which Sir Charles Fitzroy, the present Governor of New South Wales, has actually been

66 South


gazetted as Governor, under the style and title of Governor of North Australia! North Australia, forsooth! Why, I have no doubt that in a very few years hence, there will be three or four British Colonies along the northern coast of New Holland, all equally entitled to the same general designation.

Now as the portion of the Great South Land, to a description of the characteristics and capabilities of which the following pages are devoted, is on the east coast of Australia, and must necessarily, at no distant period, become a separate and independent Colony, and will in all likelihood prove one of the most important colonies that Great Britain has ever planted, I am strongly apprehensive that it may share a somewhat similar fate, and be condemned, as another instance of Downing Street and Parliamentary incapacity in the science of nomenclature, to put up with some such apology for a name as East Australia, especially as it is in reality the easternmost portion of the Australian Continent! In such circumstances, I appeal to you, my Fellow-countrymen, and entreat you to rescue the nomenclature of our Colonial Empire out of such incompetent hands, by assuming the task of giving names to new Colonies, at least in this particular instance, yourselves; and by demonstrating that it is not the fact, as it has been thus virtually alleged in these high and influential quarters, that Great Britain has too many Colonial children already to be able to find proper names for any more. With this view, I would beg most respectfully to suggest that that portion of the

alian territory to which this volume is dedicated,

should be named after its great discoverer, Captain Cook—to whose memory, it will doubtless be universally allowed, there has hitherto been no monument erected by his country at all worthy of his high deserts, of his imperishable fame. With your permission, therefore, I shall not hesitate to perform this tardy act of national justice to our illustrious circumnavigator, by designating what is now the northern division of the great Colony of New South Wales, COOKSLAND. I have the honour to be, Fellow-Countrymen, Your most obedient Servant,


P.S.-As the preceding Epistle Appellatory was written in the Great Southern Pacific Ocean, early in the month of July last, when the Colonial Department was under the management of Mr. Ex-Secretary Gladstone, the immediate successor of Lord Stanley, my first impression-on learning on my arrival at Pernambuco in the Brazils, that Earl Grey had succeeded Mr. Gladstone, on the late change of Ministry-was, that I ought to alter it, as it might otherwise give offence to his Lordship; from whom the Colonies generally-in common with myself-expect far greater and more important changes, than would be implied in the mere adoption of a more rational system of nomenclature. On second thoughts, however, I resolved to let it remain as it is, as the censure it may be supposed to imply was evidently meant for others, and cannot affect His Lordship, while it may supply a useful hint for the future, even yet.-J. D.L,

EDINBURGH, April 1847,

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