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standard was far from being a just one; though, when party considerations are set aside, he certainly was possessed of elegance, ease, and perspicuity." Dryden, though a great and undisputed genius, had the same cast as L'Estrange. Even his plays discover him to be a party man, and the same principle infects his style in subjects of the lightest nature; but the English tongue, as it stands at present, is greatly his debtor. He first gave it regular harmony, and discovered its latent powers. It was his pen that formed the Congreves, the Priors, and the Addisons, who succeeded him; and had it not been for Dryden, we never should have known a Pope, at least in the meridian lustre he now displays.” But Dryden's excellencies as a writer were not confined to poetry alone. There is in his prose writings an ease and elegance, that have never yet been so well united in works of taste or criticism. The English language owes very little to Otway, though, next to Shakespeare, the greatest genius England ever produced in tragedy. His excellencies lay in painting directly from nature, in catching every emotion just as it rises from the soul, and in all the powers of the moving and pathetic. He appears to have had no learning, no critical knowledge, and to have lived in great distress. When he died, (which he did in an obscure house near the Minories) he had about him the copy of a tragedy, which it seems he had sold for a trifle to Bentley the bookseller. I have seen an advertisement at the end of one of L'Estrange's political papers, offering a reward to any one who should bring it to his shop. What an invaluable treasure was there irretriev

(1) [“In talking over the list for prose authors, Mr. Pope named but four as authorities for familiar dialogues and writings of that kind,-Ben Jonson, L'Estrange, Congreve, and Vanbrugh.”—SPENCE.]

(2) [“I learned versification wholly from Dryden's works, who had improved it much beyond any of our former poets.”—Pope ; SPEN.cf.]

ably lost, by the ignorance and neglect of the age he lived in 1 (1)

Lee had a great command of language, and vast force of expression, both which the best of our succeeding dramatic poets thought proper to take for their models. Rowe, in particular, seems to have caught that manner, though in all other respects inferior. The other poets of that reign contributed but little towards improving the English tongue, and it is not certain whether they did not injure rather than improve it. Immorality has its cant as well as party, and many shocking expressions now crept into the language, and became the transient fashion of the day. The upper galleries, by the prevalence of party spirit, were courted with great assiduity, and a horse-laugh following ribaldry was the highest instance of applause, the chastity as well as energy of diction being overlooked or neglected.

Virtuous sentiment was recovered, but energy of style never was. This, though disregarded in plays and partywritings, still prevailed amongst men of character and business. The dispatches of Sir Richard Fanshaw, Sir William Godolphin, Lord Arlington, and many other ministers of state, are all of them, with respect to diction, manly, bold, and nervous. Sir William Temple, though a man of no learning, had great knowledge and experience. He wrote always like a man of sense and a gentleman ; and his style is the model by which the best prose writers in the reign of Queen Ann formed theirs. (*) The beauties of Mr. Locke's

(1) [Otway died in April 1685, in his 33rd year. In the ‘Observator' for November 27, 1686, appeared the following advertisement:—“Whereas Mr. Thomas Otway sometime before his death made four acts of a play, whoever can give notice in whose hands the copy lies, either to Mr. Thomas Betterton or Mr. William Smith at the Theatre Royal, shall be well rewarded for his pains."]

(2) [“Sir William Temple was the first writer who gave cadence to English prose. Before his time they were careless of arrangement, and did

style, though not so much celebrated, are as striking as that of his understanding. He never says more nor less than he ought, and never makes use of a word that he could have changed for a better. The same observation holds good of Dr. Samuel Clarke. Mr. Locke was a philosopher; his antagonist Stillingfleet, bishop of Worcester, was a man of learning, and therefore the contest between them was unequal. The clearness of Mr. Locke's head renders his language perspicuous; the learning of Stillingfleet's clouds his. This is an instance of the superiority of good sense over learning, towards the improvement of every language. There is nothing peculiar to the language of archbishop Tillotson, but his manner of writing is inimitable; for one who reads him wonders why he himself did not think and o speak in that very manner. The turn of his periods is agreeable, though artless, and every thing he says seems to flow spontaneously from inward conviction." Barrow, though greatly his superior in learning, falls short of him in other respects. The time seems to be at hand, when justice will be done to Mr. Cowley's prose, as well as poetical writings; and though his friend, Dr. Sprat, bishop of Rochester, in his diction, falls far short of the abilities for which he has been celebrated; yet, there is sometimes a happy flow in his periods, something that looks like eloquence. The style of his successor Atterbury has been much commended by his friends, which always happens when a man distinguishes himself in party, but there is in it nothing extraordinary. Even the speech which he made for himself at the bar of the house of Lords, before he was sent into exile, is void of eloquence; though it has been cried up by his friends to such a degree, that his enemies have suffered it to pass uncensured. The philosophical manner of Lord Shaftesbury's writing is nearer to that of Cicero than any English author has yet arrived at ; but perhaps had Cicero written in English, his composition would have greatly exceeded that of our countryman. The diction of the latter is beautiful, but such beauty, as upon nearer inspection carries with it evident symptoms of affectation. This has been attended with very disagreeable consequences. Nothing is so easy to copy as affectation, and his lordship's rank and fame have procured him more imitators in Britain than any other writer I know; all faithfully preserving his blemishes, but, unhappily, not one of his beauties. Mr.Trenchard” and Dr. Davenant” were political writers of great abilities in diction, and their pamphlets are now standards in that way of writing. They were followed by Dean Swift; who, though in other respects far their superior, never could arise to that manliness and clearness of diction in political writing, for which they were so justly famous. They were all of them exceeded by the late Lord Bolingbroke, whose strength lay in that province; for as a philosopher and a critic he was ill qualified, being destitute of virtue for the one, and of learning for the other. His writings against Sir Robert Walpole are incomparably the best part of his works. The personal and perpetual antipa(1) [Author of a ‘Short History of Standing Armies,” “Considerations on Public Debts,’ &c. He died in 1723.] (2) [Eldest son of Sir William Davenant, author of ‘Essays on the thy he had for that family, to whose places he thought his own abilities had a right, gave a glow to his style, and an edge to his manner, that never yet have been equalled in political writing. His misfortunes and disappointments gave his mind a turn, which his friends mistook for philosophy; and at one time of his life he had the art to impose the same belief upon some of his enemies. His ‘Idea of a Patriot King, which I reckon (as indeed it was) amongst his writings against Sir Robert Walpole, is a master-piece of diction. Even in his other works his style is excellent; but where a man either does not, or will not understand the subject he writes on, there must always be a deficiency. In politics he was generally master of what he undertook; in morals never. Mr. Addison, for a happy and natural style, will be always an honour to British literature. His diction, indeed, wants strength, but it is equal to all the subjects he undertakes to handle, as he never (at least in his finished works) attempts any thing either in the argumentative or demonstrative way. Though Sir Richard Steele's reputation as a public writer was owing to his connexions with Mr. Addison, yet, after their intimacy was formed, Steele sunk in his merit as an author. This was not owing so much to the evident superiority on the part of Addison, as to the unnatural efforts which Steele made to equal or eclipse him. This emulation destroyed that genuine flow of diction which is discoverable in all his former compositions. Whilst their writings engaged attention and the favour of the public, reiterated but unsuccessul endeavours were made towards forming a grammar of the English language. The authors of those efforts went upon wrong principles. Instead of endeavouring to retrench the absurdities of our language, and bringing it to a certain criterion, their grammars were no other than a collection of rules attempting to

not mind whether a sentence ended with an important word or an insignificant word, or with what part of speech it was concluded.”—Johnson, Life, vol. vii. p. 91.] (l) l'' I should not advise a preacher at this day to imitate Tillotson's style ; though I don't know; I should be cautious of objecting to what has been applauded by so many suffrages.”—Johnson, Life, vol. vii. p. 78.]

Balance of Power,’ &c. His Essays on Trade were published in 1771, in Five vols. 8vo., by Sir Charles Whitworth. He died in 1714.]

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