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“a set off,” the protestant advocate meets him with great dignity and strength on this ground. Supposing the practice of protestants to have been sometimes reprehensible in this respect, still can it be denied that “ the principles of toleration, which allow various sentiments and modes of faith, are necessarily inherent in protestantism, and that every instance of coercion or persecution in a protestant is a departure from his own legitimate principles; and that on the contrary, all toleration exercised by a catholic is a happy departure from the principles of his own church.” Again,

“ The principles of each are notorious, without any regard to practice.

The Romish church considers her mode of faith perfect, her spiritual dominion to be universal, and her interpretation of the oracles of God to be unquestionable. She cannot err. If to-day were the first day of giving birth to such principles, it would require no effort of sagacity to predict, that coercion and persecution would as necessarily flow from them as light from the sun.

The practice of persecution would naturally follow intolerance of principle. On the other hand, protestantism is the RELIGION OF THE BIBLE. It allows that book to be the standard of faith and practice, and it imposes no specific interpretation of that divine and ILLUMINATING

Protestantism allows its votaries to bring human creeds to that great touchstone of all truth; but compels none to reduce their interpretation of it to the imperfect standard of human creeds. It allows the right of private judgment in matters of religion ; which is the natural result of making the Scriptures, unmixed with human comments and opinions, the only infallible RULE OF CHRISTIAN FAITH AND PRACTICE *.

Thus our anonymous writer reasons, in answer to this great lay-advocate for the catholic claims. We regret that we have been driven by want of space to present our readers with a very hasty and imperfect sketch of the contents of the pamphlet. But in justice to the author we must declare our opinion, that in plain sense, solid argument, knowledge of facts, and candid statement, it rivals the best controversial productions in the language. It stands amidst the vast field of disputation which surrounds it, like Pompey's pillar in the desart.


* In the new catechism of the Galican church, published under the joint authority of the Pope and Buonaparte, we find the following questions and answers :

Q. Is the catholic church then infallible? A. Yes; and those who reject her decisions are heretics. Q.' Has the church the power of making commandments ? A. Yes, undoubtedly. Q. What does the third commandment appoint us to do? A. To confess our sins at least once a year to the proper priest, or any other who has power to absolve ys. In the same catechism Napoleon is pronounced to be the anointed of the

by the consecration the Pope, the head of the universal chur and those who fail in duty towards him are declared worthy of eternal damnation.

Art. XV.--Travels in Sweden, during the Autumn of 1812.

By Thomas Thomson, M.D.F.R.S. London and Edinburgh,
F.L.S. Member of the Geological Society, and of the Impe-
rial Chirurgo-medical Academy at Petersburg. Illustrated by
Maps and Other Plates. 4to. London. 1813.

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Few countries ever presented a more extended or interesting field of research to the labours either of the political or natural historian than Sweden at the present epoch affords.

The deposition of a king without bloodshed; the ancient constitution of a kingdom revolutionized without confusion; the vassal of a powerful iyrant raised by unknown intrigues to the sovereignty of a foreign state, spurning the stepping stone to his acquired dignity, and pursuing measures ably designed for the good of his subjects; and the solemņ abdication and retireient of a sovereign of an ancient and distinguished dynasty, after swaying for seventeen years the paternal sceptre, are all phenomena in the history of mankind well calculated to excite attention. Under such circumstances, and with the promise of such details, Travels in Sweden in the Autumn of 1812 have a very prepossessing sound in the spring of 1813. But, when to the accounts of the political state and resources of the country, so peculiarly interesting at the present moment, geognostic and mineralogical details are added, of a country, too, of most singular structure, and to which the attention of the naturalist has been most forcibly drawn by late discoveries of many important productions, we must own the prospectus of such a work raised in us a very high degree of curiosity; and from the bare perusal of his advertisements we could almost have ventured to promise Dr. Thomson that his quarto volume, illustrated by maps, portraits, and other plates, would captivate the public. Had we not, in the progress of the work, seen evident traces of dexterous' manipulation in the mystery of book-making, we should have been disposed to put a liberal construction on the word “profit,” as it is used in the following annunciation of the writer's -object in view.

Having finished my History of the Royal Society, and being accidentally detained at Edinburgh without any specific employment, it occurred to me that I might occupy the summer with considerable Profit to myself, and obtain a great deal of amusement, if I were to take advantage of the peace lately concluded between Great Britain, and Sweden,

and traverse part of that vast and interesting country.” To the above oblique advertisement of a work just finished, we

“ I have seen,” says

are somewhat surprised that Dr. Thomson has not added the information of his having begun his Annals of Philosophy.

We will now embark with our author in this promising voyage, and in our progress with him hope to produce some not uninteresting details for the amusen:ent of our readers. Congratulating ourselves in the mean time that, our embarkation being only figurative, we are exempt from the solid inconveniences which beset the author, and which he has described with great professional particularity, proposing a remedy to all future sufferers on the like occasion. The sea ran very high, the vessel rolled about at a great rate, and the Doctor was very sick. he, “ many things tried to stop this disagreeable malady, but the most successful is brisk bottled porter.' A few glasses of this, taken after the sickness has continued a day or so, I have never seen fail to produce almost immediate relief.” The chemical explanation of this remedy is, it appears, very much embarrassed by the circumstance that ale, although equally brisk, does not produce the same effect. However, as the fact stands, we think it at least a monument of the goodness of the Doctor's stomach, though we are sensible that ourselves and our readers have a greater interest in its having left his head clear. These preliminaries being adjusted, we are informed that the wind settled in south by west by the compass, and the not unnatural consequence was that the vessel proceeded eastwards. As this was to be à voyage of discovery, it was necessary, we presume, to make something like a remark by the way; and accordingly our author discovered that the colour of the water near the shore was green, but that as it deepened it grew darker. This colour very fortunately reminded him of the blue cakes used by laundresses for bluing their linens, which he takes this opportunity of telling us that he has no doubt consist of cobalt blue mixed up with starch.

Safe arrived at the destined port of Gottenburg, having escaped from the exactions of the custom-house officers, and overcome the difficulties which a want of inns would naturally throw in the way of a traveller unacquainted with the customs and language of the country, we find him at last seriously addressing himself to the labours of a travelling philosopher. The history of the town itself, statistical, political, and geographical, we must beg the Doctor's pardon for passing by rather unceremoniously, and for proceeding to some details which are designed, we presume, to afford instructiye information respecting the customs of the country. The Swedish meals differ, we are told, very much from the dinner fashions in Great Britain. The hour of dinner with the Swedes is two o'clock, and the company being assembled, each person takes a dram of brandy and a morsel of bread and cheese and butter, by way of exciting the appetite. The principal point in which the Swedish custom differs from our own appears to be, in handing round the dishes separately to the guests at table: but our author has not thought it sufficient to satisfy himself with this remark, but introduces seriatim every dish in its proper order ; and we are assured that the vegetables, consisting of potatoes, carrots, turnips, cauliflowers, greens, &c. are handed about in the same way. “ The Swedes, moreover, continues, he, “ employ the same articles for seasoning their food as we do; salt, pepper, mustard, vinegar, &c. I was struck with one peculiarity which I had never seen before, (credat Judaus!) they always mix together sugar and mustard !!!" When we are told that the Calmucs feed on raw horse-flesh, and will ride on their carrion dinners for a saddle, or that the Abyssinians cut slices of flesh from their living oxen, we are satisfied at once of the barbarity of the people: we can infer the effeminate luxury of a degenerate age from the poet's description

-posito pavone velis quin
Hoc potius quam gallinâ tergere palatum
Corruptus vanis rerum, quia veneat auro

Rara avis, et picta pandat spectacula cauda."
But that individuals eat mustard with sugar, is a

a peculiarity from which only the mind of a philosopher could infer any thing of importance. But let us return to the dinner, and see what fresh topics for contemplative wisdom may be afforded by the extraordinary practices of this wonderful people. The dinner usually lasts about two hours. On a signal given, the company all rise together and bow with much solemnity towards the table. Fearful that this act of reverence to an inanimate object might bring a charge of idolatry on the Swedes, our author supposes it possible that this bow might be towards each other; and after these profound investigations, we are conducted to the drawing-room to relax with the ladies.

" It is but doing the Swedes justice to say, that their coffee is excellent, greatly preferable to what is usually drank in England. This is the more remarkable because the Swedes import all their coffee from Britain.” (But alas ! for the imperfections of human nature!) “ Swedish tea is just as bad as their coffee is good. If an epicure could transport himself in a moment from one place to another," (a new idea) “ he would always drink his coffee in Sweden and his tea in England. The Swedish tea is so weak, that, happening one evening to sit by a lady who was pouring it out, it strụck me that she had accidentally forgot to put in any tea, and was pouring out nothing but hot water. I took the liberty to notice this mistake, in order, as I thought, to prevent the lady, when the tea should be handed round, from being put out of countenance by the detection of the oversight. My blunder occasioned much mirth, and the company, no doubt, set me down as a person very little acquainted with tea. It is not the quality of the tea that is bad, but the quantity employed is so small that you do not perceive the taste of it in the water; 50 that, in fact,” (gentle reader, what do you suppose the fact is? Why that) “

you are drinking in reality hot water, sugar, and cream. The Swedish cream, to do them justice, is excellent."

Our readers, no doubt, by this time will agree with us in considering that our author's notice that he was the person who wrote the history of the Royal Society was not altogether without its use. , We might otherwise have quite forgotten that we were reading the travels of one of the principal chemists of the age. So far, it must be owned, Dr. Thomson has been pouring out remarks with as little strength in them as the tea of the Swedish lady, but without either cream or sugar to make us amends,

In examining the more significant parts of the work, our observations naturally divide themselves into two distinct heads, We will first consider the political and economical, and secondly the geognostic and mineralogical details of the country. This division will be found to be the more appropriate, as it not only prevents the confusion naturally arising from the mingling together of so many heterogeneous subjects, but will, we think, be found to be the natural distinction between what Dr. Thomson was competent and what he was wholly incompetent to describe.

As there are no stage coaches in Sweden, (a plan to establish which is, however, given in detail,) it is necessary for every traveller to be provided with a carriage of his own. This matter being arranged, we are informed, as a guide to the distances of the places afterwards mentioned, that the Swedish mile is almost exactly equal to six English miles and two-thirds : but lest this descriptive combination of words should be liable to be misunderstood, at the end of every day's journey the distances of the different stages are given both in Swedish and English miles, prettily disposed in tables, and helping to apologize for the size of the volume. In all these, by the by, we observe that the Swedish mile is made quite eractly equal to six and two-thirds English.

Whilst cursorily speaking of the arrangement of the matter, which, we presume, was left to the publisher to set off to advantage, we cannot help adverting to the heads of the chapters as being most technically disposed for catching the eye. The çustom of extracting all the leading features of a chapter, and placing them in short, pithy sentences at the top of every page, at best

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