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favourable field for immigration ? I think it would afford a large field for immigration from the mother country.
5. Do you think it is capable of supporting a large population ? I do ; I think it much more capable of supporting a large population than the land on the Hunter, which is the only part of the Colony that I am intimately acquainted with, on account of the periodical rains ; the climate is more regular there than here.
6. What is the present rate of wages in the district—is it advancing upon former rates? When I was in Moreton Bay, in February last, I made a calculation with Mr. Mackenzie, Mr. Balfour, and my brother, and took the average wages paid by each, from which it appeared that my brother paid twenty pounds a-year, some odd shillings, to each of his men ; Mr. Balfour twenty-one pounds odd, and Mr. Mackenzie twenty-five pounds odd.
7. Was that a considerable advance upon the previous rate of wages ? No, for the district has always been in want of labour, and wages have risen since that ; the reason that my brother paid the lowest wages was, that I had engaged a portion of his men in Sydney.
8. Do you anticipate any advance in the rate of wages ? Yes, decidedly; Mr. Balfour states in a letter to me that there is scarcely a station in the district which is not from three to four men short-handed.
9. Do you think the increase in the rate of wages is likely to be considerable ? So much so that we are now giving free passages to labourers from Sydney to Moreton Bay (one hundred and twenty having been already sent), to be repaid by the settlers, by a voluntary impost upon the stock, to meet the present demand for labour,
10. By Captain Dumaresq-Is wheat grown at Moreton Bay ? In some parts ; the only navigable part of the River Brisbane upon which, to my knowledge, it has been tried, is at Limestone Government sheep station, and I have never heard of a failure of crops.
11. By the Chairman- What do you think of the country as an eligible field for small farmers ? I think it is more likely to yield a certain return to the agriculturist than any other part of the Colony ; but it is to be remembered that I am only acquainted intimately with the Hunter's River district as far as Patrick's Plains.
12. Do you think a small farmer coming from England, with say two hundred or three hundred pounds, and settling upon a farm of one hundred and fifty or two hundred acres, which he might cultivate with the assistance of his children, would have a good prospect of success in that part of the Colony? All would depend upon the price of land, the distance from market, and the convenience of water carriage.
13. Assuming that he settled on the alluvial flats of the Brisbane ? I have no doubt he would make it pay.
14. Do you think he ought to give one pound an acre for the land? That of course would depend upon whether the land was thickly timbered or not ; also upon the distance from water carriage ; if he had to be at the expense of clearing a dense scrub, or incurring a heavy land-carriage, he could not afford to pay that price.
19. By Dr. Lang-Do you think Moreton Bay would be a favourable field for the production of those articles that are raised in warmer climates, as the vine, the olive, and other productions of the South of Europe ? Very favourable ; the vine, pine apples, and bananas thrive in that district.
THURSDAY, 4th SEPTEMBER 1845.
Rev. Dr. Lang
Robert Lowe, Esq. Rev. William Schmidt, called in and examined :1. You are a native of Prussia, I believe? I am, of Pomerania, in Prussia.
2. And are you now engaged in the mission at Moreton Bay ?
3. You have been in this Colony some years, I believe ? I have, nearly eight years.
4. What do you think of the Colony generally, as a field for immigration ? I think it a most eligible field.
5. Your experience is chiefly restricted to Moreton Bay ? Yes ; but I have been over other parts of the Colony.
6. Do you think immigrants might be introduced from Germany, with advantage to themselves and to the Colony ? It would not be at all difficult to induce them to come to this part of the world.
7. What class of immigrants might we obtain from that part of Europe ? Particularly agriculturists and artizans.
8. From what parts of Germany ? Both from the southern and northern parts.
9. Of course, you are aware, that there are large immigrations from Germany to the United States ? I am aware there are.
10. Those Germans who emigrate to the United States of America supply the funds for their passage ? They do ; the emigration to America has arisen partly from religious persecution, and that was also the case, with respect to those who emigrated to South Australia. The emigrants to the United States, and to South Australia, were principally from the provinces of Saxony, Silesia, and Pomerania, in Prussia.
11. Of what religion are they? Lutherans. 12. Do you conceive that the hope of improved circumstances
generally would be a sufficient inducement for persons to immigrate to this Colony? I have not the least doubt of it, particularly since very favourable intelligence has arrived from South Australia.
13. Were you never out of the Prussian dominions till you came to this Colony ? No.
14. What means would you suggest to the Committee, for the introduction of your countrymen into this Colony? I think if a considerable sum were remitted, at any rate the amount of the passage-money, in the purchase of land, that would be a sufficient inducement.
15. You think they could pay their own passages ? The greater number, especially if the persecution in the Church should continue ; if that should be discontinued a change would probably take place, and those who are able to pay their passages might not be inclined to come.
16. By Dr. Lang : Are you aware what is the annual emigration to the United States, from Germany ? I should think about thirty thousand annually.
17. And that population pays the expense of its own emigration entirely? Yes, those congregations who unite in emigrating have generally large funds. In a letter which I have received recently, it is stated that a single congregation have been able to contribute, for the purchase of land in America, nineteen thousand dollars. The amount of capital possessed by the emigrants to the United States is estimated at about five millions of Prussian dollars, which at three shillings a dollar, would be about seven hundred and fifty thousand pounds sterling.
18. By the Chairman : Do you not think we ought to send an agent to Germany, to establish a system of immigration in the first instance? It would be doubtless a great advantage.
19. By Dr. Lang : Do you think if accurate information respecting the eligibility of this country, as a field for immigration from Germany, were diffused in Germany from such a source as would induce the people to give credit to it, they would be disposed to come here rather than go to the United States ? I think so, for many reasons ; on account of the climate, the soil, and also from the news that have reached them from South Australia, which have induced two new congregations to come out to that place about six or eight months since.
20. They emigrate in entire congregations, establishing a common fund? Yes ; for my own part I should not endeavour to induce my countrymen to come out except in that way, bringing their minister and schoolmaster with them, because, coming out singly, they would have disadvantages in many respects, from being unable to express themselves in the glish language ; from the difference of their habits, and other causes, and particularly from the want of a home ; if, however, they came out in congregations, they would settle upon one spot, and the young men and women, who were scattered about the district would feel that they had a home to which they might resort occasionally.
21. Do you think the district of Moreton Bay peculiarly eligible for the settlement of such persons ? I have not the least doubt on the subject; the soil is most fertile, and the climate is milder than even that of this part of the Colony.
22. By the Chairman : Would you be apprehensive that the penal character of the Colony would interfere to prevent persons of that description from coming out ? No.
23. By Dr. Lang : Especially if they came in communities? Just so.
24. What kind of productions may be raised at Moreton Bay ? First of all, almost every kind of European vegetable, and also the productions of tropical climates, vine, orange, peach, tobacco, pine apples, bananas, sugar-cane, coffee, flax, maize, wheat, yams, sweet potatoes; cotton thrives very well, and arrow-root is growing very fine. Persons are able to have two crops during one year, of maize and sweet potatoes.
25. Is there a large extent of land in the district of Moreton Bay, suitable for the settlement of small farmers ? A large extent ; at least as large a tract as that of the Hunter's River, is suitable for small settlers. It has come under my knowledge, that a small settler not far from Brisbane Town has raised about eighty bushels of maize from one acre.
26. By the Chairman : Was that circumstance well authenticated ? So I have been told ; there is more rain in that district than here, and the heat of the sun is less oppressive.
27. By Mr. Cowper : What would be the expense of the passage of an individual from Hamburgh to this Colony? I am not aware ; but I have not the least doubt if a German vessel were taken, immigrants might be brought at a less expense from thence than they could from England.
28. Do you think the rate of wages paid here would be a sufficient inducement to persons to immigrate to this Colony ? I think so.
29. By the Chairman : From the north of Germany we should be more likely to have a Protestant community? Yes, they are Lutherans and Calvinists there; those who have settled at South Australia are Lutherans.
30. Have those who have settled in South Australia brought their clergyman with them? Yes, and they have their churches.
31, By Mr. Cowper : Did they purchase allotments of land there? I am informed they settled in the neighbourhood of Adelaide, and held land on a lease from the Company for seven years. The seven years have now passed ; they have united with the new arrivals, have bought land, and are now forming little villages and towns.
32. By Dr. Lang : You are aware that there is a considerable disposition to emigrate from Germany, independently of religious persecution ? From some of the States there is, but I do not
think the desire to emigrate from Prussia would be so great, but for religious persecution.
33. Can you speak as to emigration from Bavaria ? During five years, from the year 1835 to 1840, twenty-four thousand five hundred emigrated to the United States from Bavaria, or nearly five thousand a year; and it was estimated that they carried with them a capital of 7,000,000 florins, or six hundred and seventy-five thousand pounds. Bavaria is a Roman Catholic State, but with a large Protestant population, whose condition under a Romish Government induced them to emigrate the more willingly.
34. By the Chairman-Where did they embark ? Chiefly at Rotterdam and Havre-de-Grace.
John Dobie, Esq., Surgeon, R.N., called in and examined :1. You are a settler on the Clarence River? I am. 2. And have been engaged in pastoral pursuits for some years ?
3. During which time you have had occasion to employ a number of shepherds and farm servants? Yes.
4. You have seen a considerable part of the Colony, I believe, have you not? Yes, both the northern and southern parts of the Colony.
5. Will you state to the committee what you consider to be the capabilities of the Colony as a field for immigration from Europe what advantage does it hold out to the immigrant? I think it holds out many advantages, inasmuch as it not only provides him with a comfortable competence, but with the means of becoming comparatively opulent.
6. Do you think that the labouring man may, by the exercise of industry, sobriety, and prudence, put by a sufficiency to maintain him during old age without labour ? I do.
7. By the Auditor-General-Do you consider any climate in the world to be superior to this? I do not; for I have been in almost every country in Europe, in the East Indies, and in North and South America.
8. By the Chairman-What do you think of the capability of the country for supporting a considerable population-do you think there are tracts in this Colony capable of supporting a dense population ? Certainly to the north there are, upon the banks of the Richmond River, in the lower parts for instance, thousands of acres fit for agricultural purposes.
9. What do you think of the Clarence ? That is more a pastoral than an agricultural district.
10. What is your opinion of New England ? That also is a pastoral district.
11. By Dr. Lang-You have been on the Richmond River ? I have.