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in all the numerous Colonies of that superior maritime power. For the emigration from Scotland to all these Colonies has since been beyond all comparison greater, in proportion to their respective population, than that from either of the other two kingdoms. But what I ask, has ever been done by the leading men of Scotland, in the way of superintendence, direction and protection, to smooth the way of these numerous emigrants in the lands of their respective emigration, to secure to them the enjoyment of their chartered rights as Britons, so often invaded by the “Thirty Tyrants” of the Colonies, or to assist them in obtaining for themselves and their posterity similar institutions, whether civil or religious, to those under which their fatherland has grown so great ? For my own part I have never so much as heard of any thing of the kind having ever been thought of in Scotland for the last hundred and forty years. M. de Tocqueville informs us, in his admirable work on American Democracy, that instances are frequent of persons of independent fortune in New England, the great Colony of the Puritans, emigrating to the Infant States of the Far West, which are quite the same to them as our Colonies are to us, from no other motive whatever than the truly praiseworthy, patriotic and christian desire to secure to society, in these infant empires, the same institutions under which the parent State bad grown and flourished. But of the thousands and tens of thousands of Scotsmen who have emigrated to all the British Colonies since the Union of the two kingdoms in 1706, I confess I have never heard of a single instance of this peculiar species of emigration. If there is money to be made in a British Colony, however remote, however unhealthy, Scotsmen are sure to find their way to it in sufficient numbers; but as to anything like an enlightened and vigorous effort, at all worthy of the intellect and the enterprise of Scotland, for the welfare of her children in the Colonies,--as to any Scotsman of independent fortune emigrating to these infant empires, to secure to them the institutions of his glorious fatherland-the thing is unheard of, and has never occurred. In short, it cannot be denied that the Scottish nation, as an integral part of the great community of the United Kingdom, has come infinitely short of its proper duty in the important matter of emigration and colonization for the last century and a-half; for in all her relations to that highest political vocation of any people, Scotland has unquestionably worshipped the god Mammon with an exclusiveness of idolatry that has left no room whatever for any nobler object.

In consideration, therefore, of the little they have hitherto done for the Colonies, as well as in consideration of the various other important objects recommended in this volume, I trust my fellow-countrymen will be prepared to receive this appeal for their assistance and co-operation, in the way of a great effort for the promotion of extensive colonization, with the same earnest desire to promote the real honour and glory of our nation, and the best interests of our people both at home and abroad, in which it originates. After the lapse of a century and a-half since the failure of the unfortunate Scottish Colony at the Isthmus of Darien, it is surely not too soon for enlightened and patriotic Scotsmen to make another effort of a similar kind, but under better auspices, in Australia. The climate of the Isthmus of Darien is one of the most fatal to human life on the face of the globe; that of Cooksland is one of the most salubrious : for with a range of productions more extensive, perhaps, than is to be met with in any other locality known, it is not too enervating, like that of the intertropical regions of America, for European labour. The Scotch colonists at the Isthmus of Darien had a powerful and hostile nation to oppose their landing, and to root out their settlement by force of arms; but the territory of Cooksland is the undisputed property of Britain, in which no hostile banners can be uplifted, and no enemy can be feared. And if the extension of the Christian religion, by means of a Scotch Colony among the Indians of America, was deemed worthy of the enterprise of Scotland at the close of the seventeenth century, surely the interesting but unfortunate Papuan race of Australia must have some claims, in the middle of the nineteenth century, on the sympathies of the patriotic and christian merchants and manufacturers of that great city, whose ancient motto was “Let Glasgow flourish through the preaching of the Word.”

Besides, so shortly after the long period of exhaustion produced by the tyranny of the Stuarts, Scotland could have had but comparatively few of her people to spare, to transform into a useful body of Colonists in Central America ; but she has now a numerous and industrious but redundant population, whose removal to a land where they would speedily become producers of the raw material for her manufactures and consumers of her manufactured produce, would be equally a benefit and blessing of incalculable value to themselves, and to the land of their birth. Further, Scotland could have had no national experience in the work of colonization at the period I refer to, and the failure of her solitary effort of this kind was as much owing to the grossest mismanagement and breach of trust on the part of the principal agents employed in the undertaking, as to the other causes I have enumerated ; but it would be scarcely possible to fail from a similar cause in the effort I have recommended—the facilities are so great on the one hand, and the mode of procedure so obvious on the other. At all events, while the unfortunate Colony at the Isthmus of Darien involved a prodigious expenditure of capital, for the period at which it was undertaken, and proved disastrous and ruinous to all concerned, the effort I would now recommend requires only the temporary use of moderate funds, for which the amplest security could be given, and for which I am quite confident a sufficient interest could easily be paid.

And surely the probable bearings of a Colony in Cooksland on the great question of Negro Slavery are well worthy of the most vigorous outgoings of Scottish enterprise, and Scottish philanthropy. Only prove that


the redundant population of Europe can be transformed into the growers of cotton and other tropical produce in the territory of Cooksland, so as to afford them an adequate remuneration for their labour, and the “ pation” of the slavedealer and the slavedriver will be “ gone" for ever.

To conclude, the rapid progress and the threatening aspect of Popery and Puseyism—the Beast and the Image of the Beast–in the Australian Colonies, render it indispensably necessary, for the interests of our common Protestantism in the Southern Hemisphere, that a great effort in the way of extensive colonization should be made in these Colonies and that effort must be made NOW OR NEVER.





7th September 1846. His Excellency the Governor has been pleased to direct, that the following Despatches from Sir T. L. Mitchell, reporting the progress made by the expedition, under his command, in exploring the overland route to Port Essington, be published for general information.

By his Excellency's command,


No. 1.
Camp at the head of the River Salvator, in long. 147.25.40 E.;

lat. 24:50.17 S.

9th September 1846. SIR, - Before setting out on the last branch of my exploratory operations, I feel it to be my duty to report to your Excellency the progress made in that duty to this time, by the Expedition sent into the interior under my command.

The heat was excessive, and water so very scarce, in the channel of the river Bogan, that I was obliged to abandon that route; and it was only with great difficulty, and after considerable delay, that the party could be conducted to the river Darling. Throughout the month of January, Fahrenheit’s Thermometer stood frequently at 117°; in the shade was seldom below 100°; and I found, on a ride down the Bogan, that there was no water in its channel for forty miles below Nyingen. The intense heat killed all our kangaroo dogs, and most of the party were attacked with ophthalmia; our draught oxen were also so much distressed (the loads having been also made heavier at Buree than I had intended), that some of them fell dead on the journey, and I was obliged to halt for two weeks at the ponds of Cannonbà, between the river Macquarie and the Bogan. During that interval some refreshing rain fell, after which I examined Duck Creek, but found no water in it; and Mr. Kennedy subsequently ascertained

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