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at the Hotel Francisco, I sent him a note, along with the following expression of my good wishes for his cousin, the young Bachelor-of-Laws, in the hope that it might possibly serve to cultivate a friendly feeling on the part of men of education towards individuals of my own country and nation, in a part of the Brazilian territory which I was not likely ever to visit again.
Viro admodum eximio,
JOANNI FRANCISCO DUARTE,
laude consecutus est, Ut omnia felicia fausta que eveniant, necnon ut Summos ad honores inter Jurisconsultos celeberrimos Imperii
Braziliensis, quam citissime provehatur, Deum Optimum Maximum, per Jesum Christum hominum unicum Redemptorem, humillime ac lubentissime precatur
Joannes DUNMORE LANG, Scotus,
Universitatis Glasguensis apud Scotos alumnus, Artium Magister et Theologiae in eâdem Universitate Doctor, necnon per suffragia civium suorum, in Colonia Britannica quae in Terrae Australis partibus Orientalibus sita est,
habitantium, Unus e Senatu Provinciali istius Coloniae, Nunc in civitate Pernambucensi, rei frumentariae causa triduum
Cras in Britanniam navigaturus. Olindae Braziliorum, Decimo Sexto Kalend. Novemb. A.D. 1846.
The whole circumstance had completely faded from my memory, when about a week after my arrival in England, I received a large packet of papers, with a foreign address, which I found had narrowly escaped the oblivion of the dead-letter office, after having failed to find me at the University of Glasgow, to which it was addressed. It contained a very kind and rather flattering letter in French from my Brazilian friend, Senhor Drummond, who, I found, from a Compendium of Roman History he had translated from the French into Portuguese, of which he sent me a copy, was a
native of Pernambuco, a “ Chevalier de l'Ordre de la Conception de Portugal, Bachelier en Lettres de l'Université de Paris, Membre Correspondant de l'Institut Historique de France, de l'Academie Tiberine de Rome, de la Societé Auxiliatrice de l'Industrie Nationale de Rio de Janeiro, et Membre Honoraire de l'Institut Litteraire de Maranham.” It also contained another letter in French, of which the following is a copy, from the young Bachelor-of-Laws, Senhor Duarte, informing me that I had been proposed and elected an Honorary Member of the Literary Institute of Olinda, and enclosing my Diploma; of which, as a literary curiosity, I shall subjoin a copy, leaving both documents for the special benefit of the learned reader, in their original tongnies :
PERNAMBUC, LE 13, Novembre 1846. Monsieur le Docteur JEAN DUNMORE LANG,
Profondement sensible aux preuves non equivoques de consideration distinguée, que j'ai reçues de vous pendant votre court sejour chez nous a l'occasion de votre visite à la Faculté d'Olinde, au moment que j' atteignois le but de mes etudes litteraires, en obtenant l'honorable grade de Bachelier en Droit, je m'empresse de venir aujourdhui vous temoigner la douce impression que je tiens de votre souvenir.
J'espere, M. le Docteur, que vous continuerez a me donner l'occasion d'apprecier votre estime et bienveillante consideration, dont je tacherai d'etre toujours digne.
En gage de ma profonde gratitude je viens vous offrir le Deplôme de Membre Honoraire de l'Institut Olindense, lequel dès a present vous considere une de ses plus brillantes illustrations.
Agreez, M. le Docteur, l'expression sincere de mes sentimens affectueux.
Votre devoué et tres-humble serviteur,
Joao FRANCISCO DUARTE.
Aos Sabios de Todos os Tempos.
José Bonifacio. INSTITUTO LITTERARIO OLINDENSE. Platão.
O illustrissimo Senhor Dr. Joâo Dunmore Homero.
Lang, foi proposto e approvado para Socio Caldas.
Honorario do INSTITUTO LITTERARIO OLIN. Aristoteles. Maricá.
DENSE em Sessaò de 24 de Outubro do an- Plutharco. Antonio Cárlos. no de 1846. E para testemunho Publico Newton.
lhe envla o presente Diploma. V. de Cayru'.
Des Cartes. Gonzaga.
Jeronimo Cabral Raposo da Camara. Horacio
I shall only add, that if Englishmen were more frequently to exhibit a friendly feeling and deportment towards enlightened foreigners of any nation whatever, it would not unfrequently be attended with the happiest results.
We are too shy, too reserved, too exclusive as a people; and the circumstance tells not only against us individually, but even against our common Protestantism, as being, in the estimation of foreigners, an anti-social and repulsive system, that discards even the common courtesies and charities of humanity. The large room in which I occupied a sofa for the night, in the Hotel Francisco, at Pernambuco, was the place of meeting of a club of Englishmen, residing in the city, who assembled in it periodically for certain purposes of their own; and I observed, not without a feeling of indignation, that it was one of the fundamental rules of the club, that no native of the country could be admitted to membership in its body. How different was the feeling of the Jewish prophet when he wrote from Jerusalem to the Jews in Babylon, “ to seek the good of the land” in which they dwelt !
Nullus in orbe sinus Baiis praelucet amoenis.
HORAT. Epist. I., Ad Maecenat. 83. 'Tis strange, but true ; for all our Galens say, There's not a healthier clime than Moreton Bay.
HORACE in Australia.
As Great Britain has hitherto had no Colonies in so low a latitude as Cooksland, with the exception of the West Indies, and the other inter-tropical Colonies in which every description of field-labour has hitherto been performed by people of colour, and as there has consequently been no experience in the mother-country in regard to the effects of such a climate on the constitution of the European labourer, I deemed it absolutely necessary, before undertaking the serious responsibility of recommending an extensive emigration of Europeans to that country, to be employed in the various labours of the field to which the soil and climate peculiarly invite the Colonial farmer, to have this point satisfactorily ascertained.
It is generally known that the Southern Hemisphere, especially in the higher latitudes of the Temperate Zone, is much colder than the Northern. At the Auckland Islands, situated in lat. 50° S., to the southward of New Zealand, at which I touched on my first voyage to England from New South Wales, in the year
1824, I found the vegetation of very much the same character as that of the Northern Frigid Zone—the land being overgrown with moss, while the trees with which the Island was covered were all of a stunted, dwarfish appearance, throwing out numberless branches in a horizontal direction, about three feet from the ground, under which the seals from the surrounding ocean had made innumerable tracks through the forest exactly like the sheep-tracks along a hill-side in Scotland. And on being driven by northerly winds a long way to the eastward, in the South Atlantic Ocean, after doubling Cape Horn on a subsequent voyage to Europe, in the year 1830, we found the island of South Georgia, situated in latitude 54° S., surrounded with innumerable large fragments of floating ice, which had evidently been detached from the huge masses of that material which seemed, as they reflected from a distance the beams of the morning sun, to flank the whole line of the inhospitable shore, the lofty mountains of the interior of the island being covered with eternal snow.
It must doubtless have been the same island of which Dr. Forster, one of the companions of Captain Cook, on his last voyage round the world, speaks in the following terms :-“ When we came towards the 54° of S. latitude, we found a small island of about eighty leagues in circumference, the thermometer continuing at about 30°, 32°, and 34° in its neighbourhood, in the midst of summer; though isles have in general a milder climate than continents, we found, however, all this country entirely covered with immense loads of snow, the bottoms of its bays were choked up with solid masses of ice, of 60 or 80 feet above water."
“ The ingenious M. de Buffon says, “The navigators pretend that the continent of the Austral lands is much colder than that of the Arctic Pole; but there is not the least appearance that this opinion is well-founded, and probably it has been adopted by voyagers on no other account than because they found ice in a latitude where it is seldom or ever to be met with in our North