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Ind. Orn.
Syn. of birds.

Ind. Orn.

Syn. of birds. 57. Perdix. Partridge.

80. Gallinula.

Gallinule. 58. Psophia Trumpeter.

81. Vaginalis. Sheath-bill 59. Otis. Bustard.

ORDO VIII.

ORDER VIII.
ORDO VI.
ORDER VI.

PinnaTIPEDES. With PINNATED FEET. STRUTHIONES

STRUTHIOUS.

82. Phalaropus. Phalarope, 60. Didus. Dodo.

83. Fulica.

Coot. 61. Struthio. African ostrich.

84. Podicepo.

Grebe. 62. Casuarius. Cassowary.

ORDO IX.

ORDER IX. 63. Rhea. American ostrich

PALMIPEDES.

WEB-FOOTED. Div. II.

Div. II.

* Pedibus longioribus. With long legs. Aves AQUATICÆ. WATER BIRDS.

85. Recurvirostra. Avoset. ORDO VII.-GRALLÆ. ORDER VII.-WADERS. 86. Corrira.

Courier. 64. Platalea. Spoonbill.

87. Phænicopterus. Flamingo. 65. Palamedea. Screamer.

++ Pedibus brevioribus. Ht With short legs. 66. Mycteria. Jabiru.

88. Diomedea.

Albatross. 67. Cancroma Boatbill.

89. Aica.

Auk. 68. Scapus. Umbre.

90. Uria.

Guillemot. 69. Ardea. Heron.

91. Colymbus.

Diver. 70. Tantalus. Ibis.

92. Rhynchops.

Skimmer. 71. Numenius. Curlew.

93. Sterna.

Tern. 72. Scolopax. Snipe.

94. Larus.

Gull. 73. Tringa. Sandpiper.

95. Procellaria. Petrel. 74. Charadrius Plover

96. Mergus.

Merganser 75. Cursorius.

97. Anas.

Duck. 76. Hæmatopus. Oyster-catcher.

98. Aptenodytes. Penguin. 77. Glareola. Pratincole.

99. Pelicanus.

Pelican. 78. Rallus. Rail.

100, Phaeton. Tropic-bird. 79. Parra. Jucana.

101. Plotus.

Darter.

ORNITHOPUS, in botany, bird's-foot, a Afterwards, however, applying himself to the genus of the decandria order, and diadelphia study of physic, he practised that art at Seville class of plants : natural order thirty-second, with success, till, accused of Judaism, he was papilionaceæ, Legumen articulated, cylindrical, thrown into the inquisition, and suffered the and bent in the form of a bow. Species five, of most dreadful tortures. After three years conwhich one is common to our own pastures, and finement, during which he constantly denied was formerly thought a specific for the stone. that he was a Jew, and professed to be a true

ORNUS, a species of the fraxinus, or ash tree, Christian, he was discharged; and, repairing to which produces the manna. Its smaller leaves France, was made professor of physic at Thouare sawed, with flowers having petals. To ob- louse. At last, weary of dissembling, he repaired tain the manna, those employed in July and to Amsterdam, where he was circumcised, took August make an oblong incision, and take off the name of Isaac, and professed Judaism; still from the bark of the tree about three inches in continuing, however, to practise physic, in which length, and two in breadth: they leave the he was much esteemed." He distinguished himwound open, and by degrees the manna runs self in a controversy with Limborch, and by out, is almost suddenly thickened to its proper writing against Spinoza. Orobio died in 1687. consistence, and is found adhering to the bark. OROBUS, bitter vetch, a genus of the decanThis is collected in baskets, and called manna dria order, and diadelphia class of plants : natugrassa. When they want fine manna, they ap- ral order thirty-second, papilionaceæ : style ply to the incision of the bark thin straw, or linear: Cal. obtuse at the base, with the upper small bits of shrubs; so that the manna in segments deeper and shorter than the rest. coming out runs upon these bodies, and is col- There are nine species. All of them have filected in a sort of regular tubes, which give it brated roots, which are perennial, but are annual the name of manna in cannoli.

in stalk, rising early in spring, and decaying in OROBANCHE, in botany, broom rape, a autumn. They are very hardy plants, and prosgenus of the angiospermia order, and didynamia per in any common soil of a garden. Most of class of plants: natural order fortieth, person- these plants are very floriferous, and the flowers atæ : Cal. bifid : cor. ringent: Caps. unilocu- conspicuous and ornamental for adorning the lar, bivalved, and polyspermous: there is a flower compartments. The flowers are univerglandule under the base of the germen. Species sally, of the papilionaceous or butterfly kind, eighteen, five of which are common to the fields consisting each of four irregular petals, i.e. and woods of our own country; the rest are a standard, two wings, and a keel; and are all scattered over Europe, Asia, and America. succeeded by long taper seed-pods, furnishing

OROBIO (Balthasar), a celebrated Jew of plenty of ripe seed in autumn; by which the Spain. He was so skilled in the scholastic plants may be propagated abundantly, as also philosophy of Spain, that he was made professor by parting the roots. of metaphysics in the university of Salamanca. O. tuberosus, wood per,

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peas heath. The

Sand 48.

Highlanders have a great esteem for the tuber- both: orphanage and orphanism, mean the state cles of the roots of this species. They dry and of an orphan. chew them to give a better relish to their liquor; Poor orphan in the wide world scattered, they also affirm that they are good against most As budding branch rent from the native tree, disorders of the breast, and that by the use

And thrown forth until it be withered : of them they are enabled to resist hunger and

Such is the state of man.

Spenser. thirst for a long time. In Breadalbane and Ross

Sad widows, by thee rifled, weep in vain, shire they sometimes bruise and steep them

And ruined orphans of thy rapes complain. in water, and make an agreeable fermented liquor with them. They have a sweet taste, found his estate, when he came to age, so disjointed,

This king, left orphan both of father and mother, something like the roots of liquorice; when even in the noblest and strongest limbs of governboiled, are nutritious and well favored ; and in ment, that the name of a king was grown odious. times of scarcity they have served as a substi

Sidney. tute for bread.

Who can be bound by any solemn vow ORODES, a prince of Parthia, who murdered To ’reave the orphan of his patrimony, his brother Mithridates, and ascended his throne. To wring the widow from her 'customed right, He defeated Crassus, the Roman triumvir, and

And have no other reason for his wrong, poured melted gold down the throat of his fallen

But that he was bound by a solemn oath?

Shakspeare. enemy, to reproach him for his avarice and ambition. lle joined the party of Cassius and Widows and orphans making as they go.

The sea with spoils his angry bullets strow,

Waller. Brutus at Philippi. It is said that, when Orodes became old and infirm, his thirty children, ap. This helpless orphan whom thou leavest behind.

Pity, with a parent's mind, plied to him, and disputed in his presence their

Dryden. right to the succession. Phraates, the eldest of

Collections were made for the relief of the poor, them, obtained the crown from his father; and, whether widows or orphans.

Nelson. to hasten him out of the world, he attempted to

Coriolanus's father died when he was an infant. poison him. The poison had no effect; and Alcibiades and Coriolanus would, with Demosthenes, Phraates, still determined on his father's death, make as noble a trio of orphans as all antiquity could strangled him with his own hands, about thirty- furnish.

Bp. Waison. five years before the Christian era. Orodes had Rich, noble, but an orphan ; left an only reigned about fifty years.

Child to the care of guardians good and kind; ORONTES, a famous river of Syria, about But still her aspect had an air so lonely. Byron. which Strabo and other ancient authors mention

First stern philanthropy; not she who dries many fabulous stories of its disappearing and The orphan's tears and wipes the widow's eyes, running under ground for several miles, &c. It But French philanthropy, whose boundless mind rises in Cælosyria, and after a rapid course falls Glows with the general love of human kind. into the Mediterranean below Antioch. It is

Canning. now called Asi.

ORPHEUS, a celebrated poet and musician ORONTIUM, in botany, a genus of the mo- of antiquity, who, according to Sir Isaac Newnogynia order, and hexandria class of plants : ton, was the son of agrus, who received Thrace natural order second, piperitæ. Spadix cylin- from Sesac when he conquered that country. drical, covered with florets: cor. hexapetalous With the kingdom, the latter gave Eagrus and naked : the follicles monospermous. Style one of his singing women, for his wife, who

brought him Orpheus. Hence his mother was OROPESA, a town of Peru, the capital of the fabled to be Calliope. On account of the great province of Cochabamba, situated on one of the antiquity of Orpheus, numberless fables have tributary streams of the Rio Grande. Its in- been intermingled with his history, but there habitants

, about 17,000, are chiefly employed in can be no doubt of his existence. To his father trading with the neighbouring provinces in fruits he was indebted for his first instruction in and grain. They include many rich and noble religion, and he afterwards became a disciple of families. Eight miles north of Cochabamba, the Idæi Dactyli in Crete. Thence he travelled and eighty-nine N. N. W. of Chuquisaca. There into Egypt, and became a proficient in all are other settlements of this name in the neigh- kinds of literature. From the latter country he bourhood.

transplanted the whole fable of Osiris into OROSIUS (Paul), a Spanish historian and Greece, adapting it to the family of Cadmus. divine, and a disciple of St. Augustin; who sent The people held him in the highest veneration, him to Jerusalem to consult St. Jerome on the supposing him to be possessed of the secrets of origin of the soul. He wrote a Universal His- expiating crimes, curing diseases, and appeasing tory from the creation to his own time, entitled the gods. He promulgated an idea of hell, inMiseria Humana, in which he displays more stituted the mysteries of Hecate among the learning and diligence than chronological accu- Æginetes, and those of Ceres in Sparta. He is racy. The best edition is that of Havercanys, chiefly famed for his music, which is poetically 4to. Lug. Bat. 1767. He wrote also a treatise represented to have had the effect of taming the on Free Will, and other pieces. He flourished most ferocious animals, and making the trees of about A. D. 416.

the forest dance in concert to his lyre. EuryORʻPHAN, n.s.& adj. Fr. orphelin; Gr. dice made a deep impression on the melodious Or'PHANAGE, 1. s. oppavoc. ' A child be- musician, and their nuptials were celebrated. OR'PHANISM Sreft of parents; ap- Their happiness

, however, was but short: for plied to a child who has lost either one parent or Aristæus became enamoured of her; and as she

none.

fled from her pursuer, a serpent bit her foot, a small mouth, and is covered with small but and she died of the poisoned wound. Her loss very rough scales, which adhere very firmly to was severely felt by Orpheus, and he resolved to the flesh; the tail is not forked ; it has fleshy recover her or perish in the attempt. With his lips, and very small teeth ; its back and sides are lyre in his hand, he entered the infernal regions, black; its belly white; it has a large black spot and gained an easy admission to the palace at the root of the tail ; its head is reddish, and of Pluto. Having charmed all bell with his its fins are very elegantly diversified with various strains, Pluto and - Proserpine consented to colors: it has only one back fin, and that has restore Eurydice, provided he forbore looking the anterior ray prickly, the hinder ones not at behind him till he had come to the extreme all so. It grows sometimes to twenty pounds borders of hell. The conditions were gladly weight, and is much esteemed among the modern accepted, and Orpheus was already in sight Greeks. of the upper regions of the air, when he forgot OR'PIMENT, n. s. Fr. orpiment ; Lat. aurihis promise, and, turning back to look at his pigmentum. A gold-colored fossil, defined in wife, lost her for ever. The only comfort he the extracts. could find was to soothe his grief by the sound For the golden color, it may be made by some of his musical instrument in grottoes or on small mixture of orpiment, such as they use to brass mountains. He totally separated himself from in the yellow alchymy; it will easily recover that the society of mankind; and the Thracian wo- which the iron loseih.

Bacon. men, whom he had offended by his coldness True and genuine orpiment is a foliaceous fossil, to their amorous passion, attacked him while of a fine and pure texture, remarkably heavy, and its they celebrated the orgies of Bacchus; and, colour is a bright and beautiful yellow, like that of after they had torn his body to pieces, they gold. It is not hard, but very tough, easily bending threw his head into the Hebrus, which still arti- without breaking. Orpiment has been supposed to culated Eurydice ! Eurydice ! as it was carried contain gold, and is found in mines of gold, silver, down the stream into the Ægean Sea. Others and copper, and sometimes in the strata of marl.

Hill. say, that as he attempted to conjure his wife from the dead, which they understand by the

OrPiment, in natural history, a mineral comstory of his going down to hell, he thought he posed of sulphur and arsenic, sometimes artifisaw her; and when afterwards, on looking back, cially produced, but found also native, and conhe missed her, he died of grief

. Pausanias stituting one of the ores of arsenic. It is of two speaks of a temple in Thesprotia, where Orpheus kinds, red and yellow, the former called realgar. went to call up the ghost of Eurydice. Some It is commonly found in shapeless masses, very say that he was killed by a thunder-volt. He seldom crystallised; though' baron Borne once was buried at Pieria, in Macedonia, according found it in a polyhedral form on a blue clay in to Apollodorus. The inhabitants of Dion Hungary. The red orpiment is a very beautiful boasted that his tomb was in their city, and the substance of a fine bright red, very glossy, and people of Mount Libethrus in Thrace claimed a little transparent, and is found in the Turkish the same honor; and reported that the night- dominions, in the islands of the Archipelago, ingales, which built their nests near his tomb, and even in our own country, Dr. Hill having sang with greater melody than all other birds received some of it from Cornwall, under the Orpheus, after death, received divine honors; name of red mundic. The yellow kind contains the muses gave an honorable burial to his re- about one-tenth of its weight of sulphur. It is mains, and his lyre became one of the constella- the common orpiment of the shops. Some think tions. Tzetzes explains the fable of his drawing that the noxions qualities of the arsenic are so his wife Eurydice from hell, by his great skill in much counteracted by the sulphur with which medicine, with which he prolonged her life, and this substance is mixed, that it may be swallowed thus snatched her from the grave. With respect with safety; but Macquer positively asserts the to the writings of Orpheus, he is mentioned by contrary, and cautions against its use, even Pindar as author of the Argonautics, and Hero- though we be certain that the orpiment is native. dotus speaks of his Orphics. Ilis hymns, says

There is, besides, a broad-faked, gold-colored Pausanias, were very short, and but few in num- kind, well-known among the ancients, as is plain ber. Those poems that bear his name, many of from the description of it left by Dioscorides, which are known to be the work of others, and still much esteemed by our painters. It is were published at Nuremberg in 1702, and re found in the islands of the Archipelago, in the printed at Leipsic, in 1764, under the title of mines of Gosselaer, in Saxony, in some parts of ΟΡΦΕΩΣ ΑΠΑΝΤΑ. .

Turkey, and the East Indies, and in its utmost Orpheus, in ichthyology, the name of a fish purity about Smyrna. It makes the finest of all caught in the Archipelago. It is of a broad and yellows in painting. The small flaked, yellow Hat figure, and of a fine purple color ; its eyes kind, which is the common orpiment of the are large and prominent; and its teeth serrated; shops, is also a fine color, though greatly inferior it has only one fin on the back, and the anterior to the former. rays of that are prickly, the others soft to the

ORʻPINE, n. s. Fr. orpin. A plant. The touch ; its anus is small, and is said to have no sedum telephium of Linnæus. passage for the semen. This was the fish called Cool violets and orpine growing still, orpheus by the ancients, but the modern Greek Embathed balm and cheerful galingale. call another fish by that name. It is a species

Spenser. of the sparus, of a flat figure, but very thick, has ORPINE, in botany. See SEDUM.

ORRERY. The empdoyment of planetary west. The Intertor part of this pillar contains machines to illustrate and explain the motions of upwards of 100 wheels to give the respective the heavenly bodies appears to have been coeval motions to the sun, moon, and planets, actuated with the construction of clepsydræ and other by clock-work, and the whole kept in their horological automata, as nearly all the early respective motions by a weight suspended within water-clocks, of a complex character, represented the pillar, the fall of which is one foot per day, the motions of the starry sphere, and in this and the motions continue forty-eight hours and respect the ancients were more successful than upwards. The movement of each planet conthe mechanics of the present day. But the şists of twelve, ten, or eight wheels, as the nesplendid graphic delineations furnished by the cessary accuracy requires, and they are all made modern astronomer were wanting, and for these of steel, and actuated by one common arbour. we are mainly indebted to the labors of Walker The description of this elaborate instrument is and Bartlet. The eidouranion is indeed a mimic contained in a printed description preserved in representation of the vast system of which our the Royal Library, Paris, in which it is said that earth forms so insignificant a part. It may, the increase and decrease of velocity is affected however, be advisable to commence our notice by the interior mechanism; and the motions of of this useful apparatus for popular instruction, the heavenly bodies are represented, together by examining some of the best early planetary with the eccentricities and motions of the machines.

apogees, nodes, and latitudes of each. The five Ptolemy, who died about 140 years after the plain sides of the pentagonal column have each commencement of the Christian era, devised the a brass face of two feet in length, and ten inches circles and epicycles that distinguish his system, in breadth, in each of which are two circles, the in order to account for the apparent irregulari- upper and the lower, except in that containing ties of the planetary motions; and, though he the places of the sun and moon, which has three probably could not construct a machine to repre- circles; and hands or pointers are made to insent these motions exactly, yet, in his Almagest, dicate the different motions on the respective he described a sphere, furnished with the con dials or circles which are appropriated accordstellations, to which he could refer the apparent ing to the subjoined arrangement, viz. paths of the heavenly bodies, and by which he Face 1st. The motion of Saturn above, and could explain his system.

of Jupiter below. Froin the time of Ptolemy to the sixteenth 2nd. The motion of Mars above, and of Mercentury, in which Copernicus revived the system cury below. of Philolaus, or, as is generally said, of Pytha 3rd. The motion of Venus above, and of the goras, the machines which were constructed sun below. represented the Ptolemaic system, which, like 4th. The motion of the moon above, and of the Egyptian, placed the earth in the centre, the moon's nodes below. but supposed the moon and planets all sepa

5th. The hours above, and astrolabe below; rately revolving round it every day, whilst they and in the middle the conjunctions, opposition, slowly performed periodic cycles and epicycles, eclipses, &c., of the sun and moon. to account for the stationary and retrograde ap

The wheel work and other mechanical parts pearances, that could not otherwise be explained. of the instrument are not contained in BerThe most ancient machine of which we have thoud's extract, whence this detail is abridged; met with any account during this period is that but the times of the various revolutions attriof Chromatius, the governor of Rome, in the buted to the movements, and also to the celestial third century, which is mentioned in the first bodies themselves, which are said to be reprevolume of Beckmann's History of Inventions and sented to a minute in a revolution, are given in Discoveries. According to the accounts of St. the subjoined table. Sebastian and Polycarp, this costly piece of mechanism consisted of a pavilion of glass, in

Motion in twentythe construction of which were consumed 200

Planets. Whole periods.

four hours. lbs. weight of gold, as materials for the workmanship, and all the heavenly bodies were repre

d. h. sented by mechanism, together with the phases Mercury 87 23 15 36

59 8 of the moon ; there also appears to have been an Venus

224 17 53

59 8 ecliptic circle divided into signs. But, whatever Sun

365 5 48 15

59 might be the particular construction of this ma Mars

688 23 31 56

26 chine, it was entirely destroyed, on account of Jupiter 4332 14 49 31

4 59 some imaginary impiety attached to such a re Saturn 10759 4 58 25

1 presentation of the heavens.

Moon

27 13 18 35 13 54 The planetary clock invented by the celebrated Do. synodic 29 12 44 3 13 8 35 mathematician Finee was begun in 1553, and Do. nodes. made during the space of seven years by the best workmen that could be found. The interior shape of this machine is represented as a pen This machine does not exhibit to the eye the tagonal column seventeen inches in diameter, and representatives of the planets in their orders and six feet high, surmounted by a brass celestial distances, but only indicates on their different globe of seven inches diameter, which contains faces the periods of their siderecl revolutions; forty-eight constellations, and which revolves the earth is considered by the inventer as the once in every twenty-four hours from east to centre of the orbits of the Moon, Sun, Mars,

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Jupiter, and Satum, the three last of which are in exactly 365 days, which makes an error of made to move in the Ptolemaic epicycles, but twenty-five days in a century, the sun is made the centre of the orbits of Mer 4. The discs of the planets are made much cury and Venus, according to the Egyptian sys- too large in proportion to the sun. tem, which is the reason why the daily progress The last of these observations must necessarily in the ecliptic is put down for these three alike. constitute an objection in every instrument, It is somewhat remarkable that this arrangement where the ball for the sun is not made inconis not according to the Copernican system, veniently bulky. though Copernicus had published his book Passemant's planetary apparatus possessed concalled the Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs, siderable merit. It is thus described by Berwhich laid the foundation of his system, twelve thoud:-The clock is surmounted by a sphere, years before; hence we must suppose, either which it puts in motion according to the Coperthat the book had not found its way from Prussia nicum system. It was presented to the Academy into France at that time, or else that the system of Sciences on the 23d of August 1749, by M. at first met with opposition. Thus a union of Passemant, the author of the calculations of the the Ptolemaic with the old Egyptian system be- sphere. The gentlemen of the Academy, from came the favorite of the astronomer before us, the report of Messrs. Camus and Deparcieux, and three years afterwards he published a book the committee named for the examination of this in defence of this theory.

clock, certified that the revolutions of the planets The next machine we meet with is the planeta- were exact in it; as they did not find a degree rium of P. Schirleus de Rheita described in the of difference from the astronomical tables in more Technica Curiosa of Schott, and made about than 3000 years. Dauthiau, the clock maker the year 1650. This machine is said to have who constructed this machine, employed twelve represented all the true and mean motions of the years upon it. It was presented to the king at planets, their stations, and direct and retrograde Choisy, on the 7th of September 1750. His appearances, without epicycles or equations, and majesty testified his approval of it, and ordered with very few wheels by the help of endless a new case to be made for it after a design of screws and pulleys. The movements were ac- his own choice. It is now at Versailles. tuated by water, and on the exterior part of the The sphere represents from day to day the difinstrument were three separate faces, or dials, ferent motions of the planets round the sun, viz. described into a number of circles for the orbits of Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars, the Earth, Moon, of the planets and signs of the zodiac; the lowest Venus, and Mercury, also their places in the face contained the circles of the Sun, Venus, and zodiac, their configurations, stations, and appaMercury, which were denominated the inferior rent retrogradations with respect to the earth. planets, and their respective hands or arms; Upon every circle which carries the orb of a the uppermost face had the circle of Saturn, planet is engraven the time of its revolution Jupiter, and Mars, with their respective hands; round the sun. The earth, during its annual and the face in the middle had twelve hours, and revolution, makes its movement of parallelism, also a circle for the moon. The first wheel, which and the spectator views the sun passing through gave motion to all the rest, was carried round by a the signs and degrees of the zodiac; also through fall of water once in a minute, on the arbor of the months and their lesser divisions of time, which was a single endless screw which drove a indicating the seasons, the equinoxes, and solwheel of fifteen teeth round in as many minutes; stices; besides it makes a rotation in twenty-four on the arbor of this was another screw driving hours, being divided by twenty-four meridian another wheel of twenty-four round in six hours; lines : it has likewise a map of the principal again, on the arbor of the wheel of twenty-four places of the globe; so that the rising, setting, was another screw, making a wheel of twenty and meridian passage of the sun, together with teeth revolve in five days: and, lastly, a screw on its different elevations, and the continuance of the arbor of the last mentioned wheel of twenty day and night, may be seen for every principal impelled a wheel of seventy-three once round in place. The moon finishes her revolution round exactly 365 days, which represented the annual the earth in 29d. 12h. 44mi. 3sec., during which motion of the sun in his supposed orbit round time are indicated her age and different phases ; the earth. The last screw also drove a wheel of her progress through the sines of the zodiac ; her forty-five teeth round in 255 days, which, by the nodes, her eclipses, and those of the sun with help of two equal pulleys, carried Venus round precision, viz. their place, size, and duration ; the sun in this period; and in like manner, it is besides the various altitudes, the time of rising, said, motions were produced in the rest of the setting, and southing. planets; but the numbers of the other wheels are The clock beats seconds, which are indicated not given by Berthoud. Alexander, in his in the centre of the dial-face by a dead-beat esTraité des Horloges, thus describes the mecha- capement of a particular construction. This nism : “This machine,' says he cannot be of clock effects the equation by itself, by showing great utility, nor will it represent the motions both apparent and mean time; it strikes the of the planets with sufficient accuracy. hours and the quarters of solar time, which it will

1. The first wheel which moves all the rest is repeat at pleasure. The movement of the striking carried round by a fall of water whieh cannot part is by a spring, fusee, and chain ; that of the have the requisite regularity.

clock by a weight of twenty pounds doubly sus2. "The movement is not regulated by a ba- pended, which has a descent of eight inches in six lance, pendulum, or fly.

weeks, and the going is not interrupted by wind3. “The motion of the sun completes the year ing up the weight. The pendulum rod consists

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